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MAY 5, 1949 Hon. DEAN ACHESON,
Secretary of State, Washington, D. C. DEAR MR. SECRETARY: The Committee on Foreign Affairs, of which I am a member, has before it for consideration H. R. 2785 for extending the authorization relevant to funds already appropriated for the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. On May 4 the committee heard as a witness Mr. Maurice Pate, Director of the Fund. Certain items in his testimony prompt me to direct the questions below to the Department of State. I should appreciate your answers as early as practicable.
1. The International Children's Emergency Fund was, as its name indicates, established for emergency operations in the period following the curtailment of UNRRA. Is that emergency now over? Has the problem of the world's food supply yet reached the stage where it can be dealt with by measures of a permsnent character rather than as a matter of crisis?
2. Permanent organizations in this field have been established, namely, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization. Are these equipped to do the job the Children's Emergency Fund has been doing? Is there anything that the Fund is doing that the permanent organizations could not do as well or better if provided the same operating funds? Are there discernible advantages for having three organizations in this field rather than two?
3. We were told that the Children's Emergency Fund_was opening new programs in Latin America, north Africa, and the Middle East. Did the United States representative on the Board of the Children's Emergency Fund approve this extension of operations? Was this extension contemplated at the time this Government joined the Fund? Do the relevant problems in Latin America, north Africa, and the Middle East belong to the emergency category envisaged in the founding of the Fund, or are they problems of a long-standing character?
4. It was mentioned that other governments were discussing the idea of contributing to the Fund in the coming year. Does the Department of State have substantial information about such discussions? Is there a substantial basis for assuming that such contributions will actually be made? Have assurances been given by these Governments?
5. Some of the testimony touched upon the supervision of end distribution of commodities supplied under this program. We were told of the activities of the local coordinating committees in the capitals of the beneficiary countries. We were told that there was supervision even behind the iron curtain. We were told that the ratio of the international field staff of the Children's Fund to the number of recipients of aid was 1 to 100,000. What precisely are the local coordination committees? What is the evidence as to their adequacy? Are they participated in freely and on a wide basis of representation in the countries behind the iron curtain? Is the operation of this Fund actually allowed to remain free in the iron-curtain area? What is the proof of this, if so? Is it possible for one individual to check upon the end distribution of food to 100,000 individuals?
6. We were told of the furnishing of food in the recipient countries to the children at their schools. In the iron curtain-countries are these schools Communist schools?
7. We were told that the Children's Fund helps children from birth to the age of 18. What is the conscription age in the iron-curtain countries?
8. We were told that operation of the fund in China has been suspended. When were they suspended? What happened to supplies procured and allocated for China but not yet distributed at the time of the suspension. Who got them?
9. How much operating money will the fund have if this bill not passed? How long could it operate on this money, considering that new programs are not undertaken?
10. We were told the fund operates in all zones in Germany. Is the disease and unrest” program of GARIOA adequate for the United States zone? If it is, why is it necessary for the Children's Fund to operate there? If it is not, should not this Government meet its responsibilities directly, rather than by indirect action through an international agency?
My position in this matter is not so much one of "Devil's advocacy" as it is that of one attempting to obtain sufficient information upon which to base intelligent action. It is my feeling that the foregoing questions were not adequately covered by Mr. Pate during the course of his appearance before the Committee on Foreign Affairs on yesterday. Obviously, one cannot be opposed to intelligent
and humanitarian assistance in this regard, but there appears to be a very real danger that an area of overlapping is commencing to make itself evident with respect to several specialized agencies of the United Nations.
I should greatly appreciate such comment as you might care to make in this regard. Respectfully yours,
DONALD L. JACKSON.
May 9, 1949. The Honorable DONALD L. JACKSON,
House of Representatives. MY DEAR MR. Jackson: This will acknowledge receipt of your letter dated May 5, 1949, to the Secretary of State in which you request certain information concerning the program of the International Children's Emergency Fund. I am submitting below answers to the questions which you raise.
1. Although the deficiency of food in Europe resulting from the war has gradually been remedied there still is a definite lack of protective foods such as milk and fish-liver oils. It would seem probable that the acute and emergency shortage in European countries would largely be over after the next winter. In other areas the fund does not have mass-feeding programs (except for a special program for Palestine refugees). The health and other special programs in China and other areas of the Far East as well as in the Near East and Latin America are essentially long-range rather than emergency in nature. However, in certain areas such as China conditions have been aggravated as a result of the war.
2. The World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization could, of course, establish facilities to carry on the types of program which the ICEF is now operating. They have not heretofore been equipped to do this, partly because of lack of plans and organizational arrangements and partly because of insufficient funds. There would appear to be a definite advantage in working out plans for an early transfer to these agencies of such of the activities of the ICEF as appear to be desirable for continuance.
3. The United States representative on the executive board did approve the extension of the Fund's operations to Latin America, north Africa, and the Middle East. The United States Delegation supported the resolution establishing the ICEF which was adopted by the General Assembly in December 1946. This resolution although indicating that priority should be given to children in countries serviced by UNRRA and victims of aggression did indicate that the resources might be available for meeting child needs everywhere. The problems in Latin America, north Africa, and the Middle East (aside from an acute emergency need in connection with Palestine refugees) do not primarily involve short-term or emergency needs. Although these needs are serious they are in fact largely long-standing chronic problems.
4. The Department of State has been advised informally with respect to con. versations which have been held between representatives of the Fund and officials of a number of governments respecting possible contributions by those governments. Since no authoritative or final announcements have been made by these governments as to action on additional contributions we are unable to determine definitely whether such contributions will actually be made. However, we are advised that in several cases the attitude of the officials involved appears to be favorable.
5. The ratio of the international field staff to the number of recipients of aid is substantially 1 to 100,000. The local coordinating committees referred to are committees set up by the governments receiving assistance. They include representatives of the government departments concerned, such as health, education, and social affairs, and of any voluntary agencies concerned with the distribution of supplies or the dispensing of services. . The extent to which yoluntary agencies participate in these committees varies in different countries. The department of education operates in respect to school-feeding programs, the department of social affairs with reference to kindergartens and children's institutions, the department of health with reference to aid to expectant and nursing mothers and young children. These committees appear to be functioning effectively in all countries. The missions of the Fund are actually free to observe operations. Any problems relating to their full freedom have been worked out satisfactorily. If this had not been the case further help would have been withdrawn. As to checking upon end distribution, the Fund relies upon spot check by members of the staff, including the checking of institutions and schools receiv
ing assistance, review of records of beneficiaries and checking at points at which supplies come into the country. The nature of the program in schools and institutions and of the medical programs warrants greater reliance upon these methods of checking of the distribution of supplies and services than might be the case in other types of program.
6. While most of the schools in iron-curtain countries would presumably be government schools, it is one of the jobs of the Fund mission to see that no institution is excluded if the children are in need of service. Many institutions conducted under church auspices in eastern European countries are receiving assistance from the Fund. In practically all countries a considerable proportion of the aid is being handled by voluntary agencies. For example in Yugoslavia, the Red Cross and women's organizations are handling substantial amounts of supplies. In Poland CARITAS, a Catholic relief group, is handling supplies together with a central committee for social welfare and sections of trade-union groups.
7. There is listed below the conscription age in certain of the countries serviced by the Fund: Albania, 18; Bulgaria, 20; Czechoslovakia, 17; Finland-registration at 17, draft at 20; Hungary, 19; Poland-volunteers at 18, draft at 21; Rumania, 21; Yugoslavia, 17.
Exact figures as to the age distribution of children being fed in Europe are not available although the children above 14 constitute a very small minority of the total. Out of 4,500,000 children being fed in Europe 400,000 are under 1 year, 1,200,000 are preschool children, 250,000 are pregnant and nursing mothers and 2,600,000 are school children of whom not more than 10 percent are in trade schools above the elementary school level.
8. We have been informed that the feeding program in China has been suspended within the last few weeks. The situation was foreseen and prepared for. Supplies in the hands of the institutions concerned were distributed until they ran out. In only one area in China is distribution still continuing, that is Canton. No further supplies will be sent into Canton under the present circumstances. The funds available for China are being held. The only exception is that a very small medical program inaugurated sometime ago in North China, under the supervision of a physician who is a United States citizen is continuing. This is & program for training personnel in child-health work and consists chiefly of vaccinating children against communicable diseases. Small amounts of medical supplies, chiefly vaccines and simple equipment for rural health stations are made available. The total amount involved for this program is $500,000.
9. As a result of contributions actually received together with definite pledges the total resources of the Fund amount to $118,680,000. The Fund has allocated for programs through December 31, 1949, $116,000,000. Whether activities could be continued beyond December 31, 1949, without reducing the presently scheduled 1949 programs will depend upon the availability of (a) further contributions from private individuals, (b) further contributions from other governments. The funds actually contributed by the United States, together with funds it is anticipated will be called forth as a result of actual contributions or pledges not yet matched by the United States, amount to approximately $54,000,000, leaving $21,000,000 available under the present appropriation of $75,000,000. This amount will be available under the formula set up in the present law to match other Government contributions at a ratio of $28 to $72 of United States appropriations. The total allocations of the Fund for programs in 1949 (to be financed within the $118,000,000 available or pledged) amounts to $69,564,000.
10. The military authorities in Germany of all of the occupation powers have applied for aid from the Fund and have indicated that this aid is needed to supplement present "disease and unrest” programs. There would appear to be no particular reason why these needs could not be met, provided that the necessary supplies (primarily cod liver oil and certain raw materials) could be financed by the occupying powers. Sincerely yours,
ERNEST A. GROSS
(For the Secretary of State). O
GULF STATES MARINE FISHERIES COMPACT
May 11, 1949.-Ordered to be printed
Mr. THOMPSON, from the committee of conference, submitted the
(To accompany S. J. Res. 421
The committee of conference on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses on the amendments of the House to the joint resolution (S. J. Res. 42) granting the consent and approval of Congress to an interstate compact relating to the better utilization of the fisheries (marine, shell, and anadromous) of the Gulf Coast and creating the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, having met, after full and free conference, have agreed to recommend and do recommend to their respective Houses as follows:
That the Senate recede from its disagreement to the amendment of the House and agree to the same.
The amendment is as follows:
SCHUYLER OTIS BLAND,
THOR C. TOLLEFSON,
LYNDON B. JOHNSON,
STATEMENT OF THE MANAGERS ON THE PART OF THE HOUSE
The managers on the part of the House at the conference on disagree ing votes of the two Houses on the amendment of the House to the joint resolution (S. J. Res. 42) granting the consent and approval of Congress to an interstate compact relating to the better utilization of the fisheries (marine, shell, and anadromous) of the Gulf Coast and creating the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, submits the following statement which was agreed upon by the conferees and recommended in the accompanying conference report:
That the Senate recede from its disagreement to the amendment of the House and agrees to the same.
The House amendment is as follows:
SCHUYLER OTIS BLAND,
THOR C. TOLLEFSON,