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(A) Hoffmann and Ihne have published a special list of plants selected by them as a result of many years' experience in Europe. The following calendar, copied from the appeal for “ phenological observations,” contained in their “ Beitrage, 1884,” shows the names of the plants and the approximate date in Europe of the phenomena that they wish to have observed. Corresponding observations in America are desirable and should be communicated either to them directly or to the journals of botany, climatology, or general science, or to the botanist of the Department of Agriculture.
CALENDAR FOR PHENOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.
Instructions.—Plants should be examined daily. The object is to obtain for individual stations average data characteristic of the climate; therefore plants that are known to be exceptionally early or iate, and those that are forced by special treatment, or those that are artificially trained on walls are not to be considered. It is not necessary to confine the observations to the same plant year after year, but to those individuals that represent the average conditions of the plant in nature.
For brevity the following notation may be used:
(1) Leaf, or the first visible surfaces of the leaves, or beginning of the leafing out or of the foliage (frondescentia: prima folia explicantur Linne; erste Blattoberfläche Hoffmann; feuillaison Quetelet).
(F) Full foliage: All leaves have appeared (folatio perf. Linne; allgemeine Blatt Hoffmann).
(2) Flower, or the first opening of the flower buds (efflorescentia: primi flores ostenduntur Linne; erste Blüthe offen Hoffmann; floraison Quetelet).
(3) Ripe fruit (Prima fructus matura; baccae definite colorata Linne; erste Frucht reif Hoffmann; maturation des fruits Quetelet).
(H) Harvest, or first date of cutting cereals (Ernte Anfang Hoffmann; Messis initium Linne).
(4) Leaves color or fall (foliorum pars major decolorata Linne); allgemeine Laubverfarbung Hoffmann; vollständige Entlaubung Karl Fritsch; Effeuillaison, chute des feuilles Quetelet).
Phenological calendar for Giessen.
Phase of veg. ||
Phase of veg.
Feb. 10 Corylus avellana ..... Pollen.
Ribes rubrum ........ Flower.
Pyrus malus.......... Flower.
Lonicera tatarica ..... Flower.
Cratagus oxyacantha - Do.
Sorbus aucuparia ..... Do.
May 28 Atropa belladonna..... Flower
Salva officinalis ........ Do.
Ribes rubrum.......... Fruit.
5 Ribes aureum ........ Do.
Æsculus hippocast. ... Do.
Fagus sylvatica ...... Do.
(B) Smithsonian list.-In the United States calls for phenological observations were issued by the New York Agricultural Society in 1807 and by the Regents of the University of New York aboui 1820, also by Josiah Meigs as Commissioner of the General Land Office in 1817, but the principal work has been that undertaken by Prof. Joseph Henry, who as Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution established in 1848 a system of phenological observations undoubtedly arranged by Dr. Asa Gray or Dr. Arnold Guyot, and subsequently published a revised list of plants and epochs.
This system was also promulgated by the Department of the Interior on behalf of the Patent Office and its Bureau of Agriculture requesting accurate observations. The following is an abstract of Doctor Gray's schedule, which is here produced, because we shall have occasion to quote observations made on this plan, which was a slight modification of Quetelet's plan.
The observations thus collected by the Smithsonian, 1854–1859, were used by Fritsch in his memoir and list quoted on page 191.
The following observations were requested by the Smithsonian Institution:
(1) Frondescence, or leafing: When the buds first open and exhibit the green leaf.
(2) Flowering: When the anther is first exhibited—(a) in the most favorable location; (6) general flowering of the species.
(3) Fructification: When the pericarp splits spontaneously in dehiscent fruits or the indehiscent fruit is fully ripe.
(4) Fall or leaf: When the leaves have nearly all fallen. List of plants recommended for observation by the Smithsonian Institution.
Pages of Gray's Manual of Botany.
Edi- Edition VI. tion V.
Red or soft maple.
Millefoil or yarrow.
White baneberry; necklace weed. 116 Aesculus hippocastanum L
Horse-chestnut. 116 Aesculus glabra Willd.
Ohio buckeye. 116
Aesculus flava Ait............... Yellow buckeye. 107 Ailantus glandulosa..........
Tree of heaven; ailanthus. 166 162 Amelanchier canadensis ..
Shad bush; service berry.
Aquilegia canadensis L ............. Wild columbine. 315
Arctostaphylos uva-ursa (Spreng)... Bearberry. 341 Asclepias cornuti Decaisne .
Azalea nudiflora L .............. Common red honeysuckle.
Shagbark or shellbark hickory. 147 144 Cercis canadensis L.....
Redbud; Judas tree. 152 Cerasus virginiana D.C.......
Chokeberry or chokecherry.
Wild black cherry.
Black-snake root; rattlesnake root.
White alder or sweet pepper bush. 214 Cornus florida L.........
Flowering dogwood. (The real flower,
not the white involucre.) 166 160 Cratægus crus-galli L........
Cockspur thorn. 165 160 Cratægus coccinea L...........
Scarlet-fruited thorn. 165 159 Cratægus oxycantha L .......... English hawthorn. 315
Epigwa repens L .................. Trailing arbutus; ground laurel. 188 177 Epilobium angustifolium L........ Willow herb. 528
Erythronium americanum Smith ...... Dogtooth violet or adder's-tongue. 401 Fraxinus americana L .................. White ash.
289 Gaylussacia resinosa Torrey and Gray. Black huckleberry. 389 335 Gerardia flava L.......... ---- Yellow false foxglove. 103 ! 107 Geranium maculatum L...............- Crane's bill. a This genus of Rosacep is not in Gray's Manual of Plants Indigenous to United States.
List of plants recommended for observation by the Smithsonian Institution-Con.
310 Halesia tetraptera Willd............. Snowdrop tree.
riona Chaix................. Round-lobed liverwort.
Large blue flag.
Wild lupine. 50 ' Liriodendron tulipifera L...... Tulip tree; American poplar. 49 Magnolia glauca L ............. Small or laurel magnolia; sweet bay. 211 Mitchella repens L......
Mandrake; May apple. 545 Pontederia cordata L.............. Pickerel weed.
Pogonia ophioglossoides Nutt ...... Adder's-tongue. 161 Pyrus communis L.
Common pear tree. 161 Pyrus malus L..................
Common apple tree. 4501 Quercus alba L................
White oak. 300 Rhododendron maximum L..
Great laurel. 165 Ribes rubrum L...........
Common elder. 205 Sambucus nigra L............
Black elder. 60 Sanguinaria canadensis L ....... Bloodroot. 58 Sarracenia purpurea L.
Side-saddle flower. 168 Saxifraga virginiensis Michx....... Early saxifrage.
Smilacina bifolia Ker. (Maianthemum Two-leaved Solomon-seal.
Bass wood; American lime or lindea. 442 Ulmus americana L.
American elm. 206 Viburnum lentago L...-......
164 164 475 321 176 134 134
This genus of the order Rosaceæ is not in Gray's Manual of Plants Indigenous to the United States.
Chapter XI. ACCLIMATIZATION AND HEREDITY. Scientific literature is full of illustrations of the natural and artificial acclimatization of plants and the influence of the annual variations of climate on the crops, all of which exemplify Linsser's general laws.
The following remarks and data relative to the changes of climate during the historical period, as given by Fritz (1889, pp. 266-269)., will be valuable for further study and are referred to in another part of this work:
The northern boundary of vine culture in Europe extends from somewhat north of the mouth of the Loire, where the Marne empties into the Seine, to the junction of the Aar and the Rhine, north of the Erzgebirge, to about the fifty-second degree of latitude, descends along the Carpathians to the forty-ninth degree, extends on this parallel eastward, and near the Volga turns southward to its mouth, on the Caspian Sea. In the middle ages wine was made in the south of England, in Gloucester and Windsor; in the Netherlands; in Namur, Liege, Louvain; in northern Germany, in the Eifel range of hills in Sauerland (a division of Rhenish Prussia), on the slopes of the Ruhr Mountains, on the Weser as far as Raddesdorf, in lesser Waldeck (or Pyrmont); in Hesse as far as Fritzlar; in Thuringia, in Brandenburg, and in lower Lusatia ; in Berlin, Brandenburg, Oderberg, Guben; in Prussia, at Kulm, Neuenburg, Thorn, Marienburg, even beyond Königsberg; in Kurland (Courland), and even in Seeland (Zealand) the vine has been cultivated in great quantities. Although we have very favorable accounts of many harvests in those times, even for the highest of the latitudes mentioned above, still one must not generalize too far. The sensation of taste is very variable and often peculiar. We frequently at the present time obtain a very sour beverage from countries reputed to produce good wine, and in the north we eat grapes which farther south are considered very sour. It must be taken for granted that in those times when there was no communication over long distances they were not very exacting in regard to wine, particularly as the best wines were unknown, as must have been the case in northern Germany; the Netherlands, and England. If the wine was harsh and sour, it was still wine, which in favorable years, and even in those latitudes where the crop did excellently well, could be made into a very drinkable beverage. In later times, and when better wines became known, when