Fossilization in Adult Second Language Acquisition
This book is a systematic attempt to address the issue of fossilization in relation to a fundamental question in second language acquisition research, which is: why are learners, adults in particular, unable to develop the level of competence they have aspired to in spite of continuous and sustained exposure to the target language, adequate motivation to learn, and sufficient opportunity to practice?
Results 1-5 of 5
Failure of parameter resetting Learning inhibiting learning Automatization of
faulty knowledge Lack of understanding Processing constraints Lack of sensitivity
to input Change in emotional state Natural inclination to focus on content, not on
Lack of attention (e.g., Schmidt, 1983). Inappropriate learning strategy (R. Ellis,
1999; Schmidt, 1983). Lack of written input (Schmidt, 1983; VanPatten, 1988).
Language complexity (Lightbown, 1985, 2000). Lack of opportunity to use the
Failure of parameter resetting (e.g., Eubank, 1995; L. White, 1991).
Automatization of the first language system (MacWhinney, 1992). Using top-down
processes in comprehension (MacWhinney, 1992). Lack of understanding (
When associated with this kind of behavior, fossilization is considered to arise
from processing constraints rather than from lack of grammatical competence. As
Schachter (1996b: 161) notes: A perfectly fluent adult non-native speaker (NNS)
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