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SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES —continued
Departments of the School
Institute of World Affairs
Departments of the University
Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs
Hoover Institute and Library
Food Research Institute
Maxwell Graduate School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
During the year, the institute established an interdepartmental organization devoted to research on problems of international communication and various other questions in international relations. Already the center has received a grant of $1 million from the Ford Foundation for its studies of international communications and of economic development and political stability. The creation of the center, of which Dr. Max F. Millikan, professor of economics, is director, is indicative of the increased attention at MIT to the economic and social implications of science and technology at home and abroad.
The program of the center is interdepartmental in character, affording opportunities for research to the Departments of Economics and Social Science and of English and History and touching at many points upon the individual interests of faculty members in the several schools of the institute. Studies undertaken since
the inception of the program have been of basic academic interest and in large
The center has drawn principally upon the resources of MIT and the larger
The third project in practical research grew out of the foundation's interest in international affairs and is concerned with the United States' problem of understarding, and being understood by, people in other countries. A grant of $875,000 was made to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to support for 4 years a research program in international communications at its Center for International Studies. Research will be done by a group of analysts with different professional background, including anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists, historians, economists, lawyers, political scientists, and natural scientists. They will concentrate initially on studies of what information and ideas reach various kinds of people in foreign countries; the channels by which the information and ideas are conveyed; and the effect of psychological, institutional, political, economic, and philosophical factors on the ways in which people interpret, and react to, the information and ideas (from the Ford Foundation Annual Report for 1952, Dec. 31, 1952).
The Center of International Studies is conducting a research project in Indo-
The Library of Congress has received and cataloged one publication from the
1953. 142 pages.
Mr. Gary. You had 31 employed in this activity at one time and
Dr. Evans. There were not 31 in this particular activity, no, sir;
Mr. ClApp. It was never greater than five.
Mr. ČLAPP. Might I add just one more word on this operation?
for the manpower of this section in order to get American
Mr. Horan. It was a free exchange. Please continue, Dr. Evans.
Dr. Evans. I have no further points to make here, sir, except that I think this explanation is full. I think all of these are justified. They are basic Library of Congress operations. We try to give the workload data here where we have it. I will be glad to answer any questions.
Mr. HORAN. As far as I am concerned, with the subcommittee's permission--we are on page 26-I think Mr. Bow had a question to ask regarding this.
Dr. EVANS. Sir, we have developed in the Library of Congress in the past 25 years a great service on the Far East, beginning with China, going on to Japan, to some extent going further, to India, Indonesia, Indochina, other southeastern Asian areas. There is not included very much work in the field of law. Some material in law has come in, but we have not had the specialists without which one cannot make intelligent selections of material. You cannot describe what material you want unless you have a specialist; and it is to strengthen our operations there and make a beginning on far eastern law that we have asked for these three positions. We believe
Mr. Bow. You get a good bit of material now in the Library on Far East law that has not been cataloged.
Dr. Evans. That is right, and no one who is expert enough to read the local language material.
Mr. KEITT. We have about 20,000 volumes in far eastern law and about 16,000, I estimate, are in the languages of the far eastern countries, and that great portion of the far eastern law is in a pitiable state.
Mr. Bow. I think Mr. Gary would agree with me that a knowledge of the laws of Korea, the Philippines, and Japan and other Far East countries may be quite necessary to us in this country.
Mr. Keitt. It is now, sir. We get quite a demand for it now, and I do not think the demand has been satisfied.
Mr. Bow. If this Far Eastern Law Division is set up, will we be faced then with larger appropriation in the future or do you think this would be a pretty stable appropriation?
Mr. KEITT. I can answer that right off as far as buying books is concerned to increase the collection, that we are not asking for any increase for far eastern lawbooks in our book appropriation.
Mr. Bow. I was looking into the future.
Mr. Keitt. Looking into the future, we feel with our regular appropriations, as we go along, we will be able to acquire the necessary material.
Mr. Bow. How do you feel about the three positions? Do you feel that that would be sufficient to carry from this point on?
Mr. KEITT. I think so. A lot of work is work that should have been done a long time ago and when that work is done, it will release to some extent the time of those people to take care of any additional work which comes along so we do not anticipate any mushrooming of staff in far eastern law.
Mr. Bow. May I ask this question? Do you receive many inquiries now from members of the bar and judges throughout the country on questions of law?
Mr. KEITT. Yes, we do. The American Bar Association passed a resolution in 1950 on the basis of their survey of far eastern law in this country and they came up with a resolution recommending the the establishment of a far eastern law section in the Library of Congress. Only a little over a month ago the Judicial Conference of the United States passed this resolution:
It is the sense of the Conference that the establishment of a far eastern law center in the Library of Congress would be of aid to the courts and bar.
Now, the importance of the far eastern law library is that there is not any such library in the other agencies of the Government as there is in the case of Anglo-American law. I would say we have probably the largest collection in the United States already and it is inadequate and this is the only comprehensive collection to serve the Government. It is our feeling that since it is the only such collection and since this area is of increasing importance, we ought to do something about it and get the collection we have in shape for use and increase the collection for additional use.
Mr. Bow. Are there any private libraries or other law libraries in the country that have this material now available?
Mr. KEITT. Harvard has a collection of far eastern law, and there are a few other places, such as Columbia, but it is not immediately available for use by the Government and the number of foreign law collections in the United States is so small that we feel that there is not a sufficiency of information for lawyers in and out of the Government to meet with the problems that are raised by our activities in in the Far East. The MSA, for example, uses the library a lot, making a lot of legal inquiries. We have had requests from the United Nations, Export Bank, Office of International Trade, Office of International Finance, State Department, and International Bank; and of course, Congress itself has wanted laws of the Far East and the collections we have are not in shape to meet many of those demands promptly and the collections themselves are not complete enough to meet all demands. So our recommendation is that we have some legally trained people with linguistic competence to organize the collection and implement the collection and make it available for use
Mr. HORAN. May I at this point ask you why the Harvard Law Library is not available to the Library of Congress?
Mr. Keitt. It is, on interlibrary loan. If a person came in to the Library of Congress and could not find something, we would inquire if Harvard had it and then request a loan. There has always been an excellent working relation between the Library of Congress and Harvard.
Mr. Horan. I am not being critical. You understand the Library of Congress exists for the people through the legislative branch.
If this amount is allowed, and I favor it as my colleague from Ohio does, and I think as you have pointed out since we are involved in the Far East, we had better know something about their strange laws over there. But if it is allowed, what will be the operation? You will accept the findings, I hope, of other institutions that have already made a study of this thing. You will catalog it. You will analyze it, and you will make it available.
Dr. Evans. We will deliberately search it out.
Mr. Horan. I would like to point out also that this is going to be an increasing item, or is it going to remain static as Mr. Bow inquired?
Dr. Evans. We do not anticipate a great increase. We cannot say there will not be 5 people in 10 years instead of 3, but we do not anticipate asking you for an increase in the near future, and we also think we can absorb the cost of the books as part of our regular book program. We are asking for an increase in the book fund to offset the rising prices of books, but we do not intend to ask you for additional money for these books. We will take care of the problem by internal adjustment of our appropriation for law books.
Mr. HorAn. I think we would like to go through this. On the Copyright you are asking for an increase of $32,751. I believe it is pretty well justified here.
Mr. Fisher. We had in the month of April a 30-percent increase in fees and volume of business, and in May a 22-percent increase over our estimates. We had estimated an increase of 2% percent for the fiscal year 1953 over 1952, and 5 percent for the 2 years, but it now looks as if we will run nearly 10 percent for 1 year. All copyright fees are transmitted for deposit in the Treasury and will more than finance the increase requested.
Mr. HORAN. I have no further questions. I know the subcommittee has always been kind to the Copyright Department.
Dr. Evans. It is a very efficient operation, Mr. Chairman. We are proud of it.
Mr. Chairman, there is one thing that I would like to emphasize. We did not cover it, but on page 20 that first group of positions represents a serious breakdown situation in our reference work. I hope the committee will be tenderhearted to us there, as regards the first group of positions.
Mr. HORAN. That is general reader service.
Dr. Evans. We have peeled that down and cut it down until really
Mr. WAGMAN. Let me give you one example of the sort of thing it is supposed to correct. When we have books requested from our shelves, 1 in every 6 is not where it should be. We could find 90 percent of those books if we had the personnel to do these things. The reason that rate is so high is because in many years we have not had the personnel to do what we call reading of 'shelves, seeing to it that books are in their rightful places. When you have 9 million books, you can readily see how easy it is to lose books by misplacing them. Unless we can undertake this very essential, basic operation in library management, the trouble really grows. We hope these jobs will correct that sort of bad housekeeping situation.
Dr. Evans. The positions to handle materials in special forms present almost the same situation. I would like to call attention also to the fact that we are transferring to this appropriation from the "Blind appropriation,” if you approve it, some people we think are more properly placed here.
Now, Mr. Chairman, unless there are other questions, I am ready for the Legislative Reference Service.
LEGISLATIVE REFERENCE SERVICE
Mr. Horan. This is Dr. Ernest Griffith's department. I want to personally express my appreciation for a couple of jobs done in the past year.
I notice that you have an increase of $85,600 here.
Mr. Gary. I think we are indebted to Dr. Griffith's department, Mr. Chairman. I know I am.
Dr. Evans. We are trying to make it, sir, as a policy of the administration of the Library, our most useful and finest service for Congress and we would like to be tested by our work in the Legislative Reference