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The first performance contract, in Texarkana in 1969-70, set the pattern for most subsequent performance contracts. Charles Blaschke and Leon Lessinger, who were instrumental in establishing the Texarkana project, have become central figures in the performance contract and accountability movements. Anyone thinking about implementing a performance contract should review the Texarkana experience:
The contract document itself, and several related documents,
Leon Lessinger. Every Kid a Winner-Accountability
The Rand Corporation study (above) is the best retrospective
Stanley Elam. “The Age of Accountability Dawns in Tex-
"Performance Contracting." Educate, October 1970. pp. 15-27.
Elam's perception of the Texarkana project is cautiously optimistic, while Bumstead probed deftly into some of the project's weaknesses and difficulties.
The official version of the project was recorded in
D. C. Andrew and L. H. Roberts. Final Evaluation on the
II. BLASCHKE AND LESSINGER
Leon Lessinger and Charles Blaschke have devoted more attention to the procedures and implications of performance contracting than have any other writers.
After he designed the Texarkana project, Blaschke in 1969
brmed Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., a management sup-
performance contracting but also Blaschke's evolving
"Performance Contracts.” Planned Change in Education. (Edited by David S. Bushnell and Donald Rappapert.) New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1971. pp. 127-41.
Performance Contracting: Who Profits Most? Bloomington, Ind.: Phi Delta, Kappa, 1972. i his writings, former Associate Commissioner of Education eon Lessinger has emphasized the accountability implications I performance contracting. His book, Every Kid a Winner above), stressed Texarkana and performance contracting. Two I his later books de-emphasize Texarkana and performance ontracting: Leon Lessinger and Ralph W. Tyler. Accountability in Education. Worthington, Ohio: Charles A. Jones, 1971. Leon Lessinger, Dale Parnell, and Roger Kaufman. Accountability: Policies and Procedures. New London, Conn.: Croft Educational Services, 1971. 4 vols. essinger has published more than a dozen articles. Here are tree that are recommended for their comprehensiveness: Leon Lessinger. “After Texarkana, What?" Nation's Schools, December 1969. pp. 37-40.
"The Powerful Notion of Accountability in Education.” Journal of Secondary Education, December 1970. pp. 339-47.
"Engineering Accountability for Results in Public Education.' Phi Delta Kappan, December 1970. pp. 217-25. (Reprinted in Accountability in Education above.) essinger was special issue editor of the January 1971 ational Technology, which featured several theoretical and ical discussions of the how and why of performance contracts.
During 1970-71, the nation's most publicized and controvers performance contract was negotiated for the Banneker Elementa School in Gary, Indiana, where a private corporation contracted operate an entire public school for four years. Most all of the co flicts that might erupt during a performance contract have occurri at Banneker. The history of Banneker will be instructive for anyo wishing to consider entering a performance contract:
The contract document itself, several related documents, ai the most comprehensive history of the first year at Bannek are found in
George R. Hall and M. L. Rapp. Case Studies in Educatio
James A. Mecklenburger and John A. Wilson. “The Pe
Teacher, March 1972. pp. 16-19.
Jack Star. "We'll Educate Your Kids-Or Your Mon
ican Teacher, January 1972. pp. 15-16.
IV. GRAND RAPIDS
From the perspective of the school system's administration, ti most successful performance contract site in the early experime tation was probably Grand Rapids, Michigan, where three coi panies held contracts during 1970-71. There was little conflict controversy, results proved satisfactory, and the three compani renewed and expanded their contracts in 1971-72.
Contract documents and a comprehensive history of 1970are to be found in
G. C. Sumner. Case Studies in Educational Performanı
Contracting, #6. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation,
James A. Mecklenburger and John A. Wilson. "The Per-
Child's Education?” Redbook, February 1972. pp. 56-63.
diana University Film Library. V. THE OEO EXPERIMENT
During 1970-71, the Office of Economic Opportunity sponsored
Jeffry Schiller. “Performance Contracting: Some Questions
1971. pp. 2-9.
Suzanne S. Taylor. "Performance Contracting-One Expe-
Kathy Donahue. "Performance Contracting in the Bronx