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and (4) work to be performed in emergency situations.

(c) Limitation. Because this type of contract does not encourage effective cost control and requires almost constant Government surveillance, It may be used only after determination that no other type of contract will suitably serve. This type of contract shall establish a ceiling price which the contractor exceeds at his own risk. The contracting officer shall document the contract file to show valid reasons for any change in the ceiling and to support the amount of such change.

(d) Optional method of pricing material. When the nature of the work to be performed requires the contractor to furnish material which is regularly sold to the general public in the normal course of business by the contractor, the contract may provide for charging material on a basis other than at cost if:

<l) The total estimated contract price does not exceed $25,000 or the estimated price of material so charged does not eiceed twenty percent of the estimated contract price:

<2> The material to be so charged is identified in the contract;

13> No element of profit on material so charged is included in the profit in the fixed hourly labor rates; and

>4> The contract provides that the price to be paid for such material shall be on the basis of an established catalog or list price, in effect when material is furnished, less all applicable discounts to the Government, but in no event shall such price be in excess of the contractor's sales price to his most favored customer for the same item in like quantity, or the current market price, whichever is lower.

§ 1-3.406-2 Labor-hour contract.

»»> Description. The labor-hour type of contract is a variant of the time and materials type contract differing only in that materials are not supplied by the contractor.

'b> Application. See § 1-3.406-1 (b).

•c> Limitations. See ! 1-3.406-1 (c).

i 1-3.407 Additional incentives. I 1-3.407-1 General.

In addition to the profit incentives to control costs, inherent in many of the contract types, and combinations thereof, described in |§ 1-3.404 through 1-3.406. there are other means of pro

viding profit incentives to contractors, which are described in this § 1-3.407, to obtain extra management attention and effort. Increases in profits or fees resulting from the use of incentive provisions are made only because cost, performance, or other contractual goals or standards have been surpassed.

§ 1—3.407—2 Contracts with performance incentives.

(a) Description. A contract with a performance incentive is one which incorporates an incentive to the contractor to surpass stated performance targets by providing for increases in the fee or profit to the extent that such targets are surpassed and for decreases to the extent that such targets are not met. Salient features and considerations in the use of this type of contract are as follows:

(1) "Performance", as used in this § 1-3.407-2, refers not only to the performance of the article being procured, but to the performance of the contractor as well. Performance which is the minimum which the Government will accept shall be mandatory under the terms of the Completion form contract and shall warrant only the minimum profit or fee related thereto. Performance which meets the stated targets will warrant the "target" profit or fee. Performance which surpasses these targets will be rewarded by additional profit or fee. The incentive feature (providing for increases or decreases, as appropriate) is applied to performance targets rather than performance requirements.

(2) The incentive, when applied to the product, should relate to specific performance characteristics, such as range of a missile, speed of an aircraft or ship, thrust of an engine, maneuverability of a vehicle, and fuel economy. However, high overall performance of the end item is the primary objective of such contracts. Accordingly, the incentive feature should reflect a balancing of the various characteristics which together account for overall performance, so that no one characteristic will be exaggerated to the detriment of the end item as a whole. When applied to the performance of the contractor, the incentive should relate to specific performance areas or milestones, such as delivery or test schedules, quality controls, maintenance requirements, and reliability standards.

(3) Since performance tests generally are essential in order to determine the degree of attainment of performance targets, the contract must be as specific as possible in establishing test criteria, such as conditions of testing, precision of instrumentation, and interpretation of test data.

(4) It is essential that there be explicit agreement between the Government and the contractor as to the effect on performance of contract changes (e.g., pursuant to the Changes clause).

(5) Care must be exercised, in establishing performance criteria, to give recognition to the fact that the contractor should not be rewarded or penalized for attainments of Governmentfurnished components.

(6) In establishing Incentives in connection with delivery schedules, it Is Important to determine the Government's primary objectives in a given contract. In some instances, earliest possible delivery is of paramount importance. In others, early quantity production is essential. On the other hand, it may be that maintaining an established delivery schedule is all that is desired, and that a bettering of such schedule may disrupt continuity of production or run counter to funding limitations.

(b) Application. Contracts with performance incentives are suitable for use In procurements where it is desired to provide the contractor with an incentive in the form of financial reward for surpassing stated performance targets, counterbalanced by a penalty in the form of decreased profit or fee for failure to achieve such targets. Performance incentives are particularly appropriate for Inclusion in contracts for major weapons and equipment, both in development when desired performance objectives are known and the fabrication of prototypes for test and evaluation is required, and in production where there is potential for Improved performance that would be highly desirable to the Government. Effort always should be made in these procurement situations to Include a performance incentive in the contract. Performance incentives present complex problems in contract administration and should be negotiated and administered by contracting officers with the full cooperation of Government engineering and pricing specialists.

(c) Limitations. (1) Performance!] centives, when related to the perforn ance of the product, may result: increased costs and shall always 1 coupled with a balancing of range > fee or profit on the cost and performani aspects, negotiated so as to give appn priate weight to basic procurement ol Jectives. Where incentives relating the performance of the product a included in a contract, and earliest Pc sible delivery is of considerable impo tance to the Government, the contra normally should include a perfonnan incentive relating to time of performan or for expedited delivery schedules.

(2) In the case of cost-reimburseme: type contracts involving a fee, the mas mum fee shall be subject to the limit! tions stated in § l-3.405-5(c) (2).

§ 1-3.408 Letter contract.

<a) Definition. A letter contract a written preliminary contractual ii strument which authorizes immedia commencement of manufacture of pro] erty, or performance of services, Inclui ing, but not limited to, preproductic planning, and the procurement of ne essary materials.

(b) Application. A letter contra may be entered into when (1) the U terests of the Government demand th; the contractor be given a binding con mitment so that work can be commend immediately, and (2) negotiation of definitive contract in sufficient time meet the procurement need is not po sible. as, for example, when the natu of the work involved prevents the prei aration of definitive requirements, spe iflcatlons, or cost data.

(c) Limitations. (1) A letter contra shall be used only after a determinatii in accordance with agency procedui that no other type of contract Is suitab

(2) A letter contract shall not entered into without competition wh< competition is practicable. Where letter contract award is based on pri competition, an overall price celling shi be Included in the letter contract.

(3) A letter contract shall be supe seded by a definitive contract at tl earliest practicable date. Execut: agencies shall prescribe the limitatio as to the period of effectiveness of lett contracts.

(4) The maximum liability of tl Government stated in the letter contra eenerally shall not exceed fifty percent of the total estimated cost of the procurement, but this liability may be Increased in accordance with agency procedures.

(d) Content. Letter contracts shall be specifically negotiated and, as a minimum shall include agreement as to the following:

(1) The immediate commencement of performance of the contract by the contractor, including procurement of necessary materials;

(2) The extent and method of payments in the event of termination either 'or the convenience of the Government or for default;

<3) That the contractor is not authorized to expend moneys or Incur obligations in excess of the maximum liability of the Government as stated In the letter contract;

(4) The type of definitive contract anticipated:

(5) As many definitive contract provisions as possible;

(6) The contractor's obligation to provide such price and cost information as may reasonably be required by the contracting officer; and

(7) The prompt entry into good faith negotiations by the contractor and the Government to reach agreement upon Md execute a definitive contract.

11-3.4O9 Indefinite delivery type contracts.

One of the following Indefinite delivery type contracts may be used for procurements where the exact time of delivery is not known at time of contracting.

la) Definite Quantity contract—(1) Description. This type of contract prortdes for a definite quantity of specified Property or for the performance of specified services for a fixed period, with leliveries or performance at designated locations upon order. Depending on the situation, the contract may provide for '!) firm fixed-prices, (ii) price escalation, or (ill) price redetermination.

'2) Application. This type of contract is particularly suitable for use 'here it is known in advance that a Infinite quantity of property or services IB be required during a specific period wd are regularly available or will be Bailable after a short lead time. Advantages of this type of contract are tat it permits stocks in storage depots

to be maintained at minimum levels and permits direct shipment to the user.

(b) Requirements contract—(1) Description. This type of contract provides for filling all actual purchase requirements of specific property or services of designated activities during a specified contract period with deliveries to be scheduled by the timely placement of orders upon the contractor by activities designated either specifically or by class. Depending on the situation, the contract may provide for (1) firm fixedprices, (ii) price escalation, or (ill) price redetermination. An estimated total quantity is stated for the information of prospective contractors, which estimate should be as realistic as possible. The estimate may be obtained from the records of previous requirements and consumption, or by other means. Care should be used In writing and administering this type of contract to avoid imposition of an impossible burden on the contractor. Therefore, the contract shall state, where feasible, the maximum limit of the contractor's obligation to deliver and, in such event, shall also contain appropriate provision limiting the Government's obligation to order. When large Individual orders or orders from more than one activity are anticipated, the contract may specify the maximum quantities which may be ordered under each individual order or during a specified period of time. Similarly, when small orders are anticipated, the contract may specify the minimum quantities to be ordered.

(2) Application. A requirements contract may be used for procurements where it is impossible to determine in advance the precise quantities of the property or services that will be needed by designated activities during a definite period of time. Advantages of this type of contract are:

(1) Flexibility with respect to both quantities and delivery scheduling;

(ii) Supplies or services need be ordered only after actual needs have materialized;

(ill) Where production lead time is involved, deliveries may be made more promptly because the contractor is usually willing to maintain limited stocks In view of the Government's commitment;

(iv) Price advantages or savings may be realized through combining several anticipated requirements into one quantity procurement; and

(v) It permits stocks to be maintained at minimum levels and allows direct shipment to the user. Generally, the requirements contract is appropriate for use when the item or service is commercial or modified commercial in type and when a recurring need is anticipated.

(c) Indefinite quantity contract—(1) Description. This type of contract provides for the furnishing of an indefinite quantity, within stated limits, of specific property or services, during a specified contract period, with deliveries to be scheduled by the timely placement of orders upon the contractor by activities designated either specifically or by class. Depending on the situation, the contract may provide for (i) firm fixed-prices, (ii) price escalation, or (ill) price redetermination. The contract shall provide that during the contract period the Government shall order a stated minimum quantity of the property or services and that the contractor shall furnish such stated minimum and, if and as ordered, any additional quantities not exceeding a stated maximum which should be as realistic as possible. The maximum may be obtained from the records of previous requirements and consumption, or by other means. When large individual orders or orders from more than one activity are anticipated, the contract may specify the maximum quantities which may be ordered under each individual order or during a specified period of time. Similarly, when • ''1 orders are anticipated, the contract aiay specify the minimum quantities to be ordered.

(2) Application. An indefinite quantity contract may be used where it is impossible to determine in advance the precise quantities of the property or services that will be needed by designated activities during a definite period of time and it is not advisable for the Government to commit Itself for more than a minimum quantity. Advantages of this type of contract are:

(i) Flexibility with respect to both quantities and delivery scheduling;

(ii) Property or services need be ordered only after actual needs have materialized;

(iii) The obligation of the Government is limited; and

(iv) It permits stocks to be maintain at minimum levels and allows din shipment to the user.

The indefinite quantity contract sha be used only when the item or ser» is commercial or modified commerc in type and when a recurring need

anticipated.

§ 1-3.410 Other types of agreemeal § 1-3.410-1 Basic agreement.

(a.) Description. A basic agreemenl, a written instrument of understand! executed between a procuring agent and a contractor which sets forth tl negotiated contract clauses which s« be applicable to future procuremen entered into between the parties durii the term of the basic agreement. T! use of the basic agreement conten plates the coverage of a particular pn curement by the execution of a form contractual document which will provit for the scope of the work, price, deliver and additional matters peculiar to tl requirement of the specific procuremei involved, and shall Incorporate by refei ence or append the contract clausi agreed upon in the basic agreement, i required or applicable.

(b) Application. (1) Basic agreement are appropriate for use when (i) pa; experience and future plans Indicate thi a substantial number of separate cor tracts may be entered into with a cor tractor during the term of the bas agreement, and (ii) substantial recui ring negotiating problems exist with particular contractor.

(2) A basic agreement shall i 'amended only by an amendment of tl

basic agreement itself and shall not t modified or superseded by indlvidui contracts or purchase orders entered inl under and subject to the terms of sue basic agreement. As a minimum, bas agreements will be reviewed annually c the anniversary of their effective d* and revised at that time to conform wit the current requirements of this chapte Amendments shall not have ret roact effect.

(3) Basic agreements shall provide fi discontinuance of their future applici tion upon 30 days written notice by eithi party. Discontinuance of a be* agreement will not affect any indlvldu contract referencing the basic agreemei (or the clauses appended thereto) ei tered into prior to the effective date of discontinuance.

<c) Limitations. (1) Basic agreements shall neither cite appropriations to be charged nor be used alone for the purpose of obligating funds.

(2) Basic agreements shall not in any manner provide for or imply any agreement on the part of the Government to place future orders or contracts with the contractor involved. Basic agreements shall not be used in any manner to restrict competition.

<3> Basic agreements generally shall be utilized only in connection with negotiated contracts.

§ 1-3.410—2 Basic ordering agreement.

(a) Description. A basic ordering agreement is an agreement which is similar to a basic agreement (see H 1-3.410-1) except that it also includes a description, as specific as practicable, of the supplies to be furnished or services to be performed when ordered and a description of the method for determination of the prices, consistent with the contract types authorized by this subpart, to be paid to the contractor for such supplies or services. Either the specific terms and conditions of delivery or a description of the method for their determination shall be set forth in the basic ordering agreement. The basic ordering agreement shall list one or more activities which are authorized to issue orders under the agreement. Any activity so named may issue orders specifying the supplies or services required, which orders may be accepted by the contractor by whatever manner of acceptance is indicated in the basic ordering agreement. Each order will incorporate by reference the provisions of the basic ordering agreement.

ib) Application. The basic ordering agreement may be used as a means of expediting procurement where specific Items, quantities, and prices are not known at the time of execution of the agreement but where past experience or future plans indicate that a substantial number of requirements for items or services of the type covered by the basic ordering agreement will result in procurements from the contractor during the term of the agreement. Under Proper circumstances, use of the procedures under the agreement is advantageous and economical in ordering parts

for equipment support since such procedures substantially shorten the administrative time required for placing such articles in a production status, thereby not only decreasing the amount of support inventory required to be carried but also decreasing the possibility that parts procured will become obsolete as a result of design changes in the equipment.

(c) Limitations. (1) Supplies or services may be ordered under a basic ordering agreement only if it is determined at the time the order is placed that it is impracticable to obtain competition by either formal advertising or negotiation for such supplies or services.

(2) The Government shall neither make any final commitment nor authorize any work by the contractor pursuant to an order under a basic ordering agreement until prices have been established, unless the order establishes a monetary limitation on the obligation of the Government and either—

(i) The order is subject to provisions contained in the basic ordering agreement which set forth adequate procedures for arriving at prices as early in contract performance as practical, but in no event shall such procedures permit the price of the entire order to be established on a retroactive basis (however, incentive provisions consistent with this Subpart 1-3.4 are permitted); or

(ii) The need for the supplies or services is compelling and of unusual urgency, as when the Government would be seriously injured, financially or otherwise, if the supplies or services were not furnished by a certain date and when they could not be furnished by that date if the contractor is not allowed to proceed with work until prices have been established.

As a general rule, prices should be established prior to authorizing the contractor to begin work. However, where the contractor is allowed to begin work prior to pricing in accordance with this paragraph, the contractor and the contracting officer shall proceed with pricing as soon as practicable. The basic ordering agreement shall provide that failure to reach agreement on price in such circumstances will constitute a dispute subject to the procedures of the Disputes clause.

(3) Each order issued under a basic ordering agreement shall be subject to

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