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feline geschmeidigkeit, or the look of light amusements were proper for an dissimulation; the


is as clear and Alim-el-deen of the religion. We Eurofrank as a child's.

peans did not know that, of course, as our Luxor, March 1st.—The glory of the religion was to enjoy ourselves; but he climate now is beyond description, must not make merry with diversions or and I feel better every day. I go out music or droll stories. (See the mutual as early as seven or eight o'clock on my ignorance of all ascetics.) He has a tiny donkey, and come in to breakfast little girl of six or seven, and teaches at about ten, and go out again at four. her to write and read. No one else, he The sun is very hot in the middle of believes, thinks of such a thing out of the day, yet the people in boats say it Cairo ; there many of the daughters of is still cold at night. In this large the Alim learn,—those who desire it. house I feel neither heat nor cold. ... His wife died two years ago, and six

I want to photograph Yussuf for you; months ago he married again a wife the feelings and prejudices and ideas of twelve years old! (Sheykh Yussuf is a cultivated Arab, as I get at them, little thirty, he tells me; he looks twenty-two.) by little, are curious beyond compare.


stepmother, and what a wife! It won't do to generalize from one man, He can repeat the whole Koran without of course, but even one gives some very book; it takes twelve hours to do it. new ideas. The most striking thing is He has read the Tourach (the Old Testathe sweetness and delicacy of feeling, ment), and the Gospels (el Aangele), the borror of hurting any one (this must of course.

“Every Alim reads them : be individual, of course; it is too good to “the words of Seyyidna Issa are the be general). For example, I apologized “ true faith ; but Christians have altered to him two days ago for inadvertently “and corrupted their meaning. So we answering the

“ Salaam aleykoom, “ Muslims believe. We are all the which he, of course, said to Omar on "children of God.” I ask if Muslims coming in, and which is sacramental call themselves so, or only the slaves to Muslims. Yussuf blushed crimson, of God. “It is all one-children or touched my hand and kissed his own, “ slaves. Does not a good man care for and looked quite unhappy. Yesterday “ both tenderly alike?” (Pray observe evening he walked in, and startled me the Oriental feeling here. Slave is a by a Salaam aleykee,” addressed to me; term of affection, not contempt; and he had evidently been thinking it over, remember the Centurion's 6 servant whether he ought to say it to me, and (slave), whom he loved.") "Had heard had come to the conclusion that it was s from Fodl Pasha how a cow was cured not wrong. “Surely it is well for all

“ of the prevailing disease in Lower 6 the creatures of God to speak peace “ Egypt by water, weighed against a (Salaam) to each other," said he. “ Mushaf copy of the Koran); no Now, no uneducated Muslim would “ doubt it was true. Fodl Pasha had have arrived at such a conclusion. " tried it.” Yet Yussuf thinks the Arab Omar would pray, work, lie, do any doctors, who also use verses of the Koran, thing for me-sacrifice money even ; of no use at all. but I doubt whether he could utter M. de Ronge, the great Egyptologue, “Salaam aleykoom” to any but a Muslim. came here one evening; he speaks I answered as I felt" Peace, oh my Arabic perfectly, and delighted Sheykh brother, and God bless thee!” It was Yussuf, who was much interested in almost as if a Catholic priest had felt the translations of the hieroglyphics, impelled by charity to offer the com- and anxious to know if he had found munion to a heretic.

anything about Moussa (Moses) or Yussuf I observed that the story of the Barber (Joseph). He looked pleased and gratewas new to him, and asked if he did not ful to be treated like “

a gentleman and know the Thousand and One Nights. No; a scholar," by such an alim as M. de he studied only things of religion; no Ronge, and such an “elmeh" (for :

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woman) as myself. As he acts as clerk describe manner, which produces so to Mustafa, our consular agent, and much of the impression of novelty. wears a shabby brown shirt or gown, · Luxor, March 10th.Yesterday was and speaks no English, I dare say he Bairam, and on Tuesday evening everynot seldom encounters great slights body who possessed a gun or a pistol (from sheer ignorance). He produced a banged away, every drum and taraboubit of old Cufic manuscript, and con- keh was thumped, and all the children sulted M. de Ronge as to its meaning, hallooed, Ramadan Māt! Ramadan a pretty little bit of flattery in an Arab Māt! “Ramadan is dead,” about the alim to a Frenchman; to which the latter streets. was not insensible, I saw. In answer

At daybreak Omar went to the early to the invariable questions about all my prayer, a special ceremony of the day; family, I once told him my father had there were crowds of people; so, as it been a great alim of the law, and that was useless to pray and preach in the my mother had got ready his written mosque, Sheykh Yussuf went out upon book, and put some lectures in order, to hillock in the burying-ground, where be printed. He was amazed, first that I they all prayed, and he preached. Omar had a mother, as he told me he thought reported the sermon to me as follows I was fifty or sixty, and immensely (it is all extempore) :-First Yussuf delighted at the idea. “God has pointed to the graves,—" Where are " favoured your family with understand- all those people ?" and to the ancient “ing and knowledge. I wish I could temples, "Where are those who built “ kiss the sheykhah, your mother's them ? Do not strangers from a far "hand. May God favour her.”

country take away their very corpses M——'s portrait (as usual) he ad- to wonder at ? What did their splenmired fervently, and said one saw his dour avail them?” &c. &c. What, then, good qualities in his face ;-a compli

ce ;-a compli- O Muslims, will avail that you may ment I could have fully returned as be happy when that comes which will he sat looking at the picture with affec- come for all ? Truly God is just, and tionate eyes, and praying, sotto voce, for will defraud no man, and He will re"el gaddar, el gemeel” (the youth, ward you if you do. what is right; the beautiful), in the words of the and that is, to wrong no man, neither Fathah, “Oh, give him guidance, and in his person, nor in his family, nor in " let him not stray in the paths of his possessions. Cease then to cheat one

the rejected !” Altogether something another, O men! and to be greedy; and in Sheykh Yussuf reminds me of Wors- do not think that you can make amends ley. There is the same look of Seelen- by afterwards giving alms or praying or reinheit

, with far less thought and in- fasting, or giving gifts to the servants of telligence (indeed, little thought), of the mosques. Benefits come from God; course, and an additional

additional child-like it is enough for you if you do no injury innocence. I suppose some mediæval

to any man, and, above all, to any woman monks


have had the same look, but or little one! no Catholic I have ever seen looks so Of course the sermon was much longer, peaceful or so unpretending. I see in him, but this was the substance, Omar tells as in all people who don't know what me; and pretty sound morality too doubt means, an easy familiarity with methinks, and might be preached with religion. I hear him joke with Omar advantage to a meeting of philanthroabout Ramadan, and even about Omar's pists in Exeter' Hall. There is no assiduous prayers, and he is a frequent predestination in Islam, and every man and hearty laugher. I wonder whether will be judged upon his actions. “Even this gives you any idea of a character unbelievers God will not defraud,” says new to you; it is so impossible to the Koran. Of course, the belief in Philip Stanhope Worsley, the translator

meritorious works leads to the same sort of the “ Odyssey."

of superstition as it does among Catholics — the endeavour to “make one's we rode out of Luxor, the Sheykh el soul,” by alms, fastings, endowments, Ababdeh joined us with some of his tribe, &c. ; therefore Yussuf's stress upon with their long guns, and many more doing no evil seems to me very remark- with lances; he was a volunteer, furious able and really profound.

at the idea of a lady and a stranger After the sermon, all the company being robbed. It is the first time it assembled rushed on Yussuf to kiss his has happened here, and the desire to head and his hands and his feet, and beat was so strong, that I went to act as mobbed him so fearfully that he had to counsel for the prisoner. Every one was lay about him with the wooden sword, peculiarly savage that it should have which is carried by the officiating alim. happened to me, a person well known Yussuf came to wish me the customary to be friendly to El Muslimeen.good wishes soon after, and looked very When we arrived we went into a hot and tumbled, and laughed heartily square inclosure, with a sort of cloister about the awful kissing he had under- on one side, spread with carpets, where gone. All the men embrace on meeting we sat, and the wretched fellows were on the festival of Bairam.

brought in in chains. To my horror, I The kitchen is full of cakes, ring- found they had been beaten already; I shaped, which all my friends have remonstrated; “What if you have beaten sent me, just such as we see offered the wrong men ?” “Malesh, we will to the gods in the temples and tombs. beat the whole village until your purse I went and called on the Maõhn in is found.” I said to Mustafa, “This the evening, and found a number won't do ; you must stop this." So of people all dressed in their best. Mustafa ordained, with the concurrence Half were Copts, among them a very of the Maõhn, that the Sheykh el Beled pleasing young priest, who carried and the “Gefieh," (the keeper of the on a religious discussion with Seleem ruins,) should pay me the value of the Effendi, --strange to say, with perfect purse ; as the people of Karnac are very good humour on both sides.

troublesome in begging and worrying, I A Copt came up with his farmı-la- thought this would be a good lesson to bourer, who had been beaten, and the the said sheykh to keep better order, field robbed. The Copt stated the case and I consented to receive the money, in ten words, and the Maõhn sent off promising to return it and to give a his cawass with him to apprehend the napoleon over, if the purse comes back accused persons, who were to be tried at with its contents (31 napoleons). The sunrise and beaten, if found guilty, and Sheykh el Ababdeh harangued the forced to make good the damage. people on their ill-behaviour to “Haree

March 12th.-Yesterday, we had a mat,” and called them “ Haramee" strange and unpleasant day's business. (rascals), and was very high and mighty The evening before, I had my pocket to the Sheykh el Beled. Hereupon, I picked in Karnac by two men who went away on a visit to a Turkish lady hung about me, one to sell a bird, the in the village, leaving Mustafa to settle. other, one of the regular “loafers” who After I was gone they beat eight or ten lurk about the ruins to beg, and sell of the boys who had mobbed me and water or curiosities, and who are all begged with the two men ; Mustafa, a lazy, bad lot, of course. I went to who does not like the stick, stayed to Seleem, who wrote at once to the see that they were not hurt, and so far Sheykh el Beled of Karnac, to say that it will be a good lesson to them. He we should go over next morning at

also had the two men sent over to the eight o'clock (two, Arab time), to in- prison here, for fear the Sheykh el vestigate the affair, and to desire him to Beled should beat them again, and will apprehend the men. Next morning keep them here for a time. So far so Seleem fetched me, and Mustafa camo good; but my fear now is, that innocent to represent English interests, and as people will be squeezed to make up the

money, if the men do not give up the out of civility to me.

There was no purse. I have told Sheykh Yussuf to alternative between my forgiving him keep watch how things go, and if the “ for the love of God,” or sending him men persist in the theft, and don't return to certain death by a climate inthe purse, I shall give the money to supportable to these people. Mustafa those whom the Sheykh el Beled will and Co. tried hard to prevent Sheykh assuredly squeeze, or else to the mosque Yussuf from speaking to me, for fear I of Karnac. I cannot pocket it, though should be angry and complain at Cairo, I thought it quite right to exact the fine if my vengeance were not wreaked on as a warning to the Karnac mauvais the thief; but he said he knew me sujets.

better, and brought the procés-verbal to The whole thing distressed me horri- show me.

show me. Fancy my dismay. I went bly. If I had not been there, they to Seleem Effendi and to the Cadi with would have beaten right and left; and if Sheykh Yussuf, and begged the man I had shown any desire to have any might be let go, and not be sent to one punished, evidently they would Keneh at all. Having settled this, I have half killed the two men. Mustafa said that I had thought it right that the behaved extremely well; he showed people of Karnac should pay


money sense, decision, and more feelings of I had lost, as a fine for their bad humanity than I at all expected of him. conduct to strangers, but that I did not

Pray do try to get him paid. The Eng- require it for the sake of the money, lish consuls at Cairo are not nearly so which I would accordingly give to the civil, and old Mustafa has all the trouble poor of Luxor in the mosque and in the and work of the Nile boats (eighty-five church (great applause from the crowd). this winter), and he is boundlessly kind I asked how many were Muslimeen and useful to the English, and a real and how many Nazranee, in order to protection against cheating. When divide the three napoleons and a half Mustafa was appointed, there were about according to the numbers. Sheykh five or six boats a year, now there are Yussuf awarded one napoleon to the always from seventy to one hundred and church, two to the mosque, and the twenty, and he does not get a farthing, half to the water-drinking place, the and is really out of pocket. Pray do Sebeel, which was also applauded. I then not fail to represent all these things said, “Shall we send the money to the to Mr. Layard.

Bishop?” but a respectable elderly

Copt said, “Malesh, malesh(never mind), April 6th.--I told you how my purse " better give it all to Sheykh Yussuf; had been stolen, and the proceedings “ he will send the bread to the church.' thereanent. Well! Mustafa asked me Then the Cadi made me several times what I wished to be done speech, and said I bad behaved like with the thief, who spent twenty-one a great Ameereh (lady), and one that days here in irons. With my absurd feared God; and Sheykh Yussuf said English ideas of justice, I refused to he knew the English had mercy in their interfere at all; and Oniar and I had stomachs, and that I especially had quite a tiff, because he wished me to say, Mussulman feelings (as we say, Christian "Oh! poor man, let him go; I leave charity). the affair to God.” I thought Omar Did you ever hear of such a state absurd ; it was I who was wrong. The

of administration of justice? Of course, authorities concluded that it would sympathy here, as in Ireland, is mostly oblige me very much if the poor devil with the “poor man” in prison, were punished with “a rigour beyond in trouble, as we say. I find that, the law;" and had not Sheykh Yussuf accordingly, a vast number of disputes come and explained the nature of the are settled by private arbitration, and proceedings, the man would have been Yussuf is constantly sent for to decide sent up to the mines in Fazogl for life, between contending parties, who abide

No. 65,- VOL. XI.

a fine


by his decision rather than go to law; sobriquet of the Prophet. Omar kisses or else, five or six respectable men are the hands of his Sidi el Keeber (the called upon to form a sort of amateur great master), and desires his best salaam jury, and to settle the matter. In to the little master and the little lady, criminal cases, if the prosecutor is whose servant he is. He asks if I too powerful, he has it all his own way; if do not kiss Scander Bey's hand in my the prisoner can bribe high, he is apt letter, as I ought to do, as his Hareem; to get off. All the appealing to my or whether I make myself “ big before compassion was quite en règle ;-another my master,” like some French ladies he trait of Egypt.

has seen.

Yussuf is quite puzzled about The other day we found all our water- European women, and a little shocked jars empty, and our house unsprinkled; at the want of respect to their husbands on inquiry, it turned out that the Sak- they display. I told him that the outkas had all run away, carrying with ward respect shown us by our men was them their families and goods, and were our veil, and explained how superficial gone no one knew whither, in conse- the difference was. He fancied that the quence of “some persons having au- law gave us the upper hand. thority,” or one, a Turkish cawass (police- Omar reports yesterday's sermon,-man), having forced them to fetch water “On Toleration," it appears. Yussuf took for building purposes at so low a price the text, “Thou shalt love thy brother as that they could not bear it. My poor thyself, and never act towards him but Sakka is gone without a whole month's as thou wouldst he should act towards pay—two shillings, the highest pay by thee." I forget the chapter and verse, far given in Luxor.

but it seems he took the bull by the I am interested in another story. I horns, and declared all men to be hear that a plucky woman here has been brothers,—not Muslimeen only,—and to Keneh, and threatened the Moodir desired his congregation to look at the that she will go to Cairo, and complain good deeds of others, and not at their to Effendina himself of the unfair draft- erroneous faith ; for God is all-knowing ing for soldiers ; her only son taken, (i.e. He only knows the heart), and if while others have bribed off. She will they saw aught amiss, to remember that walk in this heat all the way, unless the best man needs say“ Astalfer Allah" she succeeds in frightening the Moodir, (I beg pardon of God) seven times a day. which, as she is of the more spirited I wish the English could know how sex in this country, she may possibly unpleasant and mischievous their manner do. You see these Sacedees are a bit of talking to their servants about religion less patient than the people in Lower is. Omar confided to me “how bad it Egypt; the Sakkas can strike, and a felt to be questioned and then to see the woman can face a Moodir.

Englishman laugh, or put up his lip Some one tried to put it into Omar's and say nothing.” “I don't want to talk head that it was “Haran” to be too fond about his religion at all, but if he talks of us heretics and be faithful; but he about mine he ought to speak of his own consulted Sheykh Yussuf, who promised too. You, my lady, say, when I tell you him a reward hereafter for good conduct things, that is the same with us,' or to me, and who told me of it as a good that is different, or good, or not good, in joke; adding that he was “Ragul Ameen,” your mind; and that is the proper way, the highest praise for fidelity,—the not to look like thinking, all nonsense.”

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