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Choir tunes. On these we need not make much remark. Let the choirs try them. dignity and solemnity, or nearly as fast as they would be appropriately read under simuar They will find tunes in all kinds of time, in many rhythmic forms, variously harmonized, circumstances. It is important to take the right movement, (which, indeed, is not difficult, point against point or in reports, in the usual keys, major and minor, for soli, tutti, or if one gives attention to the proper reading of the psalm or hymn,) for if it be too fast, chorus. There aro tunes appropriate to express all the various feelings from those of the anarchy and confusion of sounds, chaotic, will follow; while, on the other hand, a movement deepest penitence, grief, or sorrow, to such as are jubilant or exultant in the highest de a little too slow will lead to a drawling, stupid, and sleepy performance, quite at varianco gree. Thero aro tunes animating and tunos quieting, tunes of excitement and tunes of re with singing "merrily unto God," and making “a cheerful noise unto the God of Jacob." pose, tunes of loftiness and tunes of moekness, of energy and of gentleness, of solemnity and It can hardly be necossary to say that the movement of a tune is not affected by the of such merriness as becometh the dwelling-place of the Most High. There are tunes for variety of measure in which it is represented. Thus, for examplo, the tune Dundoe, p. hymns of worship (would that we might have occasion to sing them more frequently), 175, is written in half notes, and the tune Martyrs, same page, is written in quarter notes, and tunes for hymns of narration, description, instruction, or exhortation (which we have yet both are to be sung in the same, timo, unless perhaps Martyrs may be a little the to sing frequently enough). There are singing tunes and speaking tunes, tunes cantabile slower of the two, on account of the character of the poetry. and tunes recitando. There are tunes short and tunes long, tunes low and tunes high, tunes soft and tunes loud, tunes quick and tunes slow, tunes easy and tunes difficult, 5. METERS.—The variety of meters, we doubt not, will be thought suficient. We are tunes good and tunes-not so good. Indeed, it is believed that there is no emotion not very friendly to a great variety of meters for ordinary church purposes, and most that may be classed with the religious for which there may not be found tunes affording heartily approve of the course of those clergymen who chiefly confine themselves in their a suitablo form of musical expression. Again we say, let the choirs try them.

selections to a few of the most common. But we have endeavored here to provide, not Congregational tunes. These, although much less numerous than tunes for choir per only for all such peculiar or uncommon meters as we deem worthy to be sung in formance, are, it is believed, abundantly sufficient. They are generally pointed out in public worship, but also for others which we think are not entitled to that distinction. the descriptive table of congregational tunes, * yet there are others not included, some not Indeed, we are convinced, that the whole class of peculiar meters might be given up named, which, under certain circumstances, may be well adapted to congregational use. without any serious loss to the causo of Psalmody. In the classification of the meters We had intended to_express our views more fully on the subject of congregational sing- designated by figures (with the exception of the common Trochaic 7's, 8's and 7's, and ing in this place, but are prevented from doing so by want of room. The subject is dwelt 8's, 7's and 4's) we have made four classes, in conformity with the character of the upon at some length in the Preface to the National Psalmist, and though there are points poetic feet in which the hymns are written; Iambic, Trochaic, Anapestic, and Dactylic; which from their liability to be misunderstood, require further explanation, we must con- yet these are often so much mixed as to render it doubtful to which class a hymn tent ourselves for the present by referring our readers to what we have there written. belongs. In some cases Iambic stunzas have been written for well-known Dactylic It may be well, however, to repeat here what we have often said on the subject of the tunes, the writer having had regard to nothing more than the nụmber of syllables; and degree of time (quickness or slowness) in which the leading class of congregational nothing is more common than an intermixture of Iambic and Trochaic feet, in hymns tunes should be sung. The best rhythmic form for these tunes we suppose to be which belong principally to the former class. Each class commences with the hymns that of the original of many of the old tunes, which, though it was lost for many in which the lines contain the smallest number of syllables, and proceeds onward in years, has been found again by the Rev. Mr. Havergal and others, and partly re- regular order. This arrangement, though imperfect, will aid the leader in finding a stored in England, and which is beginning to be understood in this country. It tune quickly for any particular hymn; or, when, as he ought never to be when the singconsists of tones of equal length, with the exception of the initial and terminal of each ing is by a choir, he is obliged to do so, without any previous notice. Among the unsection or period of the music, or line or couplet of the poetry, and those should be about usual meters will be found a number of new hymns which may be interesting for private twice the length of tho othors. See Iosco, Watts, Evan, and many similar tunes. or social purposes, or for occasional public worship. These tunes should be sung about twice as fast as it is generally customary to sing "The Old Hundredth Psalm Tune," or as fast as the words may be uttered consistently with 6. INTERLUDES.-It will be seen that these have been written for a great portion of • See page 95.

the tunes. They have been prepared, not for the organist who is able to play his own

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Impromptu interludes, but rather for the purpose of furnishing other instruments with inferior in loftiness and grandeur to almost any of the selections from the Psalms; and something better than the constant repetition of the last line; and also for the purpose we cannot but think that the true idea or spirit of church musie is wanting in that perof furnishing a pattern of what we suppose interludes ought to be; not long de son whose soul is not expanded, enlarged and moved upwards by the chanting of theso tached pieces of music, but a few chords immediately connected with the tune, and lead sublime compositions. We desire most earnestly to recommend to teachers, to leaders, ing in regular time to its re-commencement for the succeeding stanza. The interludes in and to all, the introduction of chanting the Psalms into choir practice. We do not say this work are often mere cadences, sometimes full, or perfect, closing on the Tonic chord; into church service, for that must depend upon the clergyman, and the desires of the and sometimes half, or imperfect, closing on the Dominant chord. They usually com- people. But, until one knows in his own experience what the chanting of the Psalms mence on the last chord, and close on the first chord of the tune. It will be desirable in is, he can hardly be said to know the truly grand and sublime in the musical declamation such cases, or where the interlude does not in itself come to a full close, that the last of poetry. We have not here given the common double chants, like those of Depuis, chord or two be played a little retardando, so that the voices may como in easily on Mornington, and others, for many books contain them, and besides, they really do not the first chord of the tune. We would not adviso that even short interludes should be deserve the name of chants; they are pretty, tasteful tunes, beautiful, elegant it may invariably played between the stanzas of a hymn; on the contrary, we think it better, be, but yet vastly below the dignity of such real chants as Tallis's, Farrant's, Purcell's, as a general rule, to proceed directly from stanza to stanza without delay. With Turner's, and others of like lofty character.* We have given some of the very best respect to interludes, we agree entirely with the Rt. Rev. Bishop Wainwright, of English chants. New York, as expressed in his introductory note to “The History of the Old Hundredth Psalm Tune," which we cordially commend to organists and others. Those who play 8. ANTHEMS. - This department is uncommonly full. We do not know any similar the tenor part in the interludes in this book must remember that they are represented work containing so many available pieces of this kind. This portion of the work may by the G clef, as that clef is used for the tenor, and not as it is commonly used in also be divided into two classes, one of which is appropriate to the ordinary Sabbath-Day instrumental music, or for treble voices.

worship, and the other to the practicing hour of the choir, or the concert room.f We

have spared no exertions to supply both classes, but especially the former, and such choirs 7. CHANTS.—In this department will be found the usual canticles from the Prayer as need pieces appropriate for the opening or close of the service, will find a large supply. Book, and also portions of the Bible Psalms, marked for chanting, with saitable chants. They are generally short and easy, and since the words are principally from the Psalms, This form of church music seems to belong legitimately to the Psalms, and it has been they will bear frequent repetition. Such pieces must be sung many times, or until they used almost exclusively in connection with them until within a fow years. The editor are well known, and instantly recognized by the people, before they will be truly appreof this work was the first (so far as he knows) to apply chanting to metrical hymns;ciated, or before they will really do the work for which they are intended.

When they yet he has done this only so far as to chant such hymns as hardly admit of a tuno are only occasionally sung, they are thrown away; again we say, they must be oft reform of expression; or such as, because of their length, require a more speedy | peated to be understood, to be admired, and to be truly useful. The concert or choiratterance than they can find in any common church tune. More recently (and un practicing anthems, although not suited to ordinary occasions of worship, may still be happily, as we think), truly excellent hymns of lyric character, admitting, and indeed sung with propriety on many public religious and other occasions. requiring tunes of a rhythmic form corresponding to the metrical character of the poetry, have been set to chants. But if metrical hymns are chanted, we think the

9. CAROLS.-On pages 349 and 352 will be found specimens of the old Christmas and above distinction should be kept in view, and such hymns only should be thus treated

Easter Carols. This species of poetical and musical composition is of Italian origin. as cannot be well sung to ordinary tunes, such hymns as express but little emotion, It spread widely, and was for a long time very popular all over Europe. Afterwards or such as are so irregular in their structure that they cannot, in justice to their meaning, be subjected to a regular rhythmic delivery. We have confined the chant in this

* See a most excellent collection of chants in the * Anglican Chant Book," published by Novello. work to the Bible Psalms, except in the last two selections. These have become very

London, and New York. popular, and both are truly beautiful when well declaimed in chant, yet both are far + See Table of Anthems, p.

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carols were sung mostly by itinerant holiday minstrels. Many of the early carols possess 11. ELEMENTARY EXERCISES.—In these the pupils will find encugh to do; this is prop great beauty and excellence. A collection of them has recently been published by erly their field of labor, or their play-ground; they cannot be kept too closely to the Novello, edited by Rev. T. Helmore and Rev. J. M. Neale, with the design of reviving training implied in this part of the work. The teacher will, of course, select such exer. their use in England. We thought that the three we have inserted, which are among cises as will best accord with the capacity of his pupils, and the length of his term. the most popular pieces contained in that work, would be pleasing and useful in Tunes adapted to the progress of the class, should be used in connection with these singing-classes, and in social circles. The words to the Christmas and the Easter exercises from the very first lesson. Carols are free translations from the old copies; those of the Spring Carol aro by Rov. It is a great and difficult work to teach well, and we hope we may be pardoned for Mr. Neale.

urging every one who proposes to assume the arduous employment, to avail himself of

every possible means of improvement. Those who design to teach music should give 10. THE SINGING SCHOOL.—The elementary department, which custom makes a nec attention, not merely to their own art or science, but to general improvement, and essary part of a book of church music, has been prepared with more than ordinary especially to such things as may lead to good taste, gentlemanly deportment, and to a

The principal text consists of an abstract statement of facts, or of scientific truths, generally pleasing and winning demeanor and address. expressed axiomatically, being freely interspersed with explanatory or illustrative notes. Forty years' constant experience in teaching is enough to enable one to learn that he 12. PART-SONGS.-We have added at the close of the vocalizing exercises a number of really knows but little; we dare not therefore assert that these definitions are always ex Part-Songs, for singing-schools, domestic circles, social gatherings, and choirs. Some of pressed in the most clear and intelligible language, or that they are always complete, these are very easy, and others more difficult; some are very cheerful, and others more or free from error. This, indeed, can hardly be expected in didactic elementary works grave.

We recommend the use of all the different varieties; the cheerful, joyful, and on any subject; and much less on that of music, which seems to have received less at exciting, and also the more serious, for song is designed for the exercise and strengthtention with respect to classification, definition, and nomenclature, than almost any other ening of all the good affections; but especially do we recommend (since it is too apt elementary branch of knowledge. This part of the work is designed especially for the to be neglected) the frequent use of that class of songs which are of a mild, soothing, teacher; it will bring before the mind of the intelligent teacher the facts, or by it he and pacific character, like “ Evening Song,” No. 325; “Night Song," No. 326; “God will be reminded of those things which he is to teach. It is not supposed that the is Love," No. 315. One of the most beautiful specimens of this kind will be found on pupil will be required to commit to memory these definitions, or explanations, or any part

page 59,

Charming Little Valley.". Try it, ye song and daughters of song; let it be of them; nor that it is possible to teach well by presenting truth in any abstract form. oft repeated, until the true idea is brought out in your souls, until every unhallowed On the contrary, it is quite necessary that the pupil should be first taught the reality, and turbulent passion is conquered, and peace and quietness reign within, until you or the thing itself, in a practical manner, and according to a natural concrete growth know in your own hearts the meaning of those beautiful words of the Psalmist, thy and relationship. It is only after one has thus learnt what a thing is, that he will gentleness hath made me great." fully comprehend a definition of that thing, be it ever so clear. Although “The Singing School” presents but a brief course of instructions, yet it is supposed that it And now, having finished a work which has cost us no little labor, as every intelligent may be too long for some of the very short terms for which such classes are held, and person who examines it will readily acknowledge, we commend it to clergymen, choirs, during which the teacher is expected to bring the whole subject before his pupils. For schools, and people, in the full belief that if they will receive it and make proper use of it, the special convenience of these short terms, we have prepared the "Musical Notation they will derive strength from it; it will afford them pleasure, and do them good. in a Nutshell." In the use of this, a "skillful teacher" will be able to furnish "apı pupils” with a good commencement, or a basis upon which they will be able gradually

"Let the people praise thee, O God, to build in safety as there may be further opportunity.

Yoa, let all the people praise thee."

THE SINGING SCHOOL;

OR THE

ELEMENTS OF MUSICAL NOTATION, ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS EXERCISES, ROUNDS, PART-SONGS, ETC.

BY LOWELL MASON.

Entered, acoording to Act of Congress, in the your 1854, by MASON BROTHERS, In the Clork's Omce of the Southern District of New York

CHAPTER I.

CHAPTER II.

INTRODUCTORY.

RHYTHMICS

PROPERTIES OF TONES DEPARTMENTS IN THE ELEMENTS OF

MEASURES BARS-NOTES-RESTS.
MUSIC.

NOTE 1.--In accordance with the example of some of the best German writers, the subject of Rhythm.

ics is here presented first in order. A reason for this may be found in the fact that this department in its § 1. A TONE (musical sound) has three essential properties,-Length, first steps, is easier for the pupil than either of the others. It is, however, a matter of little consequence

whether instruction begins with Rhythmics or Melodics, since the two departments musl soon be united, Pitch, and POWER.

and proceed together.

NOTE 2:- The place where Dynamics may be introduced has not been indicated—but since the culti§ 2. Hence, elementary musical instruction is naturally divided into three vation of taste, which should receive a careful attention from the beginning, is essentially dependent upon

this department, it is clear that it should not long be delayed. departments :

NOTE 3.-The subjects have been arranged, and the two departments of Rhythmics and Melodice bave

been connected in a convenient succession, though their exact order is not supposed to be important, 1. RHYTHMICS, treating of the length of tones.

Indeed, no good teacher will always follow the same routine or disposition of subjects, but will adapt

himself to the circumstances of his class. 2. MELODICS, treating of the pitch of tones.

NOTE 4.-In the department of Rhythmics, the teacher will naturally commence his instruction by 3. DYNAMIOS, treating of the power of tones.

giving his pupils an idea of the principle of measurement, or of the division of time into equal portions. This may be done in different ways, but perhaps in none better than by something like the following

graduated steps: Note 1.-- Rhythmics, from a Greek word, signifying “to dow,"—measured movement. Melodics, from a Greek word, signifying “ a song, or poem,”—a tune. Dynamics, from a Greek word, signifying "10 be

1. The teacher counts regularly before his class, thus :-one, two : one, two : one, two : one, two. able,”-power.

2. The pupils are required to count in like manner. NOTE 2.--Rhythmics, in this technical use of the term, comprehends all that belongs to the length or

3. While the pupils count as before, the teacher sings la, thus duration of sounds; but the word rhythm, in its common acceptation, is more limited, and refers princi

Pupils count, one, two: one, two: one, two: one, two. pally to the relations of phrases, sections, and periods. Rhythm, in music, is analogous to metre in Teacher sings, ... la, la, la, la, la, la. poetry, Melodics comprehends the whole subject of pitch; but the word melody refers principally to a pleasing calm, and not that of a in law, all, or fall.

The a in la should receive the open Italian sound, as in far, father, lark, park, smart, part, balm, o succession of sounds, or to a tune-form.

4. The teacher counts while the pupils sing. Dynamics comprebends the force or power of sounds, and their form of delivery, utterance, or enunciation.

5. Motions of the hand may be substituted for counting, and the pupils may be led to see that the division of time is now manifested or expressed to the eyc, whereas in counting it was manifested to the

When this rhythmic element or principle of measurement is practically understood, having been acquired by the pupils through their own action or exercise, definitions, names, and signs may follow.

ear.

8

THE SINGING SCHOOL.

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Note.-The rhythmic principle may be manifested to another sense, the touch, but this is not needed

for musical purposes.

$ 5. Double Measure. A measure having two parts is called DOUBLE

CHAPTER III.

MEASURE, or Two-Part Measure.

MELODICS.

$ 6. Manner of beating time. In beating time, in double measure, a

downward beat is usually made for the first part of a measure, and an up-

THE SCALE-ITS NAMES AND SIGNS.

ward beat is made for the second part of a measure.

NUTE.--Let the scale, or a part of it, bo sung slowly and distinctly by the teacher, beginning with the

NOTE.-When tho pupils are learning to beat the time, it is well for thein to count and beat simulta- pitch C, to the syllable la. Let it be repeated until the class have obtained a clear idea of it, after which,

neously; or, while they make the proper motions of the hand, let them also describe those motions by and not before, they may be required to sing it. Careful attention should be given to quality of tone,

repeating the words downward bcai, upward beat, or, (for a quicker movement,) down, up.

which, with everything belonging to tasto, should be cultivated from the beginning. When the scale

has been thus taught, or when the pupils have become so familiar with it as to have some correct appre-

8 7. Accent. The first part of a measure should usually be accented, the ciation of it as a connected series of tones, and can also sing it with tolerable accuracy, names and deini-

.

second unaccented.

$ 12. The Scale. Musical sounds, or tones, when considered with respect

NOTE.--While it is important that rhythmic accent should be observed, its constant automatic, or drum-

like recurrence is still, ungraceful, and repulsive to good taste. Such an accent belongs mostly to music to the relation that exists between them, are arranged in a certain series

of an inferior character, or to that which makes its appeal to the mere external sunse. The march and

the dance are inuch dependent upon it, though in the better forms of these classes of music

, it is often called The SCALE; thus the Scale is a succession of eight tones in a certain

ical accent or emphasis, or that which belongs to emotion. expression, or to poctical thoughts or ideas, order of relative pitch.

on the contrary, is essential to a tasteful or appropriate performance, and should receive much attention.

The rule, therefore, which has just been given, is one to which were are many exceptions.

Note 1.-The word Scale is from the Latin Scala, meaning a ladder. The Scale is a musical ladder.

Note 2.--The Scale, melodically considered, consists of eight sounds ; but when considered with ro-

8 8. Signs of Measures ;-Bars. Measures are represented by interspaces spect to harmony, of only seven sounds: the Scale consists of eight sounds, but seven sounds only aro

between vertical lines, or Bars. Bars mark the boundaries of measures.

necessary to constitute a kcy.

NOTE 3.—It is upon this tone relationship that the beautiful, both in melody and in harmony essentially

NOTE.--The term bar is often used to signify a measure.

depends; the Scale, therefore, is the ground work of practical music, both vocal and instrumental. It

should be a constant daily practice.

8 9. Signs of Tones. Tones (musical sounds) are represented by charac-

8 13. Names of the tones of the scale. The tones of the scale are named

ters called NOTES.

Note.-The word tone is always used in this work to signify a musical sound. The word note is never

from the name: of numbers, beginning with the lowest, thus :

used to signify a musical sound, but always to signify a character reprosenting a musical sound. A logo

, hcard but not seen; a note may be seen but not beard.

ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR, FIVE SIX, SEVEN, EIGHT,

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