Underground Injection Science and Technology

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C-F. Tsang, J.A. Apps
Elsevier, Dec 28, 2005 - Science - 730 pages
Chapters by a distinguished group of international authors on various aspects of Underground Injection Science and Technology are organized into seven sections addressing specific topics of interest. In the first section the chapters focus on the history of deep underground injection as well regulatory issues, future trends and risk analysis. The next section contains ten chapters dealing with well testing and hydrologic modeling. Section 3, consisting of five chapters, addresses various aspects of the chemical processes affecting the fate of the waste in the subsurface environment. Consideration is given here to reactions between the waste and the geologic medium, and reactions that take place within the waste stream itself.

The remaining four sections deal with experience relating to injection of, respectively, liquid wastes, liquid radioactive wastes in Russia, slurried solids, and compressed carbon dioxide. Chapters in Section 4, cover a diverse range of other issues concerning the injection of liquid wastes including two that deal with induced seismicity. In Section 5, Russian scientists have contributed several chapters revealing their knowledge and experience of the deep injection disposal of high-level radioactive liquid processing waste. Section 6 consists of five chapters that cover the technology surrounding the injection disposal of waste slurries. Among the materials considered are drilling wastes, bone meal, and biosolids. Finally, four chapters in Section 7 deal with questions relating to carbon dioxide sequestration in deep sedimentary aquifers. This subject is particularly topical as nations grapple with the problem of controlling the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

* Comprehensive coverage of the state of the art in underground injection science and technology
* Emerging subsurface waste disposal technologies
* International scope

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Page 39 - Underground injection endangers drinking water sources if such injection may result in the presence in underground water which supplies or can reasonably be expected to supply any public water system of any contaminant, and if the presence of such contaminant may result in such system's not complying with any national primary drinking water regulation or may otherwise adversely affect the health of persons.
Page 39 - No owner or operator shall construct, operate, maintain, convert, plug, abandon, or conduct any other injection activity in a manner that allows the movement of fluid containing any contaminant into underground sources of drinking water, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of any primary drinking water regulation under 40 CFR Part 142 or may otherwise adversely affect the health of persons.
Page 40 - V wells, if at any time the Director learns that a Class V well may cause a violation of primary drinking water regulations under 40 CFR Part 142, he or she shall: (1) Require the injector to obtain an individual permit; (2) Order the injector to take such actions (including where required closure of the injection well) as may be necessary to prevent the violation; or (3) Take enforcement action. (d) Whenever the Director learns that a Class V well may be otherwise adversely affecting the health...

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