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utilizing fully the resources of the Post Office Department to maintain its mail and messenger service, has permitted a multiplicity of interdepartmental messenger services, each serving its own department, bureau, or agency. This duplication of services is uneconomical and results in a constant crisscrossing and overlapping of personnel and equipment, all engaged in a common activity. I am sure that the average citizen in Washington, as well as officials of the Government itself, have wondered at this paradox whereby the Federal Government is failing to make the fullest use of one of its own agencies which is specially equipped to render a simple, centralized service for all the other agencies. This reorganization plan proposes to do exactly that; to provide for the transportation of mail, documents, packages, and similar material between all buildings occupied by Government offices on a regularly scheduled basis of sufficient frequency to meet the reasonable and normal requirements of these offices and to reduce to a minimum the constant dispatching of messengers on so-called urgent and emergency errands. This service will be available on a reimbursement basis to the agencies exempted by the Reorganization Act.
Department of the Interior.-I propose to transfer to the Department of the Interior the activities of the Soil Conservation Service relating to soil and moisture conservation on lands under the jurisdiction of the Interior Department. With respect to private lands, the soil-conservation work of the Federal Government is primarily of a consultative character and can best be carried on by the Department of Agriculture through cooperation of the farmers throughout the country. In the case of Federal lands, this work includes the actual application by the Government of soil-conservation practices and is an appropriate function of the agency administering the land.
Department of Commerce.-One of the purposes of the Reorganization Act is to reduce the number of administrative agencies and thereby simplify the task of executive management. We have made substantial progress toward this objective under previous reorganization plans. I am now proposing another step in this direction by placing the Civil Aeronautics Authority within the framework of the Department of Commerce. Reorganization Plan No. III, which deals with intradepartmental changes, draws a more practical separation between the functions of the Administrator and the Civil Aeronautics Board. In Plan IV, which is concerned with interdepartmental reorganization, I am bringing the Authority into the departmental structure. The Administrator will report to the Secretary of Commerce. The five-member Board, however, will perform its rule-making, adjudicative, and investigative functions independent of the Department. In the interest of efficiency it will be supplied by the Department with budgeting, accounting, procurement, and other office services. As a result of the adjustments provided in Plans III and IV, I believe the Civil Aeronautics Board will be able effectively to carry forward the important work of accident investigation heretofore performed by the Air Safety Board. In addition to the effective and coordinated discharge of accident investigation work which this transfer will facilitate, economies in administration will be possible.
The importance of the Weather Bureau's functions to the Nation's commerce has also led to the decision to transfer this Bureau to the Department of Commerce. The development of the aviation industry has imposed upon the Weather Bureau a major responsibility in the field of air transportation. The transfer to the Department of Commerce, as provided in this plan, will permit better coordination of Government activities relating to aviation and to commerce generally, without in any way lessening the Bureau's contribution to agriculture.
Department of Labor.-The plan transfers to the Secretary of Labor the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of the Interior relating to the enforcement of the minimum-wage provisions in contracts for Federal construction. The Secretary of Labor is responsible by law for the determination of the prevailing wage rates included in Government contracts and should properly have complete responsibility for their enforcement.
United States Maritime Commission.—I propose to transfer to the United States Maritime Commission the functions of the Secretary of the Navy relating to State marine and nautical schools. These schools are devoted to training young men for junior officer positions in the merchant marine. The general responsibility for developing facilities for the training of merchant marine personnel is rested in the Maritime Commission. The proposed transfer will thus permit closer coordination of the nautical schools with the training work of the Maritime Commission.
Federal Security Agency.-The Federal Security Agency has as its major purposes the promotion of social and economic security, educational opportunity, and the health of the citizens. The functions of Saint Elizabeths Hospital, Freedmen's Hospital, Howard University, and Columbia Institution for the Deaf plainly come squarely within these purposes. Consequently, I find it necessary and desirable in pursuance of the objectives of the Reorganization Act to transfer to the Federal Security Agency the responsibilities of the Interior Department relating to these institutions. The work of Saint Elizabeths Hospital and Freedmen's Hospital is much more akin to the activities of the Public Health Service in the Federal Security Agency than to those of any other Federal establishment. Similarly, Howard University and Columbia Institution for the Deaf can derive more benefit from association with the Office of Education in the Federal Security Agency than with any other Federal organization.
I further propose to transfer to the Federal Security Agency the Food and Drug Administration with the exception of two activities intimately related to the work of the Department of Agriculture. The work of the Food and Drug Administration is unrelated to the basic functions of the Department of Agriculture. There was, however, no other agency to which these functions more appropriately belonged until the Federal Security Agency was created last year. I now believe that the opportunity for the Food and Drug Administration to develop along increasingly constructive lines lies in this new Agency. There is also need for coordination of certain of its functions with those of the Public Health Service. To accomplish these objectives, the plan establishes the Administration as a separate unit within the Federal Security Agency.
Economics.-Functions may be transferred or consolidated under this Reorganization Act, but the abolition of functions is prohibited. Congress alone can curtail or abolish functions now provided by law. Savings must come from administrative expenses which comprise only a small fraction of Federal expenditures. This precludes the making of large reductions in expenditure through reorganization plans. The major achievements in reorganizations under this formula must inevitably be found in improved management and more effective service. However, some savings in administrative expenses will be possible under this plan. I estimate the immediate annual savings at approximately $300,000.
Future reorganization needs.-The reorganization plans thus far submitted do not exhaust the transfers, consolidations, and abolitions that may be necessary and desirable. Some changes that now appear to have merit require further study. It is the responsibility of the President as Chief Executive to see that needed adjustments and improvements in administrative organization are made. But this he cannot adequately accomplish without proper statutory authority. The present Reorganization Act entirely exempts some 21 administrative agencies from consideration. Furthermore this act expires on January 20, 1941.
I strongly recommend the reenactment of the Reorganization Act, without exemptions. The structure and management of our Government, like the activities and services it performs, must be kept abreast of social and economic change.
THE WHITE HOUSE,
April 11, 1940.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
115-32. Government Losses in Shipment Act; Rules and regulations for shipment of valuables.-That as soon as practicable after the approval of this Act the Secretary of the Treasury and the Postmaster General shall, jointly, with the approval of the President, prescribe regulations governing the shipment of valuables by the executive departments, independent establishments, agencies, wholly owned corporations, officers, and employees of the United States, with a view to minimizing risks of loss and destruction of, and damage to, such valuables in shipment. After the effective date of such regulations, which shall be not more than thirty days after their issuance, it shall be the duty of every such executive department, independent establishment, agency, wholly owned corporation, officer, and employee, and of every person acting for him or it, or at his or its direc
tion, to comply with such regulations in making any shipment of valuables. (July 8, 1937, sec. 1, 50 Stat. 479; 5 U. S. C., sec. 134.)
115-33. Fund authorized to be appropriated for replacement of valuables lost or destroyed. There is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $500,000 to be used, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, for the replacement of valuables, or the value thereof, lost, destroyed, or damaged in the course of shipment effected pursuant to the regulations prescribed under section 1. There is hereby further authorized to be appropriated annually, beginning with the fiscal year 1939 and ending with the fiscal year 1948, inclusive, the sum of $200,000 for the said purposes, and from time to time such additional sums as may be necessary for the said purposes. There shall be in the Treasury of the United States a revolving fund, to be known as "the fund for the payment of Government losses in shipment" (hereinafter referred to as "the fund"), to be constituted of the said sum of $500,000 and the sums hereafter appropriated for the said purposes, together with all recoveries and repayments credited to the fund as hereinafter provided. There is hereby further authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $10,000, for expenditures under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, to be used for the payment of administrative expenses, including personal services, necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act for the fiscal year 1938. 8, 1937, sec. 2, 50 Stat. 479; 5 U. S. C., sec. 134a.)
115-34. Same; replacement of lost valuables by Secretary of Treasury from revolving fund; exceptions. In the event of loss or destruction of, or damage to, valuables of which shipment shall have been made pursuant to the regulations prescribed under section 1, a claim in writing for replacement shall be made upon the Secretary of the Treasury who, if he shall be satisfied that such loss, destruction, or damage has occurred and that shipment was made substantially in accordance with such regulations, shall cause replacement to be made out of the fund through such officers as he may designate. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, the decision of the Secretary of the Treasury that such loss, destruction, or damage has occurred or that such shipment was made substantially in accordance with such regulations shall be final and conclusive and shall not be subject to review by any other officer of the United States: Provided, however, That where the Secretary of the Treasury determines that such replacement can be effected, in whole or in part, without actual or ultimate injury to the United States, by a credit in the accounts of the executive department, independent establishment, agency, officer, employee, or other accountable person making the claim, he shall not resort to the fund, except to the extent that such replacement cannot be so effected by such credit, but shall certify such determination to the Comptroller General and, upon receipt of such certification, the Comptroller General is authorized and directed to make such credit in the settlement of accounts in the General Accounting Office: Provided further, That the fund shall be available for the replacement of any loss or destruction of, or damage to, valuables shipped by or on behalf of the Public Debt Service of the Treasury Department prior to the effec
tive date of this amendment, the replacement of which was chargeable against the securities trust fund established under authority of the indefinite appropriation "Expenses of loans, Act of September 24, 1917, as amended and extended" (U. S. C., 1934 edition, title 31, secs. 760, 761); and the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and directed to transfer on the books of the Treasury Department the amount standing to the credit of the securities trust fund and credit the same to the fund. And provided further, That the fund shall not be available with respect to any loss, destruction, or damage affecting valuables, insofar as such loss*, destruction, or damage may be adjusted by the Postmaster General under the provisions of the Act of March 17, 1882, as amended (U. S. C., 1934 edition, title 39, sec. 49); nor shall it be available with respect to any loss, destruction, or damage affecting valuables of which shipment shall have been made at the risk of persons other than the United States, its executive departments, independent establishments, agencies, wholly owned corporations, officers, and employees. All recoveries and repayments on account of loss, destruction, or damage to valuables of which replacement shall have been made out of the fund shall be credited to it and shall be available for the purposes thereof. (July 8, 1937, sec. 3, 50 Stat. 479; Aug. 10, 1939, sec. 1, 53 Stat. 1358; 5 U. S. C., sec. 134b.)
115-35. Government agencies prohibited from incurring insurance expenses except as authorized by Secretary of Treasury.-On and after the the effective date of the regulations prescribed under section 1, no executive department, independent establishment, agency, wholly owned corporation, officer, or employee shall expend any money, or incur any obligation, for insurance, or for the payment of premiums on insurance, against loss, destruction, or damage in the shipment of valuables except as specifically authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury may give such authorization if he shall find that the risk of loss, destruction, or damage is such shipment cannot be adequately guarded against by the facilities of the United States or that the circumstances are such that adequate replacement cannot be provided under this Act. (July 8, 1937, sec. 4, 50 Stat. 480; 5 U. S. C., sec. 134c.)
115-36. Presumption of lawful conduct on part of officers making shipments. Every officer and employee of the United States and every person acting on behalf of a wholly owned corporation who makes a shipment of valuables in good faith pursuant to and substantially in accordance with the regulations prescribed under section 1 shall be deemed, insofar as there may be concerned the propriety with respect to such shipment of any act or omission governed by such regulations, to be acting in faithful execution of his duties of office and in full performance of the conditions of his bond and oath of office, if any. (July 8, 1937, sec. 5, 50 Stat. 480; 5 U. S. C., sec. 134d.) 115-37. Secretary of Treasury empowered to make rules and regulations. The Secretary of the Treasury shall have power, with the approval of the President, to make such rules and regulations as may be necessary for the execution of the functions vested in him by this Act, and may for such purpose require persons making shipment of valuables or making claims for replacement to make such
*Comma omitted from original.
declarations or to furnish him with such other information as he may deem necessary. (July 8, 1937, sec. 6, 50 Stat. 480; 5 U. S. C., sec. 134e.)
115-38. "Valuables", "shipment", "wholly owned corporation”, “replacement", defined.-For the purposes of this Act
(a) The term "valuables" means any articles or things or representatives of value in which the United States has any interest, or in connection with which it has any obligation or responsibility, direct or indirect, and which are declared to be valuables within the meaning of this Act by the Secretary of the Treasury. No articles or things shall be declared to be valuables by the Secretary of the Treasury unless he determines that replacement thereof in accordance with the procedure established herein, in the event of loss, destruction, or damage in the course of shipment, would be in the public interest. The term "United States" as used in this subsection and in section 3b means the United States, its executive departments, independent establishments, and agencies, including wholly owned corporations, and officers and employees of any of the foregoing while acting in their official capacity.
(b) The term "shipment" means the transportation, or the effecting of transportation, of valuables, without limitation as to the means or facilities used or by which the transportation, is effected or the person to whom it is made, and includes, but is not limited to, shipments made to any executive department, independent establishment, agency, wholly or partly owned corporation, officer, or employee of the United States, or any person acting on his or its behalf or at his or its direction;
(c) The term "wholly owned corporation" means any corporation, regardless of the law or laws under which it is incorporated, the capital of which is entirely owned, directly or indirectly, by the United States, and includes the duly authorized officers, employees, and agents thereof;
(d) The term "replacement" means payment, reimbursement, replacement, or duplication or the expenses incident thereto. (July 8, 1937, sec. 7, 50 Stat. 480, as amended August 10, 1939, sec. 3, 53 Stat. 1359; 5 U. S. C., sec. 134f.)
115-39. Interest-bearing security destroyed, mutilated, defaced, lost or stolen―restitution.-(a) Whenever it is clearly proved to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury
(1) That any interest-bearing security of the United States, identified by number and description, payable to bearer or so assigned as to become, in effect, payable to bearer, has been wholly or partly destroyed, or so mutilated or defaced as to impair its value to the owner, or has been lost or stolen under such circumstances, and such a period of time having elapsed after it has matured or has become redeemable pursuant to a call for redemption, as in the judgment of the Secretary would indicate that it has been destroyed or irretrievably lost, is not held by any person as his own property and will never become the basis of a valid claim against the United States; or
(2) That any interest-bearing security of the United States, identified by number and description, which is not payable to bearer and which has not been so assigned as to become, in effect, payable