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journey. With the corrupting influence of these on our slaves, and the stench both physical and moral, that their introduction would set afloat in our social atmosphere, and the vexation that would attend the civil rule of these fanatics, it would require neither a visit from the destroying angel nor the judgments of an offended God to render our situation here insupportable. True, it may be said, and truly no doubt, that the fate that has marked the rise and fall of Joanna Southcote and Ann Lee will also attend the progress of Joe Smith ; but this is no opiate to our fears, for when the fabric falls, the rubbish will remain.
Of their pretended revelations from heaven—their personal intercourse with God and His angels—the maladies they pretend to heal by the laying on of hands—and the contemptible gibberish with which they habitually profane the Sabbath, and which they dignify with the appellation of unknown tongues, we have nothing to say, vengeance belongs to God alonebut as to the other matters set forth in this paper, we feel called on by every consideration of self-preservation, good society, public morals, and the fair prospects, that if not blasted in the germ, await this young and beautiful county, at once to declare, and we do hereby most solemnly declare:
That no Mormon shall in future move and settle in this county.
That those now here, who shall give a definite pledge of their intention within a reasonable time to remove out of the county, shall be allowed to remain unmolested until they have sufficient time to sell their property and close their business without any material sacrifice.
That the editor of the Star be required forth with to close his office, and discontinue the business of printing in this county; and as to all other stores and shops belonging to the sect, their owners must, in every case, strictly comply with the terms of the second article of this declaration, and upon failure, prompt and efficient measures will be taken to close the same.
That the Mormon leaders here, are required to use their influence in preventing any further emigration of their distant brethren to this county, and to counsel and advise their brethren here to comply with the above requisitions.
That those who fail to comply with these requisitions, be referred to those of their brethren who have the gifts of divination, and of unknown tongues, to inform them of the lot that awaits them.
Which address being read and considered, was unanimously adopted. And thereupon it was resolved that a committee of twelve be appointed forthwith to wait on the Mormon leaders, and see that the foregoing requisitions are strictly complied with by them; and, upon their refusal, that said committee do, as the organ of this county, inform them that it is our unwavering purpose and fixed determination, after the fullest considerations of all of the consequences and responsibilities under which we act, to use such means as will insure their full and complete adoption, and that said committee, so far as may be within their power, report to this present meeting. And the following gentlemen weré named as said committee: Robert Johnson, James Campbell, Colonel Moses Eilson, Joel F. Chiles, Hon. Richard Fristoe, Abner F. Styles, George Johnson, Lewis Franklin, Russell Hicks, Esq., Colonel S. D. Lucas, Thomas Wilson, and James M. Hunter, to whom was added Colonel R. Simpson, Chairman, and after an adjournment of two hours, the meeting again convened, and the committee of twelve reported that they had called on Mr. Phelps, editor of the Star, Edward Partridge, bishop of the sect, and Mr. Gilbert, the keeper of the Lord's Storehouse, and some others, and that they declined giving any direct answer to the requisitions made of them, and wished for an unreasonable time for consulation, not only with their brethren here but in Ohio.
Whereupon it was unanimously resolved by the meeting, that the Star printing office should be razed to the ground, the type and press secured. Which resolution was, with the utmost order, and the least noise and disturbance possible, forthwith carried into execution, as also some other steps of similar tendency; but no blood was spilled nor any blows inflicted. The meeting then adjourned till the 23rd instant, to meet again to know further concerning the determination of the Mormons.
Resolved, that a copy of these proceedings be posted up at the post office in this place, for the information of all concerned; and that the secretaries of this meeting send copies of the same to the principal editors in the eastern and middle states for publication, that the Mormon brethren may know at a distance that the gates of Zion are closed against them—that their interests will be best promoted by remaining among those who know and appreciate their merits.
Richard Simpson, Chairman.
The citizens again convened on the 23rd of July, 1833, which was composed of gentlemen from all parts of the county, and much more unanimously attended than the meeting on the 20th inst.
The meeting was organized by the chairman taking his seat, when the following gentlemen were appointed a committee, to wit:
Henry Chiles, Esq., Doctor N. K. Olmstead, H. L. Brazile, Esq., Zachariah Faller, Samuel Weston, Esq., Wm. L. Irwin, Leonidas Oldham, S. C. Owens, Esq., George Simpson, Capt. Benjamin Majors, James C. Sadler, Col. Wm. Bowers, Henry Younger, Russel Hicks, Esq., Aaron Overton, John Harris and Harmon Gregg to wait upon the Mormon leaders who had intimated a wish to have a conference with said committạe.
After an adjournment of two hours the meeting again convened, when the committee reported to the meeting that they had waited on most of the Mormon leaders consisting of the bishop, Mr. Partridge; Mr. Phelps, editor of the Star; Mr. Gilbert, keeper of the Lord's Storehouse; and Messers. Corrill, Whitmer and Morley, elders of the church, and that said committee had entered into an amicable agreement with them which they had reduced to writing, which they submitted; and that the committee have assured Mr. Phelps that whenever he was ready to move that the amount of all his losses would be paid to him by the citizens. The written agreement is as follows:
“Memorandum of agreement between the undersigned of the Mormon society, in Jackson County, Missouri, and a committee appointed by a public meeting of the citizens of said county, made the 23rd day of July, 1833. It is understood that the undersigned, members of the society, do give their solemn pledges, each for himself, as follows, to wit:
"That Oliver Cowdery, W. W. Phelps, Wm. McClellan, Edward Partridge, Lyman Wright, Simeon Carter, Peter and John Whitmer, and Harvey Whitlock, shall remove with their families out of this county, on or before the first day of January next, and that they as well as the two hereinafter named, use all their influence to induce all the brethren now here, to remove as soon as possible—one half, say, by the first of January next, and all by the first day of April next. To advise and try all means in their power, to stop any more of their sect from moving to this county ; and as to those now on the road, they will use their influence to prevent their settling permanently in the county but that they shall make arrangements only for temporary shelter, till a new location is agreed on for the society. John Corrill and Algernon Gilbert, are allowed to remain as general agents to wind up the business of the society, so long as necessity shall require; and said Gilbert may sell out his merchandise now on hand, but is to make no new importation.
“The Star is not again to be published, nor a press set up by any of the society in this county.
“If said Edward Partridge and W. W. Phelps move their families by the first day of January, as aforesaid, that they themselves will be allowed to go and come in order to transact and wind up their business.
“The committee pledge themselves to use all their influence to prevent any violence being used so long as a compliance with the foregoing terms is observed by the parties concerned, to which agreement is subscribed the names of the above named committee, as also those of the Mormon brethren named in the report as having been present."
Which report of the committee was unanimously adopted by the meeting, and thereupon the meeting adjourned, sine die.
Richard Simpson, Chairman.
1. H. Flourney } Secretaries
PART III-THE UNITED ORDER APPROACH TO SOME OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS
OF ECONOMIC LIFE
NEED OF A FULLER CONSIDERATION OF THE ORDER
— PRIVATE PROPERTY
Short as was the life of the new Zion, its two years of struggle brought forth many problems, some of which were in process of adequate solution as we have already seen, while others were only beginning to attract attention. Many of the great questions that are pressing forward for solution now, had no place in a small, frontier community of nearly one hundred years ago. But the United Order is a general plan, and it becomes of interest to observe not only its method of atiаck upon the problems which were actually encountered in Missouri in 1831-34, but to also view it in relation to some of the great, major problems of economic relationship which occupy men's minds today, . Let us turn, therefore, to a more general and a somewhat more theoretical consideration of the United Order.
THE RIGHT TO PRIVATE PROPERTY
Private property in some form or other is a very old institution. It is a common assumption that the right to possess property is of the same “kith and kin” as those primary rights with which the eighteenth century writers inform us we are born. It is not necessary, however, to go back very far even into later history to find that the conception of private property of today has little resemblance to that which was had by the people of only a few ceutries ago. In England, where our laws were largely gradually evolved, the early viileins not only could not own land but could not leave it, and were more like chattels which belonged to it, than otherwise. In those days, capital in the modern sense was practically unknown. A rude plow and a pair of oxen almost told the story and the cotters or borders, much less the servi or slaves did not possess these. Personal property, which has assumed such large proportions today and which the taxing power has found so much difficulty in locating, was limited then to a few personal belongings.
Take land, capital, and personal property out of the conception of private property and what have we left? Not only has the institution of private property not always existed, but there is no certainty that it shall always remain. It is merely one of the "adjustments” that the present industrial order has made extensive use of.1
If it is conceded that private property should be maintained, certain inquiries arise. Among these are: In what and to what extent shall it maintain ? All are forms of wealth to be open to acquisition by the individual citizen, or is he to be limited to cer-tain kinds of property? Are legal guarantees to vonchsafe to him and his heirs continued possession, or shall the possession of property be limited in time?
From the viewpoint of the United Order the earth belongs to God. “Behold, all these properties are mine, or else your faith is vain, and ye are found hypocrites, and the covenants which ye have made with me are broken.”'2 The individual is a steward only. “But, verily I say unto you, I have appointed unto you to be stewards over mine house."'3 There is no intention, however, to take away from the individual control over property. His stewardship is to be deeded to him, and he retains possession of it even in case he leaves the order.4
And if he shall transgress and is not accounted worthy to belong to the church, he shall not have power to claim that portion which he has consecrated unto the bishop for the poor and needy of my church; therefore, he shall not retain the gift, but shall only have claim on that portion that is deeded unto him.5
The individual's right to property is thus seen to be of considerable importance. It is limited with respect to the amount which may be acquired but not as to the time during which it may be held. With respect to the former, a stewardship was intended to be of sufficient proportions to enable the individual to provide a comfortable living for his family. “Every man shall be made accountable unto me, a steward over his own property, or that which he has received by consecration, inasmuch as is sufficient for himself and family." As regards the latter, the practice of passing inheritances on from father to son was definitely specified. “And this stewardship and blessing, I the Lord, confer upon my servant Pelagoram (Sidney Rigdon) for a blessing upon him, and his seed after him."?. No limitation whatever is made on the kind of property which the individual may acquire. However, he is exhorted to avoid luxury. “And again, thou shalt not be proud in thy heart; let all thy garments be plain, and their beauty the
1 H. J. Davenport, The Economics of Enterprise, (New York, 1918) p. 20, says: "Private property, individual initiative, competition, the money system, and production for the price market, are mere present adjustments, no one of which has always been, or is everywhere now, or is certain to remain.
2 Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 104:55.