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THE

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NATURAL HISTORY.

CHAPTER I.

THE NATURAL DISTORY OF MAN.

1. What are the principal types of the varieties of the human race?

The types generally recognized are those pointed out by Blumenbach, consisting of–1. The Caucasian ; 2. The Mongolian; 3. The Ethiopian ; 4. The American ; 5. The Malay. .

2. Why is the first of these types called the Caucasian ?

Because the tribes from which this great division of the human family descended have for many ages been the occupants of the mountain chain of the Caucasus.

The characters of this variety are, a white skin, either with a rosy

• The chapter upon the Natural History of Man las been founded upon Johnson's Physical Atlas ; Prichard's Physical History of Mankind; Lawrence's Lectures; Latham's Varieties of Man ; The Encyclopædia Britannica, art. Man; and the concluding pages of Humboldt's Cosmos. For the subsequent chapters, a great number of authorities have been consu ted, which are specified in the list of " Authorities."

B

He prayeth best who loveth best

All things both great and small;
For the great God who loveth us,
He made and loveth all.”-COLERIDGE.

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tint, or inclining to brown ; red cheeks; hair black, or of the various lighter colours, abundant, and more or less curled or waving ; irides dark in those of brown skin ; light blue, grey, or greenish, in the fair or rosy complexioned ; large cranium with small face, the upper and anterior regions of the former particularly developed, and the latter falling perpendicularly under them ; face oval

and straight, with features distinct from each other ; expanded forehead, narrow and rather aquiline nose, and small mouth; front teeth of both jaws perpendicular ; lips, particularly the lower, gently turned out ; chin full, rounded, and bearded.

In this type the moral feelings and intellectual powers are most energetic, being susceptible of the highest development and culture. It includes all the ancient and modern Europeans, except the Laplanders and the rest of the Finnish race.

The sub-divisions, or varieties of this type are—the Circas; an, or true Caucasian; the Syro-Arabian : Hindoo, Celtic, Greciar, Italian, German, Slavonic, &c., and Gypsies, originally from the banks of the Indus, from whence they have wandered over Europe.

CAUCASIAN.

“ Know then thyself, presume not God to scan,

The proper study of mankind is man.”—Pope.

3. Why is the second of these types called the Mongolian ?

From the vast region of Mongolia, over which they are generally spread.

They are characterized by an olive colour, which in many cases is very light; black eyes ; black, straight, strong, and thin hair ; little or no beard ; head of a square form, with small and low forehead; broad and flattened face, with the features running together; nose small

and flat ; cheeks projecting ; eyes placed very obliquely ; slight

projection of the chin ; with the ears large and lips thick.

The stature, particularly in the countries within the Arctic circle, is inferior to that of Europeans.

The sub-divisions of this type are the true Mongols, the Tibetans, Chinese, Burmese, Siamese, Samoeids, Yeniseians, Finns, Lapps, Esquimaux, Turks, &c. These tribes occupy Central and Northern Asia, the Asiatic Islands, and the Arctic coasts of Asia and America.

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MONGOLIAN.

4. Why is the third type denominated the Ethiopian !

Because the primitive tribes were the occupants of Ethiopra, or the country of the dark skinned, the ancient name of Africa. The

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