« PreviousContinue »
VIEWS OF THE COMPLETED PANAMA CANAL
The interoceanic canal across the Isthmus of Panama was practically completed in May, 1914, seven months before the scheduled date for its official opening. Plans for celebrating the event were materially modified on account of the war in Europe.
The waterway was put into use as soon as it was rendered passable for freight-carrying hulls, though its early operation has been somewhat hampered by slides of land which temporarily blocked the channel. Our illustrations on the reverse page show its use by vessels of both the merchant marine and navy. The upper view shows the Nebraskan approaching the canal from the Pacific Ocean; the middle shows the U. S. S. Missouri passing the Cucaracha slide, looking north, July 16, 1915; the lower view shows the operation of the Gatun locks, a Class C submarine, and the Severn (tender) in the lower east chamber ready to be lowered, April 15, 1914.
able also to perform duties and exercise privileges of succour and helpfulness which should serve to demonstrate our desire to make the offices of friendship the means of truly disinterested and unselfish service. Our ability to serve all who could avail themselves of our services in the midst of crisis has been increased, by a gracious Providence, by more and more abundant crops; our ample financial resources have enabled us to steady the markets of the world and facilitate necessary movements of commerce which the war might otherwise have rendered impossible; and our pecple have come more and more to a sober realization of the part they have been called upon to play in a time when all the world is shaken by unparalleled distress and disasters. The extraordinary circumstances of such a time have done much to quicken our national consciousness and deepen and confirm our confidence in the principles of peace and freedom by which we have always sought to be guided. Out of darkness and perplexity have come firmer counsels of policy and clearer perceptions of the essential welfare of the nation. We have prospered while other people were at war, but our prosperity has been vouchsafed us, we believe, only that we might the better perform the functions which war rendered it impossible for them to perform.
Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America, do hereby designate Thursday the twenty-fifth of November next as a day of thanksgiving and prayer, and invite the people throughout the land to cease from their wonted occupations and in their several homes and places of worship render thanks to Almighty God.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington this twentieth day of October in
the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fifteen (SEAL] and of the independence of the United States of America
the one hundred and fortieth. By the President:
WOODROW WILSON. ROBERT LANSING, Secretary of State.
By the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
(Forbidding the Export of Arms and Munitions of War to Mexico.] Whereas, a Joint Resolution of Congress, approved March 14, 1912, reads and provides as follows: "That whenever the President shall find that in any American country conditions of domestic violence exist which are promoted by the use of arms or munitions of war procured from the United States, and shall make proclamation thereof, it shall be unlawful to export except under such limitations and exceptions as the President shall prescribe any arms or munitions of war from any place in the United States to such country until otherwise ordered by the President cr by Congress”;
And whereas, it is provided by Section II of the said Joint Resolution, “That any shipment of material hereby declared unlawful after such a proclamation shall be punishable by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars, or imprisonment not exceeding two years, or both”;
Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America, acting under and by virtue of the authority conferred on me by the said Joint Resolution of Congress, do hereby declare and proclaim that I have found that there exist in Mexico such conditions of domestic violence promoted by the use of arms or munitions of war procured from the United States as contemplated by the said Joint Resclution; and I do hereby admonish all citizens of the United States and every person to abstain from every violation of the provisions of the Joint Resolution above set forth, hereby made applicable to Mexico, and I do hereby warn them that all viclations of such provisions will be rigorously prosecuted. And I do hereby enjoin upon all officers of the United States, charged with the execution of the laws thereof, the utmost diligence in preventing violations of the said Joint Resolution and this my Proclamation issued thereunder, and in bringing to trial and punishment any offenders against the same.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington this nineteenth day of October in
the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fifteen (SEAL] and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and fortieth.
WOODROW WILSON. By the President:
ROBERT LANSING, Secretary of State.
EXECUTIVE ORDERS [The President's order making an exception in favor of the Carranza de facto government in Mexico took the form of the following letter to Secretary Mc Adoo:)
THE WHITE House,
WASHINGTON, D. C., October 19, 1915. My Dear MR. SECRETARY: I am informed by the Department of State that the recognized de facto Government of Mexico is now in effective control of all the ports of entry in Mexico, except those along the international boundary in the States of Chihuahua and Sonora, and all the ports in Lower California.
An exception is hereby made to the prohibition against export created by the President's proclamation of October 19, 1915, and you will please instruct the Collectors of Ports and other officers of the Treasury Department to permit to be exported through United States Custom Houses munitions of war for the use of the recognized de facto Government of Mexico, or for industrial or commercial uses within the limits of the territory under its effective control, as above set forth. An embargo, therefore, will be immediately placed against the border ports in the States of Chihuahua and Sonora, as well as all ports in the territory of Lower California, whether or not controlled by the recognized de facto Government of Mexico, and you will so instruct the appropriate Collectors of Customs and other officers of the Treasury Department. Sincerely yours,
[Prescribing Consular Regulations for Maintaining the Rights and Enforcing the
Duties of American Sailors in Foreign Ports.]
The White House, October 21, 1915. The Consular Regulations of 1896 are hereby amended as follows:
192. In case of loss by desertion-In case of desertion or casualty resulting in the loss of one or more of the seamen, the master must ship if obtainable, a number, equal to the number of these, whose services he has been deprived of by desertion or casualty, who must be of the same or of higher grade or rating with those, whose places they fill, and report the same to the United States consul, at the port at which he shall arrive. This section shall not apply to fishing or whaling vessels, or yachts. R. S. sec. 4516. Mar. 4, 1915.
205. Bond for return of seamen—The master of every vessel bound on a foreign voyage or engaged in the whale fishery, is required by law to exhibit a certified copy of the crew list to the first boarding officer at the first port in the United States at which he shall arrive on his return and also to produce the persons named in the crew list. For each failure to produce any person on the certified copy of the crew list, the master and the owner of the vessel are severally liable to a penalty of $400. But the penalty is not incurred for failure to produce any seaman named in the crew list who has been discharged in a foreign country with the consent of a consular officer, certified in writing under his hand and official seal to be produced to the collector with the other persons composing the crew; nor on account of any such persons dying or absconding or being forcibly impressed into other service of which satisfactory proof shall then also be exhibited to the collector. A master cannot lawfully discharge a seaman in a foreign port without the intervention of the consular officer; and it is not material in such case that the discharge is made with the seaman's consent, or that he has misconducted himself, or is not a citizen of the United States. (R. S. 4576; 7 op. Att. Gen., 349; 1 Low, 107; Tawney's Dec. 24; 29 Stat. L. 688).
207. Cases in which seamen are discharged—Add as section 13. “The seamen shall not be shipped to work alternately on deck and in the fireroom, nor shall those shipped for deck duty be required to work in the fireroom or vice versa, but these provisions shall not limit either the authority of the master, or other officer, or the obedience of the seamen, when in the judgment of the master, or other officer, the whole or any part of the crew are needed for the maneuvering of the vessel or the performance of work necessary for the safety of the vessel or of her cargo, or for the saving of life aboard other vessels in jeopardy, or when in port or at sea, from requiring the whole or any part of the crew to participate in the performance of fire, lifeboat and other drills. While such vessel is in a safe harbor, no seaman shall be required to do any unnecessary work on Sundays, or the following named days: New Year's Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day, but this shall not prevent the despatch of a vessel on regular schedule or when ready to proceed on her voyage. And at all times while such vessel is in a safe harbor, nine hours, inclusive of the anchor watch, shall constitute a day's work. Whenever the master of any vessel shall fail to comply with this section, the seaman shall be entitled to discharge from such vessel, and to receive the wages earned. This section shall not apply to fishing vessels, whaling vessels, or to yachts. Sec. 2, Act March 4, 1915.
210. Desertion from cruel treatment,When a consular officer discharges a seaman—in case of desertion caused by unusual or cruel treatment—he must enter upon the crew list, shipping articles and official log, the cause of discharge. In all cases where seamen or. officers are accused, the consular officers shall inquire into the facts, and upon being satisfied of the justice and truth of such complaints, shall require the master to pay such seaman one month's extra wages, over and above the wages due at the time of discharge, and to provide him with adequate employment on board some other vessel, or to provide him with passage on board some other vessel, bound to the port from which he was originally shipped, or to the most convenient port of entry in the United States, or to a port agreed to by the seaman; and the officer discharging such seaman shall enter upon the shipping articles, crew list and official log, the cause of such discharge and the particulars in which the unusual or cruel treatment consisted and subscribe his name thereto, officially. He shall read the entry