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people were dictating to 1 apparatus, writing letters to dealers abroad.
We find it a very efficient method of getting our letters written, and
with hundred of dealers all over the world, the Order Division, for
example, finds it a very useful machine to have.
Mr. Busbey. Have you tried a central control dictating system?

Mr. ClApp. Yes; we have, but we gave it up because it involved too large an initial expense, and seemed to require a typing pool, which we do not have. In the past we have tried to develop a typing pool, but we found it less efficient than present methods. We have what we call a typing reserve, but it is not a typing pool. It is in the secretary's office, and it is overloaded.


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Mr. Wagman. I would like to make two minor amendments, on page 137 under "Motion picture equipment.”

We requested 2 film numbering machines, which we have decided since the estimates were presented that we can get along without.

Also, we requested 4 moviolas. We have been able to borrow 2 of those machines on long-term loan, and can get along with 2. That will reduce the estimate by 2.



I would like to speak in behalf of the request for fluorescent desk lamps. The Library of Congress suffers from inadequate lighting. The lighting is very much below the standards of lighting engineers,

I would like to request your earnest consideration of our request for replacement of lighting fixtures at main reading room desks. The lighting at the present time is inadequate, and readers find it a very great contrast to the lighting they get in most modern buildings.

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Mr. Kirwan. May I ask a question? You said at one time you had 7 men dictating in 1 machine, and you said they were writing letters to people all over the world. How many books do you buy from foreign agencies?

Mr. ClApp. One hundred and forty thousand pieces a year, of
Mr. Kirwan. In our own country how many do you buy?
Mr. Clapp

. Very few; probably less than 1,000. We get them by
Mr. KIRWAN. How many do you get a year?
Mr. Clapp. Thirty-six thousand.
Mr. Kirwan. And 140,000 from abroad. That is 170,000 a year.
How long do you think it will be, at that rate, before you will have
to build another annex to the Library!

Mr. Clapp. We hope we shall never ask you to build another annex, but we will have to ask you for some cheap warehouse space.

Mr. Kirwan. You will have to get a warehouse or you cannot continue to get 170,000 books a year. And if you get a warehouse, it will be a tremendous thing in a few years. Mr. Clapp. I would say it is tremendous now. Mr. Kinwan. But think what it will be in a few more years.

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Mr. Busbey. Is there any check made on books to eliminate books not called for in 5 years or so, or do you put them on the shelf and keep them for eternity?

Mr. CLAPP. We get rid of duplicates. The gentleman mentioned a book a while ago and said it was the only copy we had. It is possible at 1 time we had a half dozen copies and have disposed of all but 1. This is a common occurrence with us. However, with respect to that last copy, we would not ordinarily dispose of it, even if there was no evidence of its having been used for 5, 10, or 15 years, because we feel it is our responsibility to keep 1 copy for the use of anybody in the country after the other libraries may have disposed of it.

Mr. BUSBEY. I suppose this is a question that should be asked the Librarian when he is here tomorrow, but 140,000 books a year from foreign countries is certainly a great many. It seems to me that you may be getting some that might as well not be taking up room on library shelves.

Mr. CLAPP. When I say 140,000, I mean pieces of material-newspapers, pamphlets, everything. It is difficult to count library material. Where does a piece of music stop and a book start? It has been traditional to call anything under 99 pages a pamphlet, but we get a lot of pieces less than 99 pages. So we call everything pieces. The 140,000 pieces may boil down, in the course of binding into volumes, to maybe 20,000 volumes. I am making a guess.

Mr. BUSBEY. As Mr. Kirwan says, the way the printing presses are running, if you continue getting books at that rate we will have to build another annex. And it takes a lot of money to catalog and handle that many books.

Mr. CLAPP. That is true, and we have found no way of stopping the printing presses.

Mr. WAGMAN. The Library of Congress has taken pride in having material that is little used. For example, not many years ago we hardly ever had a request for a publication about Korea. If we had waited until there was this emergency reason for interest in Korea, we never could have been able to get that information on the country. It really is our job to anticipate as best we can—and heaven knows we are not infallible-to anticipate what needs there may be, and to have those things not procurable at ordinary libraries.

Mr. BUSBEY. I am willing to concede your point, but I hope too much emphasis is not being placed on quantity instead of quality.

Mr. CLAPP. We are very selective. We have a selection officer, who has an assistant, whose job is to go over the material that comes in and make sure nothing comes in beyond that point that is not wanted, in order to save handling of unneeded material, because even the handling of it is expensive.

Mr. Horan. Any further questions?

Mr. CLAPP. The sprinkler system and the refrigeration equipment, if I might add a few words to that.

Mr. HORAN. Yes.


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Mr. ClApp. On the refrigeration equipment, I think Mr. Lynn's memory is better than mine. It is my recollection that we had a replacement refrigeration system actually on order on Pearl Harbor Day in December 1941. It was actually on order to replace this equipment it is now proposed to replace. It was worn out then. We canceled our order in order to permit that equipment to go into the defense effort, and we have been getting along with this old plant ever since. It is dangerous. It is an ammonia system, which is a hazard due to the danger of ammonia leaks, and it is right next to the cafeteria. I ask your consideration.

Mr. HENLOCK. That item is explained on page 125 of the justifications.

Mr. Gary. Where is that used? In the cafeteria?
Mr. CLAPP. No. The present plant is adjacent to the cafeteria, but
the proposal is to move the new installation away from the cafeteria.

SALARIES AND EXPENSES, BOTANIC GARDEN Mr. Horan. If there are no further questions on that item, we will take up "Salaries and expenses, Botanic Garden."

Mr. Henlock. Page 79 of the committee print, and page 141 of the justification, which we ask to have inserted in the record along with

page 147.

(The statements referred to follow:)

$218, 500

Salaries and expenses, Botanic Garden 1953 appropriation in annual act.. Deductions: Demolition and removal of small conservatory and adjoining structure from reservation 6-B, bounded by Canal St. and Independence Ave. and 2d St

-- 2, 000

216, 500

Base for 1954.
Within-grade salary advancements.

Cost of reallocation of positions as result of a classification

survey conducted by the Civil Service Commission.. 2, 100


Total estimate for 1954.

221, 000



The Botanic Garden was placed under the Architect of the Capitol as Acting Director on July 3, 1934. The efforts exerted to develop the garden as an activity of deep interest to horticulturists, botanists, students, garden-club members, and general public have attained highly satisfactory and progressive results. The fact is evidenced by the following record of the number of visitors to the main Botanic Garden Conservatory during the period 1934–53:

Number of Period: From July 1, 1934 to June 30, 1935-Actual count

116, 806 From July 1, 1935 to June 30, 1936-----do--

127, 074 From July 1, 1936 to June 30, 1937 ---do

193, 460 From July 1, 1937 to June 30, 1938 ---do..

271, 517 From July 1, 1938 to June 30, 1939 --do...

308, 331 From July 1, 1939 to June 30, 1940 ---do--

343, 451 From July 1, 1940 to June 30, 1941

377, 801 From July 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942 ._do...

337, 701 From July 1, 1942 to June 30, 1943— Estimated.

159, 429 From July 1, 1943 to June 30, 1944-.


133, 088 From July 1, 1944 to June 30, 1945 ---do..

178, 148 From July 1, 1945 to June 30, 1946 --do.

233, 217 From July 1, 1946 to June 30, 1947-Actual count

226, 082 From July 1, 1947 to June 30, 1948 -do..

189, 517 From July 1, 1948 to June 30, 1949 do..

214, 224 From July 1, 1949 to June 30, 1950 -do..

245, 244 From July 1, 1950 to June 30, 1951 do.

274, 353 From July 1, 1951 to June 30, 1952 -do.

249, 207 From July 1, 1952 to Dec. 31, 1952 --do...

119, 205 Seasonal displays include chrysanthemums, acacias, azaleas, Easter lilies, tulips, narcissus, poinsettias, bromelias, and orchids.

Work of the gardens in the public interest last year included answering approximately 1,000 inquiries concerning plant identifications and method of growing.

Mr. HENLOCK. There is a net increase of $2,500. Last year we were given $2,000 for the removal of a small conservatory and adjoining structures from reservation 6-B, bounded by Canal Street and Independence Avenue and Second Street. There was a very congested traffic situation in that area, which has been materially relieved by removal of those structures.

There is an increase of $4,500, consisting of within-grade salary advancements, $2,400, under the Classification Act, and $2,100 as cost of reallocation of positions as result of a classification survey conducted by the Civil Service Commission.

The details of the other items are on pages 144-146 of the justification. Page 146 shows how the expenditures will be made for plant material, which is the largest of those items.

Page 147 gives the account of the number of visitors to the gardens annually. I might call attention to the fact that Mr. Lynn has been Acting Director since 1934.

Mr. HENLOCK. Mr. Frederick is here, if the committee wishes to ask any questions concerning the actual operations.

Mr. HORAN. We are very glad to have you. Please give us your full title for the record.

Mr. FREDERICK. Mr. Chairman, I am the landscape architect and horticulturist.

Mr. HORAN. And you have charge of the Botanic Gardens?

Mr. FREDERICK. Yes, I serve as Mr. Lynn's representative in the operation; also, I am in charge of the Capitol Grounds.

Mr. HORAN. You have charge of the Capitol Grounds.
Mr. FREDERICK. Yes. I am very happy to be with the committee.


Mr. Horan. Mr. Frederick, coming back from a trip to Beltsville the other day with some of my colleagues on a subcommittee, as we approached the Capitol Grounds my attention was called to the fact that we had a lot of trees with no name plates on them, and sometimes it is difficult to distinguish one from the other. Are those troublesome to maintain?

Mr. FREDERICK. No. I might say, Mr. Chairman, that we did not intend to have a nameplate on every tree in the Capitol Grounds. For instance, where there are 3 or 5 trees of 1 variety, we put 1 or 2 labels on them. Not all of the trees are labeled. We usually just label a sufficient number so there can be no confusion when looking at the trees, the individual trees.

Mr. Horan. The only difficulty is that you have to look at the right tree of a given variety to know what the rest of them are.

Mr. FREDERICK. Last year we put practically every label in the shop on trees, that is, last summer. Mr. Lynn. How many red oaks do we have? Mr. FREDERICK. We have a great many, some 800 red oaks. Mr. Horan. I have been embarrassed, sometimes, Mír. Frederick, when visitors ask me the name of some particular tree.

Mr. FredERICK. May I say, Mr. Chairman, that we made an exception in putting out red oaks in the new area of the Capitol Grounds. We have a great variety of trees in the old Capitol Grounds. When the Capitol Grounds were enlarged, my recommendation to the Architect of the Capitol was that we should not put in too many elm trees. I felt that Washington was more or less overpopulated by elm trees. Their life is not as long as that of an oak. The cost of the original planting is about the same. But I felt having the oak trees would be helpful, particularly so if we ever had a bad infection of Dutch elm disease in this area. The oaks are not subject to that disease. I am very happy now that I made that recommendation at the time.


Mr. Horan. While we were on the subject of the Capitol Grounds, particularly with reference to the area around Independence Avenue, down between the Botanic Gardens and the intersection of the avenue which comes in there

Mr. FREDERICK. Delaware Avenue.

Mr. Horan. Yes. The volume of traffic has become increasingly heavy.

Mr. FREDERICK. Yes. That is true from South Capitol Street all the way down to First Street, which is a bottleneck.

Mr. Horan. Is there any possible way of improving that situation, to remove the traffic hazard?

Mr. FREDERICK. Mr. Chairman, there has been a lot of discussion with reference to that improvement, and the suggestion has been made, I believe, to take the land off of the Capitol side. On the other side we find the Labor Building.

Mr. Lynn. The National Capital Park and Planning Commissiou has a plan for the widening of Independence Avenue. Mr. HORAN. That would involve the destruction of some traus.


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