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the military or naval forces of the United States accrues in time of war, or when war intervenes within five years after its accrual, such claim may be presented within five years after peace is established. (Oct. 9, 1940, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 1061.)

1656-4. Same; notice to claimant.—Whenever any claim barred by section 1 shall be received in the General Accounting Office, it shall be returned to the claimant, with a copy of this Act, and such action shall be a complete response without further communication. (Oct. 9, 1940, Sec. 2, 54 Stat. 1061.)

DEBTS DUE BY, OR TO, THE UNITED STATES

1667-1. Assignment of claims.--All transfers and assignments made of any claim upon the United States, or of any part or share thereof, or interest therein, whether absolute or conditional, and whatever may be the consideration therefor, and all powers of attorney, orders, or other authorities for receiving payment of any such claim, or of any part or share thereof, shall be absolutely null and void, unless they are freely made and executed in the presence of at least two attesting witnesses, after the allowance of such a claim, the ascertainment of the amount due, and the issuing of a warrant for the payment thereof. Such transfers, assignments, and powers of attorney, must recite the warrant for payment, and must be acknowledged by the person making them, before an officer having authority to take acknowledgments of deeds, and shall be certified by the officer; and it must appear by the certificate that the officer, at the time of the acknowledgment, read and fully explained the transfer, assignment, or warrant of attorney to the person acknowledging the same. (July 29, 1846, 9 Stat. 41, R. S., sec. 3477; 31 U. S. C., sec. 203.)

1667–2. Assignment of claims as affected by Assignment of Claims Act of 1940.—The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not apply in any case in which the moneys due or to become due from the United States or from any agency or department thereof, under a contract providing for payments aggregating $1,000 or more, are assigned to a bank, trust company, or other financing institution, including any Federal lending agency: Provided,

1. That in the case of any contract. entered into prior to the date of approval of the Assignment of Claims Act of 1920, no claim shall be assigned without the consent of the head of the department or agency concerned;

2. That in the case of any contract entered into after the date of approval of the Assignment of Claims Act of 1940, no claim shall be assigned if it arises under a contract which forbids such assignment;

3. That unless otherwise expressly permitted by such contract any such assignment shall cover all amounts payable under such contract and not already paid, shall not be made to more than one party, and shall not be subject to further assignment, except that any such assignment may be made to one party as agent or trustee for two or more parties participating in such financing;

4. That in the event of any such assignment, the assignee thereof shall file written notice of the assignment together with a true copy of the instrument of assignment with

(a) the General Accounting Office,

(b) the contracting officer or the head of his department or agency.

(c) the surety or sureties upon the bond or bonds, if any, in connection with such contract, and

(d) the disbursing officer, if any, designated in such contract to make payment.

Notwithstanding any law to the contrary governing the validity of assignments, any assignment pursuant to the Assignment of Claims Act of 1940 shall constitute a valid assignment for all purposes.

Any contract entered into by the War Department or the Navy Department may provide that payments to an assignee of any claim arising under such contract shall not be subject to reduction or setoff, and if it is so provided in such contract, such payments shall not be subject to reduction or set-off for any indebtedness of the assignor to the United States arising independently of such contract. (Oct. 9, 1940, Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 1029.)

1667-3. Title of foregoing act.—This Act may be cited as the “Assignment of claims Act of 1940." (Oct. 9, 1940, Sec. 2, 54 Stat. 1030.)

1667–4. Settlement of claims for personal injury or death in foreign countries.—That when any act of omission of any officer, employee, or agent of the Government of the United States, including all officers, enlisted men, and employees of the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, results in the personal inury or death of any person, not an American national, in any foreign country in which the United States exercises privileges of extraterritoriality, the Secretary of State may consider, adjust, and determine any claim, arising after the passage of this Act, for the damage occasioned by such injury or death in an amount not in excess of $1,500, United States currency, in any one case, and such amount as may be found to be due to any claimant shall be certified to Congress as a legal claim for payment out of appropriations that may be made by Congress therefor, together with a brief statement of the character of each claim, the amount claimed, and the amount allowed: Provided, That this authorization shall not apply to cases of persons in the employ of the United States: Provided further, That no claim shall be considered under this Act by the Secretary of State unless presented to him within one year from the date of the accrual of said claim: And provided further, That acceptance by any claimant of the amount determined under the provisions of this Act shall be deemed to be in full settlement of such claim against the Government of the United States. (Feb. 13, 1936, 49 Stat. 1138; 31 U. S. C., sec. 224a.)

THE PUBLIC MONEYS

1704. Duplicates for lost, stolen, destroyed, or mutilated United States checks.—(a) Except as hereinafter provided, whenever it is clearly proved to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury that any original check of the United States is lost, stolen, or wholly or partly destroyed, or is so mutilated or defaced as to impair its value to its owner or holder, persons authorized to issue such checks on behalf of the United States are authorized, before the close of the fiscal year following the fiscal year in which the original check was issued, to issue to the owner or holder thereof a substitute, marked "duplicate” and showing the number, date, and payee of the original

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check, upon the receipt and approval by the Secretary of the Treasury of a bond, to indemnify the United States, in such form and amount and with such surety, sureties, or security as the Secretary of the Treasury shall require; but no such substitute shall be payable if the original check shall first have been paid: Provided, however, That the authority herein conferred to issue substitute checks may, in the case of checks issued on account of public-debt obligations and transactions regarding the administration of banking and currency laws, be issued without limitation of time.

(b) A bond of indemnity shall not be required under subsection (a) of this section in any of the following classes of cases except as hereinafter provided: (1) If the Secretary of the Treasury is satisfied that the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation, or defacement, as the case may be, occurred without fault of the owner or holder and while the check was in the custody or control of the United States (including the Postal Service when carrying mail for any officer, employee, agent, or agency of the United States when performing services in connection with an official function of the United States, but not including the Postal Service when otherwise acting solely in its capacity as a public carrier of the mail), or of a person thereunto duly authorized as lawful agent of the United States, or while it was in the course of shipment effected pursuant to and in accordance with the regulations issued under the provisions of the Government Losses in Shipment Act; (2) if substantially the entire check is presented and surrendered by the owner or holder and the Secretary of the Treasury is satisfied as to the identity of the check presented and that any missing portions are not sufficient to form the basis of a valid claim against the United States; (3) if the Secretary of the Treasury is satisfied that the original check is not negotiable and cannot be made the basis of a valid claim against the United States; (4) if the amount of the check is less than $50 and the Secretary of the Treasury is satisfied that the giving of a bond of indemnity would be an undue hardship to the owner or holder; (5) if the owner or holder is the United States or an officer or employee thereof in his official capacity, a State, the District of Columbia, a Territory or possession of the United States, including the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands, a municipal corporation or political subdivision of any of the foregoing, a corporation the whole of whose capital is owned by the United States, a foreign government, or a Federal Reserve bank: Provided, however, That in any of the foregoing classes of cases the Secretary of the Treasury may require a bond of indemnity if he deems it essential to the public interest.

(c) The Secretary of the Treasury shall have the power to make such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary for the admin. istration of the provisions of this section.

(d). Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section, whenever any original check of the Post Office Department has been lost, stolen, or destroyed, the Postmaster General may authorize the issuance of a substituté, marked "duplicate" and showing the number, date, and payee of the original check, before the close of the fiscal year following the fiscal year in which the original check was issued, upon the execution by the owner thereof of such bond of indemnity as the Postmaster General may prescribe:

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Provided, That when such original check does not exceed in amount the sum of $50 and the payee or owner is, at the date of the application, an officer or employee in the service of the Post Office Department, whether by contract, designation, or appointment, the Postmaster General may, in lieu of an indemnity bond, authorize the issuance of a substitute check or warrant upon such an affidavit as he may prescribe, to be made before any postmaster by the payee or owner of an original check.

(e) Substitutes, marked as hereinabove provided, drawn on the Treasurer of the United States, shall, after the lapse of the period fixed by section 21 of the Permanent Appropriation Repeal Act, 1934 (48 Stat. 1235; U. S. C., 1934 edition, title 31, sec. 725 (t)), for the payment of the original checks, be payable only as the original checks would be payable thereunder.

(f) The term "original check” wherever used in this section means any check, warrant, or other order for the payment of money, payable upon demand and not bearing interest, drawn by a duly authorized officer or agent of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the District Unemployment Compensation Board, on their behalf against an account or funds of the United States, the District of Columbia, or the District Unemployment Compensation Board, including instruments issued by any corporation or other entity owned or controlled by the United States, the funds of which are deposited and covered into the Treasury of the United States or deposited with the Treasurer of the United States, but does not include money, coins, or currency of the United States; as used in subsection (d) of this section it means such an instrument drawn by a duly authorized officer or employee of the Post Office Department. (R. S., sec. 3646; Feb. 16, 1885, 23 Stat. 306; Mar. 23, 1906, 34 Stat. 84; June 19, 1966, 34 Stat. 301; May 27, 1908, 35 Stat. 415; Feb. 23, 1909, 35 Stat. 643; Mar. 21, 1916, 39 Stat. 37; July 8, 1937, sec. 9, 50 Stat. 482; Aug. 10, 1939, secs. 5, 6, and 7, 53 Stat. 1359; 31 U. S. C., sec. 528. See par. No. 1704, Laws Applicable, 1935, which has been amended to read as above.)

1712–1. Restriction on delivery of Government checks to foreign addresses.—That hereafter no check or warrant drawn against funds of the United States, or any agency or instrumentality thereof, shall be sent from the United States (including its Territories and possessions and the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands) for delivery in a foreign country in any case in which the Secretary of the Treasury determines that postal, transportation, or banking facilities in general, or local conditions in the country to which such check or warrant is to be delivered, are such that there is not a reasonable assurance that the payee will actually receive such check or warrant and be able to negotiate the same for full value (Oct. 9, 1940; Sec. 1, 54 Stat. 1086.)

1712–2. Same; future delivery of checks subject to determinations of Secretary of the Treasury.-Any check or warrant, the sending of which is prohibited under the provisions of section 1' hereof, shall be held by the drawer until the close of the calendar quarter next following its date, during which period such check or warrant may be released for delivery if the Secretary of the Treasury determines that conditions have so changed as to provide a reasonable assurance that the

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payee will actually receive the check or warrant and be able to negotiate it for full value. At the end of such quarter, unless the Secretary of the Treasury shall otherwise direct, the drawer shall transmit all checks and warrants withheld in accordance with the provisions of this Act to the drawee thereof, and forward a report stating fully the name and address of the payee; the date, number, and amount of the check or warrant; and the account against which it was drawn, to the Bureau of Accounts of the Treasury Department. The amounts of such undelivered checks and warrants so transmitted shall thereupon be transferred by the drawee from the account of the drawer to a special deposit account with the Treasurer of the United States entitled “Secretary of the Treasury, Proceeds of Withheld Foreign Checks," at which time such checks and warrants shall be marked "Paid into Withheld Foreign Check Account”. Thereafter the drawee shall deliver such checks and warrants, together with other paid checks and warrants, to the Comptroller General of the United States, who shall allow credit therefor in the accounts of the drawer and the drawee. * * * (Oct. 9, 1940; Sec. 2, 54 Stat. 1086.)

1712_3. Same; checks to be drawn against special deposit account.-Payment of the amounts which have been deposited in the special deposit account in accordance with section 2 hereof shall be made by checks drawn against such special deposit account by the Secretary of the Treasury, only after the claimant shall have established his right to the amount of the check or warrant to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury (or, in the case of claims based upon checks representing payments under laws administered by the Veterans' Administration, to the satisfaction of the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs) and the Secretary of the Treasury has determined that there is a reasonable assurance that the claimant will actually receive such check in payment of his claim and be able to negotiate the same for full value. * * * (Oct. 9, 1940; Sec. 3, 54 Stat. 1087.) . · 1712 4. Same; checks issued pursuant to Executive Order No. 8389 subject to act. The provisions of sections 2 and 3 hereof shall apply to all checks or warrants the delivery of which is now being, or may hereafter be, withheld pursuant to Executive Order Numbered 8389 of April 10, 1940, as amended, as well as to all checks or warrants the delivery of which is now being withheld pursuant to administrative action, which administrative action is hereby ratified and confirmed: Provided, That any check or warrant the delivery of which has already been withheld for more than one quarter prior to the enactment of this Act shall immediately delivered to the drawee thereof for disposition in accordance with the provisions of sections 2 and 3 hereof: Provided further, That nothing in this Act shall be construed to dispense with the necessity of obtaining a license to authorize the delivery and payment of checks in payment of claims under section 3 hereof in those cases where a license is now or hereafter may be required by law to authorize such delivery and payment. (Oct. 9, 1940; Sec. 4, 54 Stat. 1087.)

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