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All funds available for such payments with respect to these commodities shall, unless otherwise provided by law, be apportioned to these commodities in proportion to the amount by which each fails to reach the parity income. Such payments shall be in addition to and not in substitution for any other payments authorized by law. (Feb 16, 1938, Title III, sec. 303, 52 Stat. 45; 7 U. S. C., sec. 1303.)
630–129. Consumer safeguards.—The powers conferred under this Act shall not be used to discourage the production of supplies of foods and fibers sufficient to maintain normal domestic human consumption as determined by the Secretary from the records of domestic human consumption in the years 1920 to 1929, inclusive, taking into consideration increased population, quantities of any commodity that were forced into domestic consumption by decline in exports during such period, current trends in domestic consumption and exports of particular commodities, and the quantities of substitutes available for domestic consumption within any general class of food commodities. In carrying out the purposes of this Act it shall be the duty of the Secretary to give due regard to the maintenance of a continuous and stable supply of agricultural commodities from domestic production adequate to meet consumer demand at prices fair to both producers and consumers. (Feb. 16, 1938, Title III, sec. 304, 52 Stat. 45; 7 U. S. C.. sec. 1304.)
630–130. Marketing quotas, tobacco; legislative finding of effect on interstate and foreign commerce and necessity of regulation.—(a) The marketing of tobacco constitutes one of the great basic industries of the United States with ramifying activities which directly affect interstate and foreign commerce at every point, and stable conditions therein are necessary to the general
welfare. Tobacco produced for market is sold on a Nation-wide market and, with its products, moves almost wholly in interstate and foreign commerce from the producer to the ultimate consumer. The farmers producing such commodity are subject in their operations to uncontrollable natural causes, are widely scattered throughout the Nation, in many cases such farmers carry on their farming operations on borrowed money or leased lands, and are not so situated as to be able to organize effectively, as can labor and industry through unions and corporations enjoying Government protection and sanction. For these reasons, among others, the farmers are unable without Federal assistance to control effectively the orderly marketing of such commodity with the result that abnormally excessive supplies thereof are produced and dumped indiscriminately on the Nation-wide market.
(b) The disorderly marketing of such abnormally excessive supplies affects, burdens, and obstructs interstate and foreign commerce by (1) materially affecting the volume of such commodity marketed therein, (2) disrupting the orderly marketing of such commodity therein, (3) reducing the price for such commodity with consequent injury and destruction of interstate and foreign commerce in such commodity, and (4) causing a disparity between the prices for such commodity in interstate and foreign commerce and industrial products therein, with a consequent diminution of the volume of interstate and foreign commerce in industrial products.
(C) Whenever an abnormally excessive supply of tobacco exists, the marketing of such commodity by the producers thereof directly and
substantially affects interstate and foreign commerce in such commodity and its products, and the operation of the provisions of this part becomes necessary and appropriate in order to promote, foster, and maintain an orderly flow of such supply in interstate and foreign com
(Feb. 16, 1938, Title III, sec. 311, 52 Stat. 45; 7 U. S. C., sec. 1311.)
630–131. National marketing quota.
Proclamation of quota. (a) Whenever the Secretary finds that the total supply of tobacco as of the beginning of the marketing year then current exceeds the reserve supply level therefor, the Secretary shall proclaim the amount of such total supply, and, beginning on the first day of the marketing year next following and continuing throughout such year, a national marketing quota shall be in effect for the tobacco marketed during such marketing year. The Secretary shall also determine and specify in such proclamation the amount of the national marketing quota in terms of the total quantity tobacco which may be marketed, which will make available during such marketing year a supply of tobacco equal to the reserve supply level. Such proclamation shall be made not later than the 1st day of December in such year. The amount of the national marketing quota so proclaimed may, not later than December 31, be increased by not more than 20 per centum if the Secretary determines that such increase is necessary in order to meet market demands, or to avoid undue restriction of marketing in adjusting the total supply to the reserve supply level.
Referendum of quotas. (b) Within thirty days after the date of the issuance of the proclamation specified in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum of farmers who were engaged in production of the crop of tobacco harvested prior to the holding of the referendum to determine whether such farmers are in favor of or opposed to such quota. If more than one-third of the farmers voting in the referendum oppose such quota, the Secretary shall, prior to the 1st day of January, proclaim the result of the referendum and such quota shall not be effective thereafter. In the same referendum the Secretary shall also submit to such farmers the question of whether they favor tobacco marketing quotas for a period of three years, beginning with the marketing year next following. If twothirds of the farmers voting on this question favor marketing quotas for a three-year period, the Secretary shall proclaim marketing quotas for such period, and beginning on the first day of the marketing year next following and continuing throughout the period so proclaimed, a national marketing quota shall be in effect for the tobacco marketed during each marketing year in said period unless amendments are made in the provisions for determining farm allotments so as to cause material revision of such allotments before the end of such period. If more than one-third of the farmers voting on this question oppose marketing quotas for the three-year period, such results shall be proclaimed by the Secretary and quotas for a longer period than one year shall not be in effect, but such result shall in no wise affect or limit the proclamation and submission to a referendum, as otherwise provided in this section, of a national marketing quota for any marketing year thereafter. (Feb. 16, 1938; Title III, sec. 312, 52 Stat. 46, as amended Mar. 26, 1938, 52 Stat. 120; Aug. 7,
1939, 53 Stat. 1261; Aug. 7, 1939, 53 Stat. 1261; June 13, 1940, secs. 2, 3, 54 Stat. 392; Nov. 22, 1940, secs. 2, 5, 54 Stat. 1209, 1210; 7 U. S. C., sec. 1312.)
630–132. Apportionment of national marketing quota.Apportionment among States. (a) The national marketing quota for tobacco established pursuant to the provisions of section 312, less the amount to be allotted under subsection (c) of this section, shall be apportioned by the Secretary among the several States on the basis of the total production of tobacco in each State during the five calendar years immediately preceding the calendar year in which the quota is proclaimed (plus, in applicable years, the normal production on the acreage diverted under previous agricultural adjustment and conservation programs), with such adjustments as are determined to be necessary to make correction for abnormal conditions of production, for small farms, and for trends in production, giving due consideration to seed bed and other plant diseases during such fiveyear period. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section and section 312, except the provisions in subsection (g) of this section relating to reduction of allotments, for any of the three marketing years, 1941–1942 to 1943–1944, in which a national marketing quota is in effect for burley or flue-cured tobacco, such national marketing quota shall not be reduced below the 1940–1941 national marketing quota by more than 10 per centum and the farm-acreage allotments ( (other than allotments established in each year under subsection (g) of this section for farms on which no tobacco was produced in the last five years) shall be determined by increasing or decreasing the farmacreage allotments established in the last preceding year in which marketing quotas were in effect in the same ratio as such national marketing quota is increased or decreased above or below the last preceding national marketing quota: Provided, That in the case of. flue-cured tobacco no allotment shall be decreased below the 1940 allotment if such allotment was two acres or less, and in the case of burley tobacco no allotment shall be decreased below the 1939 allotment if such allotment was one-half acre or less, or below the 1940 allotment if such allotment was over one-half acre and not over one acre: And provided further, That an additional acreage not in excess of 2 per centum of the total acreage allotted to all farms in each State in 1940 shall be allotted by the local committees, without regard to the ratio aforesaid, among farms in the State in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary so as to establish allotments which the committees find will be fair and equitable in relation to the past acreage of tobacco (harvested and diverted); land, labor, and equipment available for the production of tobacco; and crop rotation practices.
Allotment of quota among producing farms. (b) The Secretary shall provide, through the local committees, for the allotment of the marketing quota for any State among the farms on which tobacco is produced, on the basis of the following: Past marketing of tobacco, making due allowance for drought, flood, hail, other abnormal weather conditions, plant bed, and other diseases; land, labor, and equipment available for the production of tobacco; crop-rotation practices; and the soil and other physical factors affecting the production of tobacco: Provided, That, except for farms on which for the first time in five
years tobacco is produced to be marketed in the marketing year for which the quota is effective, the marketing quota for any farm shall not be less than the smaller of either (1) three thousand two hundred pounds, in the case of flue-cured tobacco, and two thousand four hundred pounds, in the case of other kinds of tobacco, or (2) the average tobacco production for the farm during the preceding three years, plus the average normal production of any tobacco acreage diverted under agricultural adjustment and conservation programs during such preceding three years.
Allotment to previous nonproducing farms and small farms. (c) The Secretary shall provide, through local committees, for the allotment of not in excess of 5 per centum of the national marketing quota (1) to farms in any State whether it has a State quota or not on which for the first time in five years tobacco is produced to be marketed in the year for which the quota is effective and (2) for further increase of allotments to small farms pursuant to the proviso in subsection (b) of this section on the basis of the following: Land, labor, and equipment available for the production of tobacco; crop-rotation practices: and the soil and other physical factors affecting the production of tobacco: Provided, That farm marketing quotas established pursuant to this subsection for farms on which tobacco is produced for the first time in five years shall not exceed 75 per centum of the farm marketing quotas established pursuant to subsection (b) of this section for farms which are similar with respect to the following: Land, labor, and equipment available for the production of tobacco, crop-rotation practices: and the soil and other physical factors affecting the production of tobacco.
Transfer of farm marketing quotas. (d) Farm marketing quotas may be transferred only in such mannner and subject to such conditions as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations.
Quota for 1938; minimum State allotments. (e) In case of flue-cured tobacco, the national quota for 1938 is increased by a number of pounds required to provide for each State in addition to the State poundage allotment a poundage not in excess of 4 per centum of the allotment which shall be apportioned in amounts which the Secretary determines to be fair and reasonable to farms in the State receiving allotments under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 which the Secretary determines are inadequate in view of past production of tobacco, and for each year by a number of pounds sufficient to assure that any State receiving a State poundage allotinent of flue-cured tobacco shall receive a minimum State poundage allotment of flue-cured tobacco equal to the average national yield for the preceding five years of five hundred acres of such tobacco.
Increase of 1938 quota. (f) In the case of fire-cured and dark aircured and burley tobacco, the national quota for 1938 is increased by a number of pounds required to provide for each State in addition to the State poundage allotment a poundage not in excess of 2 per centum of the allotment which shall be apportioned in amounts which the Secretary determines to be fair and reasonable to farms in the State receiving allotments under this section which the Secretary determines are inadequate in view of past production of tobacco.
Conversion of State marketing quota into State acreage allotment. (g) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the Secretary
on the basis of average yield per acre of tobacco for the State during the five years last preceding the year in which the national marketing quota is proclaimed, adjusted for abnormal conditions of production, may convert the State marketing quota into a State acreage allotment, and allot the same through the local committees among farms on the basis of the factors set forth in subsection (b), using past acreage (harvested and diverted) in lieu of the past marketing of tobacco; and the Secretary on the basis of the national average yield during the same period, similarly adjusted, may also convert into an acreage allotment the amount reserved from the national quota pursuant to the provisions of subsection (c) and on the basis of the factors set forth in subsection (c) and the past tobacco experience of the farm operator, allot the same through the local committees among farms on which no tobacco was produced during the last five years. Except for farms last mentioned or a farm operated, controlled, or directed by a person who also operates, controls, or directs another farm on which tobacco is produced, the farm-acreage allotment shall be increased by the smaller of (1) 20 per centum of such allotment or (2) the percentage by which the normal yield of such allotment (as determined through the local committees in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary) is less than three thousand two hundred pounds, in the case of flue-cured tobacco, and two thousand four hundred pounds in the case of other kinds of tobacco: Provided, That the normal yield of the estimated number of acres so added to farm acreage allotments in any State shall be considered as a part of the State marketing quota in applying the proviso in subsection (a). The actual production of the acreage allotment established for a farm pursuant to this subsection shall be the amount of the farm marketing quota. If any amount of tobacco shall be marketed as having been produced on the acreage allotment for any farm which in fact was produced on a different farm, the acreage allotments next established for both such farms shall be reduced by that percentage which such amount was of the respective farm marketing quota, except that such reduction for any such farm shall not be made if the Secretary through the local committees finds that no person connected with such farm caused, aided, or acquiesced in such marketing; and if proof of the disposition of any amount of tobacco is not furnished as required by the Secretary, the acreage allotment next established for the farm on which such tobacco is produced shall be reduced by a percentage similarly computed. (Feb. 16, 1938, title III, sec. 313, 52 Stat. 47, as amended April 7, 1938, sec. 5,52 Stat. 202; May 31, 1938, sec. 2, 52 Stat. 586; Aug. 7, 1939, 53 Stat. 1261, June 13, 1940, sec. 4, 54 Stat. 392; 7 U. S.C., sec. 1313 (a) to (g).)
630_133. Penalties. (a) The marketing of any tobacco in excess of the marketing quota for the farm on which the tobacco is produced shall be subject to a penalty of 10 cents per pound in the case of flue-cured, Maryland, or Burley tobacco and 5 cents per pound in the case of all other kinds of tobacco. Such penalty shall be paid by the person who acquires such tobacco from the producer but an amount equivalent to the penalty may be deducted by the buyer from the price paid to the producer in case such tobacco is marketed by sale; or, if the tobacco is marketed by the producer through a warehouseman or