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(Witnesses: Miss Clark, Zappone.)

Miss CLARK. Yes, on the index to the Department publications which is printed in card form.

The CHAIRMAN. You have here 15 employees under you, and are they all employed about the library room that you have personal charge of ?

Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. And then in addition to that are there other librarians in the various bureaus?

Miss CLARK. There are clerks or librarians assigned to look after the publications deposited in the bureaus and divisions where any considerable number of books are deposited, to guard against loss.

The CHAIRMAN. To illustrate, we have here under the Weather Bureau, H. H. Kimball, librarian and climatologist. I suppose that he combines his librarian's work with that of a climatologist, whatever it may be?

Mr. ZAPPONE. He is both a librarian and a scientist?
Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. Do these separate libraries that are located around in the separate bureaus require the attention of at least one individual or more?

Miss CLARK. Yes. In the case of the Bureau of Chemistry probably 2,500 or 2,800 books are filed there. Unless there is some one in charge of the books they might be taken from room to room, and it would be hard to discover where the books might be at any time they were wanted. All these books that are filed in the bureaus and divisions are charged in the main library; that is, we make a card for every book that goes out to every bureau and division.

The CHAIRMAN. That is, from your room or from any of these other rooms?

Miss CLARK. If a book is charged to the library of the Bureau of Chemistry the person in charge of the books in that Bureau looks after the book and charges it to the person who wishes to borrow it from that special library.

The CHAIRMAN. And reports to you?

Miss CLARK. If we call for it. She makes the record in her room. If someone comes to the main library and wishes a particular book, and if by consulting our book cards we find that it is charged to the Bureau of Chemistry, the librarian of that bureau is responsible for the book; if it is not on the shelves, she has a card showing who has borrowed it, and the book is returned to the main library for our use.

The CHAIRMAX. In a case of that sort you would simply call up the room and see where the book was, and if it was out she would know where it was?

Miss CLARK. Yes; and she would return it to us if anyone in the Department wished to use it. If an individual borrows a book from the main library, we charge it to the individual, and call directly upon him for the return of the book, when needed. The necessity of having persons designated to look after these books is that there are so many deposited at a distance from the library, and so many of which are periodicals which are easily lost, it is economy to have some one to take charge of this valuable property.

(Witness: Miss Clark.)

The CHAIRMAN. How many people are there that are necessarily employed outside of your own room—where, as I understand it, is located the central library of the Department of Agriculture—or persons in charge of these bureau libraries?

Miss CLARK. I would like to say that I think they have in most cases additional duties to those of caring for the library.


Miss CLARK. There is one in the Forest Service, one in the Bureau of Chemistry, one in the Bureau of Animal Industry, two in the Bureau of Plant Industry, one in the Bureau of Statistics, one in the Bureau of Entomology, and one in the Office of Experiment Stations.

The CHAIRMAN. How about the Weather Bureau?

Miss CLARK. The Weather Bureau library has always been independent of the main library of the Department. It has a librarian.

The CHAIRMAN. They have an independent library of their own?

Miss Clark. Yes, sir. In the office of Public Roads, also, there is a clerk in charge of the library, but she does editorial work in addition to looking after the books. I think these assistants, almost without exception, have other duties; but they are responsible for the books deposited in these bureaus and divisions.

The CHAIRMAN. What work do these clerks do in your room. You have three or four here. What kind of duties do they discharge?

Miss CLARK. Beginning with which one?
The CHAIRMAX. Begin with A. R. Knapp.

Miss CLARK. She catalogues general works and also prepares the index cards for the publications of the Department.

The CHAIRMAX. Then she is really an additional cataloguer?
Miss CLARK. Yes; her work is cataloguing and indexing.
The CHAIRMAN. And is that of the other clerks the same?

Miss CLARK. Miss Upton has charge of the loan desk--that is, charges books borrowed by individuals and those loaned to bureau and division libraries. That is a very responsible place.

The CHAIRMAN. Are all these emplovees employed all the whilethat is, are they continuously occupied !

Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAX. So that they all have continuous duties to discharge?

Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. And it takes them all their working hours to dispose of their work?

Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. And you would say you had no more than really were absolutely necessary to efficiently carry on your library?

Miss Clark. Yes. I should like additional assistants for bibliographical work and the preparation of indexes necessary in the work of the Department of Agriculture.

The CHAIRMAN. Do they index by subjects in the case of periodical literature, or simply by the publications?

Miss CLARK. Always by subjects—authors and subjects.

The CHAIRMAX. Of course, that involves a great deal of extra work?

(Witnesses: Miss Clark, Zappone, Galloway.)

A very

Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. So that you have a card catalogue that gives you access to all the various articles that are written on the subjects of agriculture?

Miss CLARK. We have not all our periodicals indexed. large force would be necessary to do that, as we subscribe for over 600 technical periodicals, and receive by gift over 300 agricultural and horticultural papers in addition, besides the publications of numerous scientific societies. Our accessions in periodical literature number between three and four thousand different titles each year, each made up of several parts or numbers, thus making many thousand pieces to be handled and cared for.

The CHAIRMAN. Would you treat a monthly magazine as 12 numbers or 1 number; that is, in your estimate of 4,000 ?

Miss CLARK. As one of the titles estimated.

The CHAIRMAN. If you took some agricultural magazine, you would treat that as one unit?

Miss Clark. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. Instead of calling it 12? It would be 12 issues for one year, but simply one unit?

Miss ČLARK. Yes. The CHAIRMAN. I think that is all I care to ask, Miss Clark. Mr. ZAPPONE. I would like to add that notwithstanding the work of the library has increased very much within the past five years, the appropriation during that time has increased only $3,040. In other words, in 1903 the total appropriation for the library was $18,000, and in 1906 was $21.040, and the increase in the salaries during these five years has been only $3,000. I do not doubt that the librarian is very much in need of additional help.

The CHAIRMAN. I will ask Viss Clark this general question. In case of a new building with adequate and properly designed accommodations--I mean for library purposes.--and large enough to accommodate all of the present and prospective needs of your library, would it be practicable to further centralize the library there so as to reduce the cost of handling and operation?

Miss Clark. That would depend entirely on the number of bureaus which are now at a distance, that could be under the same roof and that could be reached by telephone and by pneumatic tubes for prompt delivery of books when called for.

The CHAIRMAN. It would depend on the accessibility to the library?

Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. So that they could call for books that they had only occasional use for?

Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. They would have to have in each bureau the books they are using every day-the professional books and textbooks upon which they have to rely in their investigations?

Miss CLARK. Yes.

Doctor GALLOWAY. May I make a remark right there, as I happen to know about this?

Doctor GALLOWAY. The Bureau of Plant Industry is renting 16 or

(Witnesses: Miss Clark, Galloway.)

17 buildings, in which we maintain as many separate sets of books, but we do not maintain a separate clerk for each set, because that is not necessary. Each building also has a separate corps of charwomen. Now, it is supposed that when we get the new building completed we can have one force of charwomen, and that we will not need the special libraries we now have, but can concentrate them in one place, the main library of the Department.

The CHAIRMAN. Are these 16 or 17 sets of books duplicates ? Doctor GALLOWAY. No, sir; not duplicates. The CHAIRMAN. They simply relate to the particular department where they are located

Doctor Galloway. Yes; we have pomology in one building, and the fruit books would be there. And then we have other divisions in other buildings, and the books on each of those subjects would be found there,

The Chairman. Then I will ask you if, in your judgment, with accommodations such as I have suggested in my question to Miss Clark, it would result in a reduction of the annual expenditures, and economy to the Government in the handling of the library!

Doctor GALLOWAY. I think it would.

The CHAIRMAX. I think that covers everything. You may make any statement that you would like to make.

Miss CLARK. I would like to call your attention to the centralization of the library work in the Department of Agriculture. Formerly, previous to Mr. Cutter's appointment, there were a number of independent libraries in the Department. Books were purchased from the appropriations for the different bureaus and divisions, and quite independent libraries sprang up. These libraries were finally subordinated to the main library, and under Secretary Morton the control of them was placed with Mr. Cutter; from that time this centralization of administration has continued to develop, until last year all the money spent for books for use in the Department, in Washington, was spent through the main library, with the single exception of the $500 mentioned in connection with the purchase of law books for use in the Forest Service. Centralization of administration to a similar extent does not exist in the library of any other Department.

The CHAIRMAN. Does centralization of administration result in economy?

Miss CLARK. I think it does.
The CHAIRMAN. If so, briefly explain why.

Miss CLARK. Each bureau or division purchasing books for its own use without knowing the resources of other libraries from which it might borrow, is apt to result in unnecessary purchases. In other words, a great deal of unnecessary duplication is avoided. That is the greatest economy, I think. By avoiding duplication space is saved, as well as labor in caring for the additional volumes.

The CHAIRMAN. Has it been your experience that duplication has been an appreciable factor?

Miss CLARK. Yes: I think so. The Chairman. In the past, in the Department? Miss CLARK. Yes, in the past. The CHAIRMAN. And could you make an intelligent approximation of the percentage of duplication?

(Witnesses: Miss Clark, Zappone.)

Miss CLARK. No, sir; I could not. I think considerable duplication is necessary on account of the number of scientists often needing the same book, and because of the scattered locations of the bureaus and divisions. A number of copies of many books are required in two or three or even more divisions as reference books; for example, Bailey's Cyclopedia of Horticulture.

Mr. ZAPPONE. You do not mean that the work of the different divisions overlaps?

Miss CLARK. No, sir; not at all.

The CHAIRMAN. But two or three different subjects may be treated in the same book, and in that case the book overlaps, being required in several divisions?

Miss CLARK. Yes, sir. The CHAIRMAN. And you have to purchase several copies, because, while that book is used in a certain division on one subject, it may also contain other things which are needed in other divisions!

Miss CLARK. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Can you make any reduction in expense by having the books purchased by one individual, or are you making any such reduction ?

Miss Clark. Yes, I think so; especially in the case of periodicals. A bid is sent out in November to a number of dealers, and I think something is gained in that way in the matter of periodicals.

The CHAIRMAN. That is by combining them all in one larger sum you think you get a better rate than if they are bought in segments or different lots!

Miss CLARK. Yes; or by entering subscriptions with each publisher.
Mr. ZAPPONE. I think that saving would be at least 10 per cent.
The CHAIRMAX. What would be your judgment about that?
Miss CLARK, I think it is fully that.

The CHAIRMAN. Roughly, what has been the amount of saving? What is about the amount expended for that purpose?

Miss Clark. For periodicals?

Miss CLARK. About $2.000 for the foreign and American periodicals.

The (ULAIRMAX. Ten per cent of that is practically $200. Do you know whether the libraries that are carried on or that are provided for the use of the other Departments of the Government are thus coordinated and under one control ?

Miss CLARK. I do not know of any that is so centralized in its organization.

The CILAIRMAX. You do not know of any where this plan has been adopted and carried out to the full extent that it has been in the Department of Agriculture?

Miss CLARK. I do not know of any.

The CHAIRMAN. What has been your experience in the library with respect to the durability of bindings, comparing law sheep with cloth. and assuming in each instance work of equal quality and equal care in handling? Which binding, in your experience, is the more durable?

Miss CLARK. Do you mean of the two that you have mentioned ? The CILARMAX. Yes; the law sheep and the cloth.

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