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(7) Production unit. A grouping of activi. ties which either uses homogeneous inputs of direct material and direct labor or yields homogeneous outputs such that the costs or statistics related to these homogeneous inputs or outputs are appropriate as bases for allocating variances.
(8) Standard costs. Any cost computed with the use of pre-established measures.
(9) Variance. The difference between a pre-established measure and an actual measure.
(b) The following modifications of definitions set forth in Part 400 of this chapter are applicable to this Cost Accounting Standard:
(1) Actual cost. An amount determined on the basis of cost incurred. $ 407.40 Fundamental requirement.
Standard costs may be used for estimat ing, accumulating, and reporting costs of direct material and direct labor only when all of the following criteria are met:
(a) Standard costs are entered into the books of account;
(b) Standard costs and related variances are appropriately accounted for at the level of the production unit; and
(c) Practices with respect to the setting and revising of standards, use of standard costs, and disposition of variances are stated in writing and are consistently followed. $ 407.50 Techniques for application.
(a)(1) A contractor's written statement of practices with respect to standards shall include the bases and criteria (such as engineering studies, experience, or other supporting data) used in setting and revising standards; the period during which standards are to remain effective; the level (such as ideal or realistic) at which material-quantity standards and labor-time standards are set; and conditions (such as those expected to prevail at the beginning of a period) which material-price standards and laborrate standards are designed to reflect.
(2) Where only either the material price or material quantity is set at standard, with the other component stated at actual, the result of the multiplication shall be treated as material cost at standard. Similarly, where only either the labor rate or labor time is set at standard, with the other component stated at actual, the result of the multiplication shall be treated as labor cost at standard.
(3) A labor-rate standard may be set to cover a category of direct labor only if the functions performed within that category are not materially disparate and the employees involved are interchangeable with respect to the functions performed.
(4) A labor-rate standard may be set to cover a group of direct labor workers who
perform disparate functions only under either one of the following conditions:
(i) Where that group of workers all work in a single production unit yielding homogeneous outputs (in this case, the same laborrate standard shall be applied to each worker in that group), or
(ii) Where that group of workers, in the performance of their respective functions, forms an integral team (in this case, a laborrate standard shall be set for each integral team).
(b)(1) Material-price standards may be used and their related variances may be recognized either at the time purchases of material are entered into the books of account or at the time material cost is allocated to production units.
(2) Where material-price standards are used and related variances are recognized at the time purchases of material are entered into the books of account, they shall be accumulated separately by homogeneous groupings of material. Examples of homogeneous groupings of material are:
(i) Where prices of all items in that grouping of material are expected to fluctuate in the same direction and at substantially the same rate, or
(ii) Where items in that grouping of material are held for use in a single production unit yielding homogeneous outputs.
(3) Where material-price variances are recognized at the time purchases of material are entered into the books of account, variances of each homogeneous grouping of material shall be allocated (except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section), at least annually, to items in purchased-items inventory and to production units receiving items from that homogeneous grouping of material, in accordance with either one of the following practices, which shall be consistently followed:
(i) Items in purchased-items inventory of a homogeneous grouping of material are adjusted from standard cost to actual cost; the balance of the material-price variance, after reflecting these adjustments, shall be allocated to production units on the basis of the total of standard cost of material received from that homogeneous grouping of material by each of the production units; or
(ii) Items, at standard cost, in purchaseditems inventory of a homogeneous grouping of material, are treated, collectively, as a production unit; the material-price variance shall be allocated to production units on the basis of standard cost of material received from that homogeneous grouping of material by each of the production units.
(4) Where material-price variances are recognized at the time purchases of material are entered into the books of account, variances of each homogeneous grouping of material which are insignificant may be initem at $3.10 per pound for the year ([$3.00 X 4+ $3.15 x 8):12). Since Contractor A sets his material-price standard in accordance with his written practice, he complies with provisions of $ 407.40(c) of this Cost Accounting Standard.
(b) Contractor B accumulates, in one account, labor cost at standard for a depart. ment in which several categories of direct labor of disparage functions, in different combinations, are used in the manufacture of various dissimilar outputs of the department. Contractor B's department is not a production unit as defined in § 407.30(a)(7) of this Cost Accounting Standard. Modifying his practice so as to comply with the definition of production unit in § 407.30(a)(7), he could accumulate the standard costs and variances separately, (1) for each of the several categories of direct labor, or (2) for each of several sub-departments, with homogeneous output, for each of the sub-departments.
(c) Contractor C allocates variances at the end of each month. During the month of March, a production unit has accumulated the following data with respect to labor:
cluded in appropriate indirect cost pools for allocation to applicable cost objectives.
(5) Where a material-price variance is allocated to a production unit in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section, it may be combined with material-quantity variance into one material-cost variance for that production unit. A separate material-cost variance shall be accumulated for each production unit.
(6) Where material-price variances are recognized at the time material cost is allocated to production units, these variances and material-quantity variances may be combined into one material-cost variance account.
(c) Labor-cost variances shall be recognized at the time labor cost is introduced into production units. Labor-rate variances and labor-time variances may be combined into one labor-cost variance account. A separate labor-cost variance shall be accumulated for each production unit.
(d) A contractor's established practice with respect to the disposition of variances accumulated by production unit shall be in accordance with one of the following paragraphs:
(1) Variances are allocated to cost objectives (including ending in-process inventory) at least annually. Where a variance related to material is allocated, the allocation shall be on the basis of the material cost at standard, or, where outputs are homogeneous, on the basis of units of output. Similarly, where a variance related to labor is allocated, the allocation shall be on the basis of the labor cost at standard or labor hours at standard or where outputs are homogeneous, on the basis of units of output; or
(2) Variances which are immaterial may be included in appropriate indirect cost pools for allocation to applicable cost objectives.
(e) Where variances applicable to covered contracts are allocated by memorandum worksheet adjustments rather than in the books of account, the bases used for adjustment shall be in accordance with those stated in paragraphs (b)(3) and (d) of this section. $ 407.60 Illustrations.
(a) Contractor's A's written practice is to set his material-price standard for an item on the basis of average purchase prices expected to prevail during the calendar year. For that item whose usage from month to month is stable, a purchase contract is generally signed on May 1 of each year for a one-year commitment. The current purchase contract calls for a purchase price of $3 per pound; and increase of 5 percent, or 15¢ per pound, has been announced by the vendor when the new purchase contract comes into effect next May. Contractor A sets his material-price standard for this
Using labor hours at standard as the base, Contractor C establishes a labor-cost variance rate of $.35 per standard labor hour ($7,000=20,000), and deducts $2,800 ($.38 x 8,000) from the labor-cost variance account, leaving a balance of $4,200 ($7,000$2,800). Contractor C's practice complies with provisions of $ 407.50(d)(1) of this Cost Accounting Standard.
(d) Contractor D, who uses materials the prices of which are expected to fluctuate at different rates, recognizes material-price variances at the time purchases of material are entered into the books of account. He maintains one purchase-price variance account for the whole plant. Purchased items are requisitioned by various production units in the plant. Since prices of material are expected to fluctuate at different rates, this plant-wide grouping does not constitute a homogeneous grouping of material. Contractor D's practice does not comply with provisions of $ 407.50(b)(2) of this Cost Accounting Standard. However, if he would
maintain several purchased-items inventory accounts, each representing a homogeneous grouping of material, and maintain a material-price variance account for each of these homogeneous groupings of material, Contractor D's practice would comply with $ 407.50(b)(2) of this Cost Accounting Standard.
(e) Contractor E recognizes material-price variances at the time purchases of material are entered into the books of account and allocates variances at the end of each month. During the month of May, a homogeneous grouping of material has accumulated the following data:
Labor-cost variance per unit of output
Production unit 1...
900,000 450,000 300,000 150,000
Production unit 1. Production unit 2 ...... Production unit 3 Production unit 4
Inventory, May 31 ..
Total labor-cost variance attributable to the
Contractor F makes a year-end adjustment of $18,500 as the labor-cost variances attributable to the covered contract. Contractor F's practice complies with provisions of § 407.50(e) of this Cost Accounting Standard. § 407.70 Exemptions.
None for this Cost Accounting Standard. $ 407.80 Effective date.
(a) The effective date of this Cost ACcounting Standard is October 1, 1974 (39 FR 28869, Aug. 12, 1974).
(b) This Cost Accounting Standard shall be followed by each contractor as of the start of his next fiscal year beginning after the receipt of a contract to which this Cost Accounting Standard is applicable.
$63,000 31,500 21,000 10,500
AUTHORITY: 84 Stat. 796, sec. 103 (50 U.S.C. App. 2168).
SOURCE: 39 FR 33681, September 19, 1974, unless otherwise noted. 8 408.10 General applicability.
This standard shall be used by defense contractors and subcontractors under Federal contracts entered into after the effective date hereof and by all relevant Federal
of and hy all relevant Federal agencies in estimating, accumulating, and reporting costs in connection with the pricing, administration, and settlement of all negotiated prime contract and subcontract national defense procurements in excess of $100,000, other than contracts or subcontracts where the price negotiated is based on (a) established catalog or market prices of commercial items sold in substantial quantities to the general public, or (b) prices set by law or regulation. $ 408.20 Purpose.
The purpose of this standard is to improve, and provide uniformity in, the measurement of costs of vacation, sick leave, holiday, and other compensated personal absence for a cost accounting period, and thereby increase the probability that the measured costs are allocated to the proper cost objectives. $ 408.30 Definitions.
(a) The following definitions of terms which are prominent in this standard are reprinted from Part 400 of this chapter for convenience. Other terms which are used in this standard and are defined in Part 400 of this chapter have the meaning ascribed to them in that part unless the text demands a different definition or the definition is modified in paragraph (b) of this section:
(1) Compensated personal absence. Any absence from work for reasons such as illness, vacation, holidays, jury duty or military training, or personal activities, for which an employer pays compensation directly to an employee in accordance with a plan or custom of the employer.
(2) Entitlement. An employee's right, whether conditional or unconditional, to receive a determinable amount of compensated personal absence, or pay in lieu thereof.
(b) The following modifications of definitions set forth in Part 400 of this chapter are applicable to this standard. None. 8 408.40 Fundamental requirement.
(a) The costs of compensated personal absence shall be assigned to the cost accounting period or periods in which the entitlement was earned.
(b) The costs of compensated personal absence for an entire cost accounting period shall be allocated pro-rata on an annual basis among the final cost objectives of that period. § 408.50 Techniques for application.
(a) Determinations. Each plan or custom for compensated personal absence shall be considered separately in determining when entitlement is earned. If a plan or custom is changed or a new plan or custom is adopted, then a new determination shall be made beginning with the first cost accounting period to which such new or changed plan or custom applies.
(b) Measurement of entitlement. (1) For purposes of compliance with $ 408.40(a), compensated personal absence is earned at the same time and in the same amount as the employer becomes liable to compensate the employee for such absence if the employer terminates the employee's employment for lack of work or other reasons not involving disciplinary action, in accordance with a plan or custom of the employer. Where a new employee must complete a probationary period before the employer becomes liable, the employer may nonetheless treat such service as creating entitlement in any computations required by this standard, provided that he does so consistently.
(2) Where a plan or custom provides for entitlement to be determined as of the first calendar day or the first business day of a cost accounting period based on service in the preceding cost accounting period, the entitlement shall be considered to have been earned, and the employer's liability to have arisen, as of the close of the preceding cost accounting period.
(3) In the absence of a determinable liability, in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, compensated personal absence will be considered to be earned only in the cost accounting period in which it is paid.
(c) Determination of employer's liability. In computing the cost of compensated personal absence, the computation shall give effect to the employer's liability in accordance with the following paragraphs:
(1) The estimated liability shall include all earned entitlement to compensated personal absence which exists at the time the liability is determined, in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.
(2) The estimated liability shall be reduced to allow for anticipated nonutilization, if material.
(3) The liability shall be estimated consistently either in terms of current or of anticipated wage rates. Estimates may be made with respect to individual employees, but such individual estimates shall not be required if the total cost with respect to all employees in the plan can be estimated with reasonable accuracy by the use of sample
last anniversary date. An employee who is laid off for lack of work will also be paid a pro-rata vacation allowance for service since the employee's last anniversary date. Company A accrues vacation costs each month based on an estimate of the anniversary years which will be completed in that month. At the end of its cost accounting period, Company A adjusts its estimated liability to agree with its actual liability for completed years of service on an individual employee basis.
(1) In order to comply with $ 408.50(c), Company A must increase its estimated liability for vacation pay at all times to include the estimated additional amount which would be payable to employees in the event of layoff. The additional liability may be calculated on an individual employee basis or it may be estimated for the employees as a group by the use of sample or historical data.
(2) The following illustrates one method of estimating Company A's liability at the end of its cost accounting period. December 31, with respect to individual employees, in accordance with $ 408.50(c). John Doe, anniversary date July 10: unused enti
tlement resulting from completed service years, 24 hr. at $5..............
$120 Full months of service since anniversary, 5: Pro-rata entitlement on lay-off = 80 hr. x %12=33.3 hr, at $5.....
data, experience or other appropriate means.
(d) Adjustments. (1) The estimate of the employer's liability for compensated person al absence at the beginning of the first cost accounting period for which a contractor must comply with this standard shall be based on the contractor's plan or custom applicable to that period, not withstanding that some part of that liability has not previously been recognized for contract costing purposes. Any excess of the amount of the
ss of the amount of the liability as determined in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section over the corresponding amount of the liability as determined in accordance with the contractor's previous practice shall be held in suspense and accounted for as described in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph.
(2) If a plan or custom is changed or a new plan or custom is adopted, and the new determination made in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section results in an increase in the estimate of the employer's liability for compensated personal absence at the beginning of the first cost accounting period for which the new plan is effective over the estimate made in accordance with the contractor's prior practice, then the amount of such increase shall be held in suspense and accounted for as described in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph.
(3) At the close of each cost accounting period, the amount held in suspense shall be reduced by the excess of the amount held in suspense at the beginning of the cost accounting period over the employer's liability (as estimated in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section) at the end of that cost accounting period. The cost of compensated personal absence assigned to that cost accounting period shall be increased by the amount of the excess.
(e) Allocations. Except where the use of a longer or shorter period is permitted by the provisions of the Cost Accounting Standard on Cost Accounting Period (Part 406 of this chapter), the costs of compensated personal absence shall be allocated to cost objectives on a pro-rata basis which reflects the total of such costs and the total of the allocation base for the entire cost accounting period. However, this provision shall not preclude revisions to an allocation rate during a cost accounting period based on revised estimates of period totals. 8 408.60 Nlustrations.
(a) Company A's vacation plan provides that on the anniversary of each employee's hiring date, that employee shall become eli gible to receive a 2-week vacation with pay. Vacation entitlement must be used within 2 years or forfeited. An employee who leaves the company voluntarily will be paid for any remaining unused vacation entitlement which was earned through the employee's
Total..... Less estimated allowance for forfeitures, 3%
277 (b) Company B has a vacation plan similar to Company A's, but Company B does not pay pro-rata vacation pay on lay-off for service since the last anniversary date. Company B must include in its estimate of its liability at the end of its cost accounting period only that unused vacation entitlement which results from completed years of service, with allowance for forfeitures if material.
(c) Company C's sick leave plan provides that an employee will accumulate one-half day of sick leave entitlement for each full month of service. Sick leave entitlement may be accumulated without limit, but an employee is paid for sick leave only during actual illness; the Company does not pay for unused sick leave on lay-off. Despite the fact that Company C might be able to estimate the amount which will be paid for sick leave in a future cost accounting period with a high degree of accuracy, it has no liability for payment for unused sick leave entitlement in the event of lay-off. Therefore, in accordance with $ 408.50(b)(3), it must assign to each cost accounting period only