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to the Nomad tribes of Ethiopians and Moors, not settled in walled towns, but scattered in villages. But how sparsa qua e la is to be brought out of the Hebrew, p P, he has not informed us. The third place is due to Junįus and Tremellius: _“ gentem omnibus delineantem et conculcantem.” They understand these to be the words of Tirhaka, describing the haughty overbearing character of the Assyrian empire. The next in order shall be Grotius :
gentem lineæ lineæ et conculcationis.” est,” he says, (his rendering wants an id est indeed),
gentem quæ paulatim protendit imperii sui terminos, et superbo pede victos proterit,” applying the character to the Assyrians. Next hear Castalio: "gentem alios atque alios limites habentem, attritamque.” He understands the passage of the countries bordering on the Nile; of which the boundaries, he says, were perpetually changed by the inundations of the river. Next let Vitringa speak: -" ad gentem canonis et canonis [or, præcepti et præcepti] et conculcationis.” He applies the passage to the Egyptians; and imagines, that the Egyptians are characterised in it by two circumstances; the number of precise rules, to the observ. ance of which they were held in their idolatrous rites, and their practice of trampling in their seed with cattle. Bishop Lowth renders " a nation meted out by line and trodden down." This he applies to Egypt, expounding the meted out of the fre. quent necessity in that country of having recourse to mensuration, in order to determine the boundaries after the inundations of the Nile; and the trodden down,' of the trampling in of the seed.
I proceed now to those interpretations, which re. fer the passage to the Jews; beginning with those, in which the rendering is the most questionable, though the application be right. Among those interpreters, who rightly applying the passage to tlie Jewish people, seem to mistake the sense in which it is applied to them, Houbigant must take the lead: _" ad gentem limitibus angustis conclusam, et proculcatam." He observes, that the limits of the kingdom of Judea had been often shortened, by the conquests of the Assyrians. Next in order comes the venerable Calvin : _“ gentem undique concul. catam.” He supports this rendering thus : “ id est, Undique ; ac si quis duceret lineas, iisque inter se conjunctis, nullum locum vacuum relinqueret: vel sulcos duceret in agro, quibus omnes glebas subigeret.” Last in this class are the old transla
tions in our own language:'-"a desperate and pylled folke.” Coverdale; badly rendering, not the Hebrew, but the Greek of the LXX. -"a nacyon troden downe by lytle and lytle." Great Bible, and Bishop's Bible. " a nation by little and little even troden under foot.” English Genevea. Would know by what process of criticism by little and little’ is brought out of up up? Hear Vatablus :
Metaphora, tracta ab architectis, qui ordinem unum post ordinem alterum collocare solent, i.e. cui paulatim conculcatio evenit.”
In all these renderings the sense is far-fetched, drawn by a torture of criticism from the words.
The antient translations seem far preferable, arising naturally out of the words of the original, without any previous assumptions, or any accommodation to assumptions, by violent efforts of the critical art.
-“ ad gentem expectantem et conculcatam." Vulg. – έθνος υπομενον και συμπεπατημενον.” Aquila. -« έθνος ανελπιστον και καταπεπατημενον.
LXX. gente harta de esperar y hollada.” Span. All these versions are to the same effect; but those of the Vulgate and the Spanish are incomparably the best.
The word op is unquestionably from the root 7p.
The verb mp signifies to stretch, to stretch away.' Hence the noun ip sometimes signifies a measuring line, sometimes a strait rule, of the mason or car. penter, and thence figuratively a rule of conduct, or a precept. But the verb mp signifies also to expect, to look for with eager desire,' (aroxagadoxenv), from the natural act of stretching the neck to look for a thing coming from a distance. The use of the verb in this sense is far more frequent than in the other; and when used in this sense, the verb in some instances, though it must be confessed in a few, drops the final 17. Why therefore may not up F render expecting, expecting.' It is probable that the true reading of the Vulgate may be ad gentem expectantem, expectantem, et conculcatam ; for we find the word expectante thus doubled, in strict con: formity to the original, in the repetition of this de: scription of the people intended in the 7th verse ; and Lucas Brugensis testifies that sixteen MSS. repeat expectantem in this place. Now, are not the Jews, I would ask, in their present state, a nation
expecting, expecting, and trampled under foot ?" still without end expecting their Messiah, who came so many ages since, and everywhere trampled under foot, held in subjection, and general
ܠܡܐ ܕܡܫܟܪ ܘܕܝܫ :it will be found to be equivalent
ly treated with contempt? And is not this likely to be their character and condition till their conversion shall take place ? The dvERTIOTOV of the LXX may signify not gratified in their hope.'
The Syriac version appears at first sight to be different from these; but I believe upon examination
: ! for which the Latin translation gives“ populum fæe. dum et conculcatum ;" but in the Hebrew language 75 as a verb, renders to be drunk;' as a noun, both in the Hebrew and in the Chaldee dialect, an inebriating drink; and the same sense is given to the Syriac noun lipo both by Schindler and the younger Buxtorf. The judgment of these learned lexicographers is confirmed by the actual use of the word in the Syriac version of Isaiah xxix, 9, where it is put to render the Hebrew 95in the sense of intoxicating drink. Hence it seems reasonable to suppose that the verb ise may signify, in Syriac as in Hebrew, “to be drunk,' and the participle aphel 26. drunken. Indeed Schindler makes foedum esse' a secondary sense. I suspect that he is right; and that the filthiness, unsightliness, or vileness expressed by the word, is that sort of unseemliness which disgraces the figure and actions of a drunken