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“Be not of us afraid,
Poor kindred man! thy fellow-creatures, we
From the sare Parent power our being drew,
The same our Lord, our laws, our great pursuit.”—Thomsox.

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Ethiopian embraces the African central tribes and their varieties, the Negroes of Western Africa, and the Kaffirs of the south. The Central Afri

are marked by an elongated, narrow cranium, crisp and curly hair, projecting jaws, thick lips, and black or dusky skin. In the Negro the skull is

narrow, or compressed at

the sides, and elongated from front to back, the dome arched and dense, the forehead convex, retreating, and narrow; the contour of the head is smooth compared with the angular form of the Mongol ; the cheek bones project forward ; the bridge of the nose is small and flat, the nostrils round and wide ; mouth wide with thick lips ; hair crisp and woolly, except the eyebrows and eyelashes ; beard scanty on the upper lip, and chiefly confined to the point of the chin ; body strong, muscular, and symmetrical ; feet broad and heavy, and the soles flat. In the Kaffir the cranium rises higher, and is more rounded than in the Negro ; the cheek bones project, the eyes are small and dark, the eyelids occasionally oblique, the face tapers towards the chin, and the jaws are much less prominent than those of the Negro.

[graphic]

NEGRO.

5. Why is the American type so called .? Because it includes the aboriginals of the American continent,

“ Man superior walks
Amid the glad creation, musing praise,
And looking lively gratitude.”—THOmson.

nose

which, though distributed over wide latitudes, and exhibiting considerable diversity of form, have a general physical aspect which is common to the whole. The cheek bones are high, the forehead rather low and retreating ; tho

prominent, not unfrequently a quiline; jaws powerful, mouth large, lips full, eyes small, deep-set, and black; hair coarse, black, and rather

scanty, board scanty. Skin of a red copper colour, and glossy in some North American tribes, and of a yellowish-red, light brown, and sallow hue in the various tribes of South America. This type includes all American aborigines except the Esquimaux, which are Mongolian

6. Why is the fifth type called the Malay ?

Because most of the tribes speak the Malay language, which, iz the various ramifications of this race, may be traced from Madagascar to Easter Island in the South Pacific, half-way between Asia and America. The characteristics of this type are a brown colour, varying from a light tawny tint, not deeper than that of the Spaniards and Portuguese, to a deep brown, approaching to black; black hair, more or less curled, and abundant; head rather narrow; bones of the face large and prominent 'nose full and broad tovards

[graphic]

AMERICAN-WOMAN.

“ Truth bids me look on men as autumn leaves,

And all they bleed for as the summer's dust
Driven by the whirlwind.”-Young.

the point, and mouth large. To this division belong the inhabitants of the peninsula of Malacca, of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes,

and the adjacent islands of Australia, Van Dieman's Land, New Guinea, New Zealand, and the numberless islands seattered throughout the South Sea.

[graphic]

MALAY.

7. Why have the primitive types retained their characteristic features chiefly in mountainous countries ?

Because the stream of immi

gration naturally takes place in the direction of rivers, by which the tribes of the plains become mixed and changed ; but mountains are less accessible, and frequently form almost impenetrable boundaries. We therefore find among mountaineers the remnants of the oldest races.

8. Why are there so many different complexions in the tribes composing the various types ?

The problem has occupied the attention of philosophers and Divines in all ages. The result of their investigations shows that no single cause, but a variety of causes, must be considered. The most important of them are, 1, climate ; 2, organization ; 3, intermarriage ; 4, exceptional circumstances. The influence of climate is shown by the fact that every zone is more or less marked by a distinctive colour. Black prevails under the equator, copper colour under the tropics, olive and fair towards the poles.

“ 'Tis vain to seek in man far more than man.

Though proud in promise big in previous thought,
Experience damps our triumphs."_YOUNG.

The influence of organization is shown in many instances : the Moors, who have lived for ages under a burning sun, still have white children, and the offspring of Europeans in the Indies have the original tint of their progenitors. Different complexions are in some cases intermixed by immigrart races, and white and black people dwell together; and complexions are modified by the offspring of marriages between members of the different races. But it is further and most conclusively demonstrated by an examination of the skins of the darkly-coloured races, in which a secreted colouring matter is found. The skin is thicker and harder in black people than in white. The external skin of each is transparent and colourless. The colouring matter of the coloured races lies in the rete mucosum, or inner skin, and this colour is seen through the transparent true skin, just as white people see the traces of their dark veins through the same cuticle. The influences of intermarriage are abundantly demonstrated by the fact that the union of black and white parents generally produces children of an intermediate character, which are called mulattoes ; and of exceptional circunstances in the less frequent occurrence of the birth of pie-bald negroes, having their skin diversified with black and white spots, and part of their woolly hair white ; of short parents producing very tall children, &c.

9. The change of colour in the human skin, from exposure to sun and air, is well known to be temporary. The discoloration which we term “ tanning," or being “sun-burnt,” as well as the spots called “freckles,” are most incidental to fair skins, and disappear when the parts are covered or no longer exposed to the sun. The children of the husbandman or of the sailor whose countenance bears the marks of other climes, are just as fair as those of the most delicate and pale inhabitants of a city.

10. What imparted various tribes the different habits and modes of life for which they are remarkable ?

Chiefly the physical features of the countries in which they were born, or into which they wandered. The people who established themselves in the frozen regions of the north not finding enough of vegetable nourishment, became hunters and fishers. Necessarily separated from each other for the pursuit of sustenance, they multiplied slowly,

“ So from the first eternal order ran,

And creature link'd to creature man to man."-POPR.

and civilization remained unknown. Among such people the arts are confined to the construction of huts, the preparation of skins for covering, and to the manufacture of spears and other weapons. The inhabitants of the northern and eastern parts of Siberia, and the

savages of North America, are almost the only people who are now to be found in this primitive state. Those people who feed numerous herds of cattle, in localities where it was necessary to seek new pastures for their maintenance, necessarily adopted a wandering life. Travelling in numbers, they acquired ideas of property and of mutual rights ; and inequality of condition soon gave one man power over another. But the wandering life in search of new pastures and more agreeable climates, kept them still within very narrow limits of civilization. The Laplanders in the north of Europe, the Tartars, who inhabit the vast region in the interior of Asia, the Bedouin Arabs, who occupy the sands of Arabia and the north of Africa, and the Caffres and Hottentots in Southern Africa, are the principal wandering tribes that still remain. In countries where the nature of the soil and the value of the productions rendered an abiding residence essential, people took to agriculture, acquired property in land, developed themselves into classes, instituted laws, became less predatory and warlike ; and when, in the division of labour and duty, the functions of the civilian became separated from those of the soldier, the civil portion of society cultivated various improvements and assumed the habits of civilized men.

11. What is the chief physical distinction between man and the inferior animals ?

The brain of man is proportionally much larger, and the jaws are much shorter than in any other being. The brain, by its great extent, forms the protuberance of the occipital bone, the forehead. and all that part of the head which is above the ears.

In the inferior animals the brain is so small that most of them bave no occiput, and the front is either wanting or but little raised. Man combines by far the largest cranium with the smallest face ;

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