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if someone buys a publication that tells how to remove stains from fabric and the formula eats holes in the fabric, we refer his complaint to the issuing department. We have no authority over what is issued and the content of the publications that are issued. We do determine whether or not we shall place a new publication on sale and we only place on sale things that we think we can get our investment back and a little bit more. So our function is limited to placing something on sale after it has already been issued by another Government agency.

Mr. BUSBEY. Then the complaint should be against the agencies originating the copy, rather than the Government Printing Office. Is that your position?

Mr. EAstin. Many people complain to us but our position is that it should go to other Government agencies.

Mr. Busby. Much of the complaint lies in the fact that the prices charged for the documents do not take into consideration the cost of preparing these various books and publications by these agencies of Government-their overhead and the payroll of their staffs for the time spent in research and in compiling the information.

Mr. Eastin. We charge only for the extra cost of running the sales copies plus 50 percent. That is established by law.

Mr. BUSBEY. I realize this is out of your jurisdiction, but I think it is well to call attention to it. I notice the following: Plumbing Manual, Paint Manual, Expansible Farm Houses.

Mr. HORAN. I am responsible for that last one.

Mr. COLE. All of those books represent a tremendous amount of exploration and investigation by some Government agency. The printing is the end result of a terrific amount of background work. Your farm houses and that type of thing are certainly of vital interest to the farmers and since the Government has already spent the money on the investigations, the preparation, that is how it finally finds its way to us for printing.

Mr. Horan. I might say for the benefit of the subcommittee we on the subcommittee that appropriates for the Department of Agriculture take the position there is no point to our spending billions of dollars for research and not get the results of that research to the people sometimes the answers and statements are silly. My colleague from California, Mr. Hunter, read a manual where it said, you want to have a dishpan big enough to hold the dishes and a sink big enough to put the dishpan in and they thought that was rather superfluous. Some of these are not good but some of them are in tremendous demand. Long past have we run out of ! Keeping Livestock Healthy” because this book went out in areas where we have a great deficiency of veterinarians and it is a manual that has belped some of our livestock people save their herds and their flocks.

Mr. BUSBEY. I am not criticizing every one.
Mr. Horan. There are some silly ones.

Mr. Busbey. I think this is a field that some subcommittee or committee could explore in trying to balance the budget.

Mr. HORAN. We cut all the appropriations for bulletins in the Department of Agriculture this year and they are now going over all of the lists and they are weeding out those that are outdated and which are obsolete and are silly. That is being done. We are printing a smaller yearbook. We made quite a saving there.

Mr. Cole. Which is precisely the reason the Public Printer says he can get along without the requested $5 million increase because We have been getting preliminary surveys from these agencies as to what their expected volume might be next year. It is that type of thing that suggests that we can make it on $10 million instead of the $15 million loan we asked for.

Mr. Busbey. You circularize this list once every 2 weeks? No wonder there is a deficit in the Post Office Department.

Mr. Eastin. These people constitute primary users of Government
documents who are on this particular list that Mr. Busbey mentioned.

Mr. Busber. If we eliminated the franking privilege for Federal
agencies and Members of Congress, I think we could operate the Post
Office Department at a profit.
Mr. Horan. It might be said that if it was not for us Congressmen,
the Post Office Department would go broke because everybody writes
to his Congressman.
Mr. BLATTENBERGER. I found that out, sir.

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Mr. Bow. I would like to make this observation, Mr. Chairman. Perhaps these gentlemen have seen it, but I made a survey in my district last year of people who had received free copies of Government publications. They were asked for an evaluation of the books, and whether they thought they ought to pay for them. An over

whelming majority of the people who answered, and many people did TS

answer it, said they thought they ought to pay for them. It seems to me it is about time we get realistic and start charging for many of these publications and the charges should cover not only printing but some of the research and editing costs.

Mr. Busbey. I think the program of distributing so many things gratis is ridiculous.

Mr. Horan, My yearbooks are limited, and I have run out of copies. I have had more requests than ever for the whole library going clear back to 1939. I am out of most of them now; and I got from your Office the cost of those and in answering the mail I say, "I am enclosing under separate cover such and such yearbook, but the other ones are not in my possession. You can get them from the Public Printer for so much, and it is listed in the bulletin what the figures are.” What are your present figures on that? Some of those books are really good.

Mr. EASTIN. Mr. Chairman, of the 1942 yearbook, Keeping Live

stock Healthy, which we sell for $2.25, we have sold 63,264 copies. help of the 1943-47, Science in Farming, which we sell for $2.25, we have

sold 32,066 copies. Of the 1949 book, Grass, which sells for $2, we have sold 35,205 copies. Of the 1949 yearbook, Trees, which is also $2, we have sold 40,850 copies. Of the 1950–51, Crops in Peace and War, at $2.50, we have sold only 8,450. And the 1952, Insects, which sells for $2.50, we have sold 30,061 copies.

Mr. Horan. A tremendous demand. Mr. Eastin. Keeping Livestock Healthy has sold more than the others. It has also been out longer than the others.

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Mr. HORAN. Insects came out about 18 months ago.

Mr. Eastin. We have already sold 30,061 copies. It is in great demand.

REASONS FOR INCREASE IN APPROPRIATIONS

Mr. Bow. I had one further question. I notice that back in 1948, your appropriation was only $1,691,000. Today, 1953, it is $2,817,000 better than $1,100,000 more. Can you briefly relate what has caused that increase?

Mr. EAstin. In preparing our general statement, we brought out the fact that in the last 5 years the number of sales orders that we have received has increased 37 percent, dollar value of our sales has increased 58 percent, and the number of our employees has actually decreased 374 percent.

Now our appropriations are greater because the employees are receiving more money through salary increases but we have actually reduced the unit cost of handling a sale by 6 percent. We have been faced with a tremendous growth and interest in Government publishing. In the last 10 years, there has been almost a tripling, in fact, I think the number of orders has more than tripled, so we are faced with a greater and greater interest on the part of the citizens in the publications issued by the Government. This is at a time that reading and printing are supposed to be fading into the lost arts and giving way to radio, television, and movies, but in the field of Government publishing, there is a tremendous growing interest on the part of the public in the issuances of the Federal Government. We are faced with a constantly growing workload.

Mr. BUSBEY. If they want the publication and the service, they ought to be made to pay for it.

Mr. Bow. Then you attribute this better than million dollar increase in 5 years to salaries?

Mr. EASTIN. There has been considerable increase in salaries but we are

Mr. Bow. What portion of it would be salaries?

Mr. Eastin. I believe I can tell you that in a couple of minutes from the figures we have. But even paying higher salaries we have fewer employees on the rolls. There is no question that a considerable portion of it is in materials. Every envelope which we send out is costing a great deal more than it did in 1948. I do not believe I have that breakdown with me, Mr. Bow, going that far back. I thought I had.

Mr. Bow. Can you break that down for me and furnish it to me?
Mr. Eastin. Would you like it put in the record?
Mr. HORAN. Yes.
(The information requested is as follows:)

Increase in appropriations 1948–53, $1,125,620; of this amount, $588,620 is for salaries and the remaining $537,000 for general expenses.

PAYMENT FOR PUBLICATIONS Mr. Eastin. I would like to state that we are quite aware of the survey

which Mr. Bow made. We wrote a letter about it which he put in the Congressional Record, and we are very much in sympathy with his point of view because in many cases we are catering to a

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l'sucker" clientele. The person who writes to us for a publication has to pay its cost plus 50 percent; if he writes to the Government agency which issued it, in many instances he can get the copy free. So we are carrying on a continual missionary program with Government agencies pointing out the values which we think come through the sales program. We think it is good for the Government agency. If they do not give publications away, they can save that much out of their printing appropriation. If they make a person buy a publication, he cannot accuse the agency of propagandizing him. If a person pays even a small sum for a publication, there is reason to believe he is more apt to read it than if it comes to him in the mail free. So we are very much in sympathy with the views expressed by Mr. Bow.

Mr. Busber. I am glad to hear you say that because I just happen to be one of these peculiar individuals höre in the House who do believe no Member of Congress should be given any free copy of any printed material. They ought to pay for everything they get. I think it is ridiculous to give allotments of all these baby books and this book and other books to Members of Congress, Mr. Bow. I say to the gentleman from Illinois that after I had made that survey and put it in the record, I received a letter from the Public Printer agreeing with what I had to say about it, and I also put that in the Record so that it would be there. I think we must go further and let us charge a price for not only the printing and paper but other material and work that has gone into making up that publication. If it is worth that at all, it is worth paying that for service.

Mr. Eastin. I should not like any of my remarks to be construed as being critical of the Congress.

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CALENDARS

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Mr. Horan. There was some discussion at one time about the calendars that we get, with the pictures on them. We probably have one here. What is the cost of printing those calendars. Mr. Cole. The calendars that you get here with the picture of the Capitol on them is a special job that comes out especially for Congress. The regular departmental calendar is run on a plain board or with no board, with no picture. The Capitol picture is a special deal for the Congress and you pay for it out of this appropriation that we are trying to justify today. (A statement on calendars follows:)

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DEPARTMENTAL CALENDARS

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The standardization of wall calendars for all agencies of Government was initiated as an economy measure as a result of suggestions by the Public Printer to the Permanent Conference on Printing at its November meeting in 1921.

The Permanent Conference on Printing was the first coordinating agency organized under the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, the plan having bee. proposed to the President in a letter from the Public Printer under date of July 7, `1921. This suggestion was promptly approved and the Director of the Budget, General Dawes, issued a circular (No. 14) dated July 22, 1921, calling a preliminary meeting of printing representatives of the Government. Out of this beginning the Permanent Conference on Printing was formed, chairmanned by the Public Printer. The purpose of the Conference was to effect economies in printing through standardization and elimination of waste.

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At the November 1921 meeting of this Conference the Public Printer proposed the adoption of a uniform calendar for use by all branches of the Government “instead of the score or more of st "les which had been printed for many years at needless expense.' The Conference agreed upon a uniform calendar for all departments and field services, size 114 by 1274 inches, in two colors, and 9 by 10 inches, without the expensive pictures and embellishments theretofore gracing nearly all Government calendars. The annual saving at that time was estimated to be $5,000. The Conference recommended that this economy be made permanent.

The Joint Committee on Printing, by resolution, directed that wall calendars could not be purchased elsewhere than from the Government Printing Office and that a standard calendar without special printing would be furnished. In the Government Printing and Binding Regulations published by the Joint Committee on Printing under date of July 1, 1952, the following appears: "Standardized Government wall calendars are the only calendars which departments and agencies are authorized to obtain at Government expense, and shall be ordered from the Government Printing Office on standard form No. 1 not later than October 1."

The use by Government agencies of advertising calendars might be calculated to result in criticisms because of the nature of illustrations or advertising matter thereon. If each individual agency were permitted to purchase calendars manufactured to their own specifications, or as stock items, there would be no uniformity of styles and sizes and either of these actions would, I believe, result in much larger expenditures for calendars. The standard calendar, produced at one time for all agencies, affords an economy for the Government that I believe should be continued. This is simply an example of the economies that result from standardization.

If the present standardized calendar were abandoned, many types of calendars would be used by the Government. This is evidenced by the fact that the style of the calendars is the subject of a great deal of mild controversy within the Government. On the one hand there is strong resistance to change because of frames and holders that are allegedly used for the standard size; on the other hand the Government Printing Office receives a regular flow of suggestions for changes and claimed improvements. These include: Three months on each page, 12 months on a page, larger calendars, smaller calendars, looseleaf design, 12 months on 6 leaves (twin leaf for following month), consecutive numbering of 365 days, 12 months of equal length, calendars with devices to indicate "today," and the printing of “The American's Creed” on each day's leaf, so that employees of the Government will learn to recite it before beginning work.

Further economies have been effected in recent years through reduction in the size of the 112 by 1242 calendar to 119 by 956 and the 9 by 10 calendar to 84 by 7%, affording more economical production as well as a reduction in paper requirements.

At the last printing of the calendar the number of leaves was reduced from 12 to 8, utilizing both sides of the sheet, providing a turnover feature to do away with tearing off leaves, and eliminating the cardboard back to which the leaves were previously stitched.

In order to provide for the 3-on form of calendar used by many agencies, it was necessary to devise a method of attaching the new calendar pad with the fold-over feature. A standard-stock hook was discovered which served the purpose.

The new calendar saves a large part of the cost of imposition, reduced paper use by nearly one-half, and cuts down the cost of printing. The board back for three-on calendars can be reused indefinitely. By this latest plan the saving on 300,000 calendars was approximately $9,000, and on 15,000 3-on calendars approxi, mately $500. But if the 15,000 boards are reused there will be a further annual saving of more than $3,000.

CALENDAR ORDERS

Once each year the Government Printing Office asks all agencies to submit their requisitions for such calendars as they may need for the following year. After receipt of requisitions the number to be printed is determined.

Special calendars, neatly mounted on lined binders board, with an illustration of the Capitol are ordered by the Senate and the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives calendar employs the old standard 12-leaf calendar pad, size 11% by 9516 inches and is mounted on 1244 by 18-inch board. The Senate uses a different illustration, has the calendar pad printed to its own specifications in size 834 by 7% inches and mounted on 942 by 1492.

The House of Representatives ordered 15,600 calendars in all. Fifteen thousand were mounted with illustration. Six hundred pads were ordered unmounted.

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