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three miles from the sea. The land bought by Mr. Dawson was similar to our own, separated from it by a rib of trap rock ; both lots were just as Erne described them, but ours was rather the rockier of the two.
It was soon over. Trevittick took a hammer and some gads from behind a rock, and, going up to a low ledge, set them in, and began working furiously. Once he struck aside and hit the rock, and the rock, instead of clinking, gave
forth a dull thud. In a few minutes Trevittick had succeeded in detaching a piece about two feet square, the broken side of which shone strangely in the sun. It was a mass of solid, gleaming, virgin copper.
The murder was out now. With the exception of one on Lake Superior, and one in South Australia, my father was the proprietor of the richest copper mine in the world.
To be continued.
CLAUS SEIDELIN: A DANISH APOTHECARY OF THE EIGHTEENTH
BY ANDREW HAMILTON.
We almost shrink now from the bare mention of the name of unhappy Denmark ; but what I am going to say has so little to do with Schleswig-Holstein and its attendant calamities (which bid fair to sow the discord of ages between races-ourselves, the Germans, and the Scandinavians — which surely were meant, if ever any on this earthly ball, to live in the harmony and united action of brothers and neighbours), that I venture to beg all who will to turn with me from the present misère of war, wrath, hatred, and all malignity, to a few years of home-baked commonplace, embedded deep in the middle of the last century. The life of an apothecary of that period, in his shop in the quiet grass-grown High Street of a dull little town, or rather village, on a petty island in the Danish waters, will probably prima facie not greatly tempt the curiosity of most English readers. And I do not intend so far to outrage expectation. The fact is, this apothecary was a traveller in his youth, at the age when he had to do his Wanderjahre, and saw, in such proximity as was possible for him, some men and things whose figures have acquired a certain familiarity for us through other mediums than the eyes of a druggist's apprentice. But our apprentice, having healthy vision, took fuis own impression of what he saw, and, as he was at the pains long after to com mit to paper what he yet retained, I
believe we should be unthankful if we refused to profit by his “Recollections."
Several learned doctors have of late years written laborious treatises on the rise and early progress of pharmacy and all things pharmaceutical in Denmark. I have read whatever of the sort I could lay hands on ; yet after much reflection I have been convinced that profound ignorance as to how drugs were compounded and where they were sold in, for instance, the fifteenth century, need not interfere with our interest in the travels of a worthy lad who was striving hard to become skilful in the composition of drugs in the eighteenth. The truth is that the origin of what we should nowa-days call an apothecary's shop is, north of Germany, recent enough. Down to a late period, drugs of manifold ingredients were sent to distinguished persons from France and Italy, and, in course of time, stores, or magazines, came into vogue, in which both simples and compounds could be bought, along with wines, and spices, and other outlandish wares. Ladies and monks, as we all know, dabbled much in medicine ; and a Dr. Gram has, in our own day, written a bookor, at least, an article-to prove that Paracelsus meant Copenhagen when he says Stockholm, and that the matrona quædam nobilis whom he says he saw or heard of there was Sigbrit, Christian II.'s “lady," who worked so successfully at drug-making that she achieved the reof wandering - among Papists, and French women, and what not-he spent his easy, useful life, and married, and brought up his children ; and there, in his seventy-ninth year, he sat down and began to write his “ Recollections." In the following year he died. The manuscript is now in the hands of his greatgrandson, a parish priest, who has kindly placed it at the disposal of the Historical Society of Copenhagen, by which learned body it has been recently edited. I have chosen but few passages for translation ; they will in great part require no commentary. They will give us glimpses of a certain society of those years, not, indeed, behind the scenes, but from the shilling gallery. Or, rather, they will take us up into the dingy lumber-room of a house now silent and tenantless, and show us Czar Peters and Friedrich Wilhelms, and other motes and midges of the eighteenth century, floating in the quaint sunbeams that straggle through the dusty attic window.
putation of witchcraft. It was not till Christian III.'s time, in 1536, that an apothecary became a permanent institution in Copenhagen. His predecessor, Frederick I. had twice over vainly applied to Parliament for the necessary grant. Once introduced, however, the institution spread rapidly. At first, the letters-patent granting the privilege limited it to the holder's lifetime ; but before the middle of the sixteenth century such property had become freehold
-it could be bought and sold, and transmitted from father to son, or from husband to wife. Hence the need of frequent inspections on the part of the medical faculty. Hence, too, the necessity that one son at least in a family should follow the father's profession.
Nothing could well lie further from the world's great highways than the petty island of Falster. It is situated to the south of Zealand, separated by a strait just broad enough to cut it oft even from such claims to publicity as the mother-island may think herself in possession of. The population at the present day may be about 20,000, and the chief town is what we should call the village of Nykjöbing, although the geography-book says it has seven streets. Yet the islanders were not wholly denied the blessing of an occasional glimpse of some of those exalted forms which fill earth's high places. Nykjöbing and the country round it were a royal demesne, and had for ages been the prescriptive appanage of dowager-queens, where they were wont to pass their villeggiatura; and we may well fancy that the annual arrival of widowhood, in all its majesty, must have solemnized the natives not a little. There was also, as we shall see, at the period of which I am going to speak, an utterly unhoped-for glimpse of an even greater personage. With such exceptions, life in the little market town passed with fewer events, with bigger rumours, and with greater contentment, probably, than in most places.
Claus Seidelin was a native of Nykjöbing. There he was born ; there he was bred; there, after his apprenticeship in the metropolis, and his six years
“Into this sinful world was I, Claus Seidelin, born of godly and honourable parents. My late father was the worthy, skilful, and honourable man, Frederick Seidelin, by appointment apothecary to His Majesty for Nykjöbing, in Falster, son of Hans Seidelin, Master of Arts, formerly priest and dean at the Holm's Church in Copenhagen. My late mother was the God-fearing and virtuous matron Karen, youngest daughter of Claus Iversen, sometime alderman in Copenhagen. And my birth fell upon the twenty-sixth dayof January, anno 1702."
The baptism comes next, with five godfathers and godmothers. Then he goes to school, and gets nine floggings in one forenoon. What follows is pleasanter :
“In my tender years came his late Majesty King Christian Ve's widowed queen, Charlotte Amalie, once in the year to Nykjöbing by the space of three or four months, the palace of Nykjöbing, with what pertained thereto, forming part of her jointure, whereby my late father had occasion to supply no small quantity of medicine to Her
Majesty, as also to her suite. Now it quit his prison, well knowing that it was also happened that my revered father his duty to submit to God's holy will, did one Sunday permit a lad in our em- and that it lay upon him to convey the ployment to conduct me to the château remains of the blessed departed unto for my amusement, on which occasion their resting-place, the which he then we had scarce entered the outermost set about with all the more diligence, guard-room when the queen, rising from causing them to be interred very honourtable, caused the doors of that apartment ably in a vault which he had but lately to be thrown open, and, followed by her purchased under the choir of Nykjöbing whole court, proceeded to cross the church. He himself chose the text for guard-room. I, nowise deterred, ran the funeral sermon, as well as the introstraightway up to her, kissed her hand ductory words, and subsequently begged and the hands of all her ladies, and then, Magister Zimmer for a copy of the displacing myself alongside of a dwarf- course. I doubt not it is yet to be found woman whom the queen had, thinking among the books which I left behind her to be a child like myself, I followed me to my successor on retiring from with the rest of the train. My father's business.” lad had well-nigh swooned at his care Two years afterwards the widower lessness in not looking better after me; found consolation. His “ dear brother” but the queen was very gracious, in wrote to him from Copenhagen, proquiring whose child that was, and being posing a likely widow there who had informed it was the apothecary's child, already lost an apothecary in the plague, she opened a little closet in which she and seemed not disinclined to take kept some orange trees and other fine another. The negotiation advanced so plants, from which she herself gathered far that the bridegroom proceeded to a bouquet-as they call it-and gave it Copenhagen to arrange preliminaries, to me, with orders that I should be whereupon “ their first meeting was very restored to my father's messenger. When loving." Subsequent meetings must we came home, and related what had have been less so, for the project was passed to my revered father, the lad given up; on which “he immediately received a reprimand, and my father sought himself another bride, a maid of said to me, 'It is very well, my son, that thirty," and “the wedding took place in the queen has given thee a bouquet, but the house of his dear mother." I had rather she had given thee half a “Anno 1716, we had a visit, at Nykscore of ducats.'"
jöbing, from Czar Peter of Russia, called " Anno 1712.-On October 18th it the Great. He came ashore in the pleased God, according to His all-wise middle of the night at a place about two counsel, to remove by a happy death miles from Gjedesbye, and had Prince. from this troublesome world to the glory Menzicoff and a lot of other Russian and blessedness of His heavenly king. princes and generals with him in two dom, my tender and pious mother Karen, or three open boats. They all directly Claus's daughter, in child-bearing of my threw themselves on some plough-horses youngest sister, unto the great sorrow that were going loose in the fields, and and distress of my late father, myself, rode into the village, where they stopped and my eldest brother, none of my other at the innkeeper's, who was also the brothers or sisters being old enough to village justice. Him and his wife the. give much heed thereto. My honoured Czar turned out of their bed, and jumped father was well-nigh inconsolable ; for into it himself, with his boots on, warm two days he shut himself up in his as it was. Meantime, the innkeeper had chamber to give free course to his tears, to see about the others as best he could ; refusing to eat or drink, or speak with after which he sent a messenger on any person, until, by the visits and com- horseback to Nykjöbing to give notice forting discourses of our clergyman and of the Czar's arrival, whereupon everyother kind friends, he was moved to thing was done to prepare a suitable
reception. [Here he enumerates all the his lords. Yet would he not sup in the provincial dignitaries who were hurried castle, where everything had been got together.] ... They proceeded straight- ready, but went to the house of the way to Gjedesbye, and took all the postmaster, Iver Rosenfeldt, and there hackney coaches, private carriages, and caused himself to be served with both horses that were in the town, to place rye and wheaten bread, butter, Dutch theni at the Czar's service; the town- cheese, strong ale, brandy, and wine ; crier went through, summoning all the and there was in particular some Dantzig inhabitants to meet in parade at his liquor which he greatly liked; other entry; and all the best housewives in than that they had not to place before Nykjöbing had to repair to the castle to him. Now some of the townsfolks, and cook his dinner. He arrived the follow myself among the number, managed to ing forenoon at eleven o'clock, yet not slip into Rosenfeldt's house to see the in a coach, but in a kind of little open Czar sup, which indeed he did with much chaise which he had with him, drawn by elegance, for every time he buttered two horses. He was driven to the himself a piece of bread he licked the castle, but waxed wroth thereat, having butter clean off the knife again. At my designed to take his dinner at an inn; parent's house there were a number of and, finding his cook on the steps of the his suite, who were served in a like castle, he gave him a sound thrashing. fashion. As soon as the galleys arrived, At length, however, he consented to all the crews came ashore, so that every abide where he was, but insisted on street and house was so crowded that dining alone, so that the Danish lords nobody could stir; and in a few hours had to withdraw. He looked like a there was not a bit of bread, nor any sergeant, or rather hangman. He was bacon, butter, eggs, beer, or spirits to be tall of stature, wore a dirty blue cloth found in the town. Towards night the coat with brass buttons, had a big broad Czar and his lords went back to the cutlass like a hangman's sword at his galleys, and on a signal given the rest side in a leathern sword-belt outside his had also to retire on board. Early in coat, great boots on his legs, a little the morning we saw some thousands of velvet cap on his head, a middling-sized camp-kettles on the beach, with fire moustache, and a long cane in his hand; underneath, to feed which the soldiers but did not look so much amiss after all. stole whatever would burn; and then He did not sit long at dinner, and, as they gathered all the nettles and hemlock soon as he had done, he went down with and other green things that they could his lords to the smithy, where he had find, and chopped them up quite small, ordered a boat to be got ready. On the and threw them into the kettles. The road from the castle two or three of the next thing was to cut one salt herring townsfolks, who had ventured too near, into little bits to each kettle, after which, got a taste of his stick; and, as he could when the whole came a-boil, the kale not get into the boat dryshod, Claus was ready, which they ate as fast as they Wendt had to carry him out to it, for could, and then went on board again with which he gave him eight skillings about their kettles. The Czar immediately set twopence). As soon as he and his lords the fleet under sail towards Guldborg, had embarked, they pushed from land, and thence to Copenhagen, so that by but, coming to the pier, he got ashore noon not a galley was to be seen. The again to take a look at the position. He Czar's consort came here a few days after then sailed to Haselöe and further, to his departure: she had travelled from fetch the galleys in which he had come Mecklenburg, through Holstein and from Mecklenburg : now these were not Laaland. When she arrived in the to be counted for number, for he had on ferry-boat, the governor and sheriff were board an army of 36,000 men. He then standing on the landing-place to receive returned to Nykjöbing, about five or six her, but she was not very gracious to in the afternoon, and came ashore with them. On the other hand, when she