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without a general idea of their internal condition, of their interests, and the motives of their policy. But as the English reader of this book may be presumed to have acquired a general knowledge of the history of his own country, the domestic affairs of England have not been described. On the other hand, particular attention has been paid to the policy of England as a member of the European commonwealth.

This second and revised edition will be found to contain the same principles on which the first was written. They are those of rational liberty, both civil and religious, as established and fostered by the Protestant Reformation, and by the more liberal and enlightened views to which it gave birth. And though compliance with certain retrograde notions might perhaps have increased the circulation of the book, the Author was unwilling to sacrifice to such a consideration what he considers to be the interests of truth and progress.

ВАТИ,

Sept. 3rd, 1877.

A

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36

GERMANY.

John Liska.

Holy Roman Empire

22 Compactata of Prague

King of the Romans .

24 Albert in Hungary

37

Sovereign Houses

25 The Hungarian Palatine

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Establishment of the Turks in Europe, their Wars with the Hungarians,

Venetians, 8c., till the Death of Mahomet II.-Affairs of Italy down

to the Turkish Invasion in 1481 (pp. 79—116).

Page A.D.

Page

1453. Capture of Constantinople 79 1458. Mahomet II, annexes Servia. 94

Mahomet consolidates his Em-

1462.

reduces Wallachia

pire

1469. The Turks overrun the Herze.

The Greek Patriarchato

govina

State of Peloponnesus

80 1464. Mahomet II. conquers Bosnia. 95

1454. Revolt of the Albanians

1459. Pope Pius II. calls the Council

1460. Mahomet II. reduces the Morea

of Mantua

Fate of the despots Thomas

Project of a Crusade

and Demetrius .

81 1461. The Pope's Letter to Mahomet 96

Duchy of Athens.

1463. Venetian and Turkish War

Annexed with Thebes to the

Alliance between Venice, Hun-

Turkish Empire

gary, and the Pope

Reduction of Greek Towns and

Exertions of Pius II.

97

Islands

82

War in the Morea

98

Nature of the Turkish Govern- 1464. Death of Pope Pius II. ·

ment

Election of Paul II.

Greece sinks into Barbarism 83

His Character.

99

Alarm in Europe.

1465. Scanderbeg allied with Venice

Æneas Sylvius Piccolomini 84 1467. His Death .

Bull of Pope Nicholas V.

1470. The Turks conquer Negro-

1454. Venice and Genoa make peace

pont

with the Turks

Their Progress in the North

Mahomet enters Pera

85 1475. Defeated by Matthias Corvinus 100

Genoa pledges her Colonies

1477. The Turks penetrate into the

Helpless State of Europe

Venetian Territory

Disturbances in Austria and 1479. Treaty between Venice and the

Hungary

86

Porte.

101

Weakness of the Emperor

Ruin of the Genoese Commerce

Frederick III.

Defeat of the Turks by Paul

Revolts of Count Cilly and

Eyzinger

Mahomet conquers three of the

Mahomet invades Servia

87

Ionian Islands.

102

The Turks defeated by Hunyad

Retrospective view of Italy

1455. Death of Pope Nicholas V.

1458. Death and Character of Al.

Friar Giovanni da Capestrano.

fonso of Naples

Zeal of Pope Calixtus III. . 88 Character of Pope Calixtus III. 103

1456. Mahomet besieges Belgrade

He opposes the accession of

Repulsed by llunyad and Ca.

Ferdinand, illegitimate son

pestrano.

89

of Alfonso

Death of Hunyad and Capes- : Pius II. recoguizes Ferdinand

trano.

90

Revolt of the Neapolitan Barons

Plots of Count Cilly.

John of Anjou invades Naples 104

He is slain by Hunyad's sons 91 1460. Defeats Ferdinand

Who are seized by King Ladis-

Great qualities of Ferdinand's

laus, and the elder executed

Consort Isabella

1457. Death of Ladislaus Posthumus 1461. Ferdinand assisted by Scan-

Competitors for the Crown of

derbeg

105

Hungary

92 1462. John of Anjou defeated at Troia

1458. Election of Matthias Corvinus. 1464. retires from Italy .

George Podiebrad chosen King

Death of Cosmo de' Medici .

of Bohemia.

His Character

1459. Frederick III. crowned King of

Conspiracy against Peter de'

Hungary.

93

Medici

106

1463. Resigns the Crown to Matthias 1467. Battle of La Molinella

107

Insurrection in Austria

93 1468. Pope Paul II. publishes a Peace

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Affairs of France and Burgundy down to the Truce of 1472; with a brief

View of English Affairs under Edward IV. (pp. 117–145).

1456. The Dauphin Louis in banish- 1464. Preparations of Louis

126

ment

117

He establishes Posts .

He flies into Brabant

1465. Civil War in France.

127

Character of Louis

118

Battle of Montlhéry

of the Heir of Bur-

Louis incites a Revolt in Bel.

gundy

gium

128

Dauphiné united to the French

Treaties of Conflans and St.

Crown.

119

Maur

1458. Charles VII. acquires the tem-

Importance of the latter to the

porary Sovereignty of Genoa

French Monarchy

129

1461. Death of Charles VII.

120

Contrast of the French and

Sacre of Louis XI.

English Nobles

Splendour of the Duke of Bur- 1466. Normandy reannexed to the

gundy.

French Crown

130

Singular Tournament

121

Cruel Treatment of the Bur.

Cynicism of Louis .

gundian Rebels

He creates the Parliament of

1467. Death of Philip the Good 131

Bordeaux and University of

Accession and Character of

Bourges

Charles the Bold

His proceedings against the

Insurrections at Ghent and

Clergy .

122

Liége ..

132

And against the great Vassals 1468. Marriage between Charles and

of the Crown

Margaret of York .

Duchy of Brittany

States-General in France 132

of Normandy

Treaty of Ancenis with the

1462. Louis acquires Rousillon 123

Duke of Brittany.

133

Allies himself with the Swiss

Louis entrapped by Charles

and the Duke of Milan

Treaty of Péronne

134

1463. Recovers the Towns on the

Louis serves under the Duke of

Burgundy

Truce of Hesdin with Edw. iv.

Punishment of Liége.

135

Louis threatens Brittany 124

Ambitious views of Charles

Attempts to seize its Vice-

Character of Louis's Minis-

Chancellor at Gorcum

ters.

136

Rupture with Burgundy 125

Cardinal Balue

1464. Ligue du Bien Public

Connection between Louis XI.

Its principal Leaders

126

and the Earl of Warwick 137

.

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