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ripen in autumn. S. indicum, with trifid fore, is never allowed in actions upon the lower leaves, grows naturally in India; this case, trespass, replevin, &c.; nor of a peis also an annual plant; the stalk rises taller nalty in debt on bond conditioned for the than that of the former ; the lower leaves performance of covenants, &c.; nor of geare cut into three parts, which is the only neral damages in covenant or assumpsit: difference between them. The first sort is but where a bond is conditioned for the pay. frequently cultivated in all the eastern ment of an annuity, a set off may be allow. countries, and also in Africa, as a pulse ; éd. A debt barred by the statute of limiand of late years the seeds have been intro- tations cannot be set off; and if it be duced into Carolina by the African negroes, pleaded in bar to the action, the plaintiff where they succeed extremely well. The may reply the statnte of limitations ; or if inhabitants of that country make an oil from given in evidence, on a notice of set off, the seed, which will keep good for many which is one mode of setting up this sort of years, without having any rancid smell or counter-demand, it may be objected to at taste, but in two years become quite mild ; the trial. so that when the warm taste of the seed, SET, or Sets, a term used by the which is in the oil when first drawn, is worn farmers and gardeners to express the young off, they use it as a salad-oil, and for all the plants of the white thorn and other shrubs, purposes of sweet oil. The seeds of this with which they use to raise their quick or plant are also used by the negroes for food; quickset hedges. which seeds they parch over the fire, and S ETON, in surgery, a few horse hairs, then mix them with water, and stew other small threads, or large packthread drawn ingredients with them, which makes a hearty through the skin, chiefly the neck, by means food.
of a large needle or probe, with a view to SESELI, in botany, meadow saxifrage, a restore or preserve health. genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and SETTE, a vessel very common in the order. Natural order of Umbellatæ or Mediterranean, with one deck, and a very Umbelliferæ. Essential character: umbels long and sharp prow: they carry some two globular; involucre of one or two leaflets; masts, soine three, without top-masts. Their fruit ovate, striated. There are fifteen yards and sails are all like the mizen ; the species.
least of them are of sixty tons buiden. `SESSIONS of the peace. See QUARTER They serve to transport cannon and provi. Sessions.
sion for ships of war, and the like. SESUVIUM, in botany, a genus of the SETTING, in astronomy, the withdraw. Icosandria Trigynia class and order. Na ing of a star or planet, or its sinking below tural order of Succulentæ. Ficoidæ, Jus. the horizon. Astronomers and poets make sieu. Essential character: calyx five-parted, three different kinds of setting of the stars, coloured ; petals none; capsule ovate, riz. the cosmical, acronychal, and helical. three-celled, cut round, many-seeded. There SETTING, in the sea language. To set is only one species, riz, S. portulacastrum, the land or the sun, by the compass, is to a native of the West Indies.
observe how the land bears on any point of SET off, in law, is when the defendant the compass, or on what point of the comacknowledges the justice of the plaintiff's pass the sun is. Also, when two ships sail demand on the one hand, but on the other in sight of one another, to mark on what sets up a demand of his own, to counter point the chased bears, is termed setting balance that of the plaintiff, either in the the chase by the compass. whole or in part; as if the plaintiff sue for SEWER, in the household, an officer 101. due on a note of hand, the defendant who comes in before the meat of a king or may set off 91. due to himself for merchan. nobleman, to place and range it on the dize sold to the plaintiff, or for any other table. demand, the amount of which is ascertained Sewer is also a passage or gutter made in damages.
to carry water into the sea or a river, The action in which a set off is allowable whereby to preserve the land, &c. from inupon the statutes 2 and 3 George II. C. 22 undations and other annoyances. The bu. and 24, are debt, covenant, and assumpsit, siness of the commissioners of sewers, or for the non-payment of money; and the de- their office in particular, is to repair sea. mand intended to be set off inust be such banks and walls, survey rivers, public as might have been made the subject of one streams, ditches, &c. and to make oror other of these actions. A set off, there. ders for that purpose. These commissioners liave, likewise authority to make in- mal arithmetic has now grown into use quiry of all nuisances or offences committed in astronomical calculations. In these by the stopping of rivers, erecting mills, not fractions, which some call astronomical frac. repairing bauks, bridges, &c. and to tax tions, the denominator being always sixty, persons chargeable for the amending of de- or a multiple thereof, is usually omitted, taults that tend to the obstruction or bin- and the numerator only written down, drance of the free passage of the water thus, 4", 59', 32", 50"", 16'''', is to be read through its ancient courses. They may not four degrees, fifty-nine minntes, thirty-two only make a rate and assessment for repairs, seconds, fifty thirds, sixteen fourths, &c. but also may decree lands to be sold, in SEXANGLE, in geometry, a figure havorder to levy charges assessed upon non- ing six sides, and consequently six angles. payment theri of, &c. But the decrees of SEXTANS, a sixth part of certain things. the commissioners are to be certified in The Romans having divided their as into Chancery, and have the King's assent to be twelve ounces, or unica, the sixth part of binding, and their proceedings are subject that, or two ounces, was the sextans. Sex. to the jurisdiction of the King's Benche In tans was also a measnre which contained the making of a rate or tax, the commis- two ounces of liquor, or two cyathi. sioners are to assess every owner or posses- SEXTANT, in mathematics, denotes the sor of lands in danger of receiving any da sixth part of a circle, or an arch compremage by the waters, equally according to hending sixty degrees. The word sextant the quality of their lands, rents, and num. is more particularly used for an astronomibers of acres, and their respective portions cal instrument made like a quadrant, exand profits, whether it be of pasture, fish- cepting that its limb only comprehends ing, &c. And where no persons or lands sixty degrees. The use and application of can be known that are liable to make re- the sextant is the same with that of the pairs of banks and sewers, then the com. quadrant. See QUADRANT. missioners are to rate the whole level. The SEXTILE, the position or aspect of two 3 James I. ordains that all ditches, banks, planets when at sixty degrees distance, or bridges, and water-houses, within two miles at the distance of two signs from one anof London, adjoining to, and falling into the other. It is marked thus (*). Thames, shall be subject to the commis. SEXTON, a church officer, whose busia sioners of sewers. Also the Lord Mayor, ness is to take care of the vessels, vestments, åç, may appoint persons in that case to have &c. belonging to the church, and to attend the power of commissioners of sewers. Per the minister, churchwardens, &c. at church. sons breaking down sea banks, whereby He is usually chosen by the parson only. lands are damaged, aie adjudged to be The office of sexton, in the Pope's chapel, guilty of felony; and removing piles, &c. is appropriated to the order of the hermits forfeit 201. by 6 and 10 George II. c. 32. of St. Augustine. He is generally a bishop,
SEX, something in the body which dis. though sometimes the Pope only gives a tinguishes male from female.
bislopric in particular to him on whom be SEXAGENARY, something relating to confers the post : die takes the title of the number sixty. Thus, sexagenary, or prefect of the Pope's sacristy, and lias the sexagesimal arithmetic, is a method of com. keeping of the vessels of gold and silver, putation proceeding by sixties; such is that the relics, &c. When the pope says mass, used in the division of a degree into sixty the sexton always tastes the bread and wine minutes, of the minute into sixty seconds, first. If it be in private he says mass, his of the second into sixty thirds, &c. Also Holiness of two waters gives him one to sexagenary tables are tables of proportional eat; and if in public, the cardinal who parts, showing the product of two sexage- assists the Pope in quality of deacon, of naries that are to be multiplied, or the quo. three wafers gives him one to eat. When tient of the two that are to be divided. the Pope is very sick, he administers to him
SEXAGESIMALS, or SEXAGESIMAL the sacrament of extreme unction, &c. frac!ions, fractions whose denominators pro- and enters the conclave in quality of first ceed in a sexagecuple ratio ; that is, a conclavist. prime, or the first minute = id; a second S EXUAL system, in botany, that system do; a third = 2600
of classification which was invented by the Anciently there were no other than immortal Linnæus, professor of physic and sexagesimals used in astronomy, and they botany, at Upsal, in Sweden. It is founded pre still retained in many cases, though deci. on the parts of fructification, riz. the sta.
mens and pistils; these having been observ- mountains, &c. But if the opaque body ed with more accuracy since the discovery be placed parallel to the horizon, the shaof the uses for which nature has assigned dow is called a versed shadow, as the arms them, a new set of principles have been de- of a man stretched out, &c. rived from them, by means of which the dis- “The laws of the projection of Shadows tribution of plants has been brought to a from opaque bodies." 1. Every opaque greater precision, and rendered more con- body projects a shadow in the same direcformable to true philosophy, in this system, tion with its rays; that is, towards the part than in any one of those which preceded it. opposite to the light. Hence, as either the The author does not pretend to call it a na. luminary or the body changes place, the tural system, he gives it as artificial only, shadow likewise changes. 2. Every opaque and modestly owns his inability to detect body projects as many shadows as there the order parsued by nature in her vegetable are luminaries to enlighten it. 3. As the productions ; but of this be seems confi- light of the Juminary is more intense, the dent, that no natural order can ever be shadow is the deeper : hence the intensity framed without taking in the materials out of the shadow is measured by the degrees of which he has raised his own; and urges of light that space is deprived of. 4. If a the necessity of admitting artificial systems luminous sphere be equal to an opaque one for convenience, till one truly natural sball it illaminates, the shadow, which this latter appear. Linnæus has given us his “ Frag. projects, will be a cylinder, and consementi Methodi Naturalis,” in which he bas quently will be propagated still equal to made a distribution of plants under various itself, to whatever distance the luminary is orders, putting together in each such as ap- capable of acting ; 80 that if it be cut in pear to have a natural affinity to each any place, the plane of the section will be other; this, after a long and fruitless search a circle, equal to a great circle of the opaque after the natural method, he gives as the re. sphere. 5. If the luminons sphere be greater sult of his own speculation, for the assistance than the opaque one, the shadow will be of such as may engage in the same pursuit conical. If, therefore, the shadow be cut hereafter. Not finding it practicable to by a plane, parallel to the base, the plane of form a system after the natural method, section will be a circle; and that so much the Linnæus was more fully convinced of the less as it is a greater distance from the base. absolute necessity of adopting an artificial 6. If the luminous sphere be less than an one, of which a detailed account is given opaque one, the shadow will be a truncated imder the article BOTANY.
cone ; and, consequently, grows still wider SHAD, in ichthyology, a species of and wider; and therefore, if cut by a plane Clupea, with the upper jaw bifid at the ex- parallel to the section, that plane will be a tremity, and spotted with black ; it greatly circle, so much the greater as it is further resembles the common herring, and is, on from the base. that account, sometimes called the mother of The sun being vastly larger than the herring; all the fios are whitish, except that · whole globe of the earth must give all its on the back; the tail is very much forked shadows pointed, by reason that it illumines
SHADOW, in optics, a privation or di. more than half of them. In consegnence minution of light, by the interposition of an of this demonstration we might conclude, opaque body; or it is a plane where the that all the sun's shadows must be less than light is either altogether obstructed, or the bodies that project them, and dimi. greatly weakened, by the interposition of nished more and more as they recede some opaque body between it and the lumi. further and further. Now this would be nary. A shadow of itself is invisible; and true were there any relation between therefore, when we say we see a shadow, we the body illaminated and the body illu. partly mean that we see bodies placed in mining; but as all objects on the earth are the shadow, and illuminated by light re- so small in comparison of that star, the diflected from collateral bodies; and, partly, minution of their shadows is imperceptible that we see the confines of the light. If to the eye, which sees them always equal : the opaque body that projects the shadow i. e. either broader or narrower than the be perpendicular to the horizon, and the body that forms them: on this account all place it is projected on be horizontal, the the shadows caused by the sun are made in shadow is called a right shadow; and such parallels. From the whole it appears, that are the shadows of men, trees, buildings, to find the shadow of any body whatever opposed to the sun, a line must be drawn fashioned into case-covers, it readily takes from the top of the luminary perpendicular 'any colour, as red, green, yellow, black, to the place where the foot of the luminary according to the fancy of the workman. is to be taken: and through this place an SHAMBLES, among miners, a sort of occult line is to be drawn through one of piches, or landing places, left at such disthe angles of the plan of the object, and an- tances in the adits of mines, that the shovelother from the sun to the same angle; and men may conveniently throw up the ore the intersection of the two lines will show from shamble to shamble, till it comes to how far the shadow is to go: all the other the top of the mine. lines must be drawn parallel hereto. TheS HAMMY, or Chamois Leather, a kind shadows of the sun are equal in objects of of leather, dressed either in oil or tanned; the same height, though at a distance from and much esteemed for its softness, pliancy, each other. Experience teaches, that stiles, and being capable of bearing soap without or elevations of the same height, removed hurt. The true shammy is prepared of the * to a distance from each other, do yet pro. skin of the chamois-goat. See CAPRA. ject equal shadows at the same time : for T he true chamois leather is counterfeited they are lengthening and shortening, in pro- 'with common goat, kid, and even sheepportion as the sun comes Dearer, or recedes skin; the practice of which makes a parti. further off; one or other of which he is cular profession, called by the French chacontinually doing..
moisure. The last is the least esteemed, Shadow, in geography. The inhabitants yet so popular, and snch vast quantities of the terraqueous globe of the earth receive prepared, especially about Orleans, Mardifferent denominations, according to the seilles, and Thoulouse, that it may not be different ways wherein their shadows are amiss to give the method of preparation. projected; as ascii, ampbiscii, heteroscii, “The manner of chamoising, or of preand periscii.
paring sheep, goat, or kid-skins in oil, in imi. SHADOW, in painting, an imitation of a tation of chamois.” The skins being washed, real shadow, effected by gradually height- drained, and smeared over with quick-lime ening and darkening the colours of such on the fleshy side, are folded in two, lengthfigures as by their dispositions cannot re- wise, the wool outwards, and laid on heaps, ceive any direct rays from the luminary that and so left to ferment eight days; or, if they is supposed to enlighten the piece. The bad been left to dry after flaying, for fifteen management of the shadows and lights makes days. Then they are washed out, drained, what the painters call claro-obscuro. and half-dried, laid on a wooden leg or
SHAFT of a column, in building, is the horse, the wool stripped off with a round body thereof between the base and capital: staff for the purpose, and laid in a weak pit, so called from its straightness. The term the lime whereof had been used before, and shaft is also used for the spire of a church had lost the greatest part of its force. After steeple, and for the tunnel of a chimney. twenty-four hours they are taken out, and See ARCHITECTURE.
left to drain twenty-four more; then put in SHAFT, in mining, is the pit or hollow another strong pit. This done, they are entrance into the mine.
taken out, drained, and put in again by SHAGREEN, or CHAGREEN, in com- turns; which begins to dispose them to merce, a kind of grained leather, prepared, take oil: and this practice they continue as is supposed, of the skin of a species of for six weeks in summer, or three months in squalus, or hound fish, called the shagree, winter; at the end whereof they are washor shagrain, and much used in covering cases, ed out, laid on the wooden leg, and the surbooks, &c. It is imported from Constanti- face of the skin on the wool side peeled off, pople, Tauris, Tripoli, Algiers, and from some to render them the softer; then, made into parts of Poland, where it is prepared in the parcels, steeped a night in the river ; in following manner: the skin being stretched winter, more; stretched six or seven over out, is first covered over with mustard one another, on the wooden leg; and the seed, which is bruised upon it: and being knife passed strongly on the fiesh side, to thus exposed to the weather for some days, take off any thing superfluous, and render it is then tanned. The best is of a brownish the skin smooth. Then they are stretched colour, as the white sort is the worst: it is as before, in the river, and the same operaextremely hard; yet, when steeped in wa. tion repeated on the wool side; then thrown ter, it becomes soft and pliable; and being into a tub of water with bran in it, which is
brewed among the skins till the greatested by their different colours, blue an I white. part stick to them; and then separated into. See SQUALUS. distinct tubs, till they swell and rise of SHARP (ABRAHAM), in biography, an themselves above the water. By this eminent mathematician, mechanist, and asmeans the remains of the lime are cleared tronomer, was descended from an ancient ont: they are then wrung out, hung up to family at Little Horton, near Bradford, in dry on ropes, and sent to the mill, with the the west riding of Yorkshire, where he was quantity of oil necessary to scour them; the born about the year 1651. At a proper best oil is that of stock-fish. Here they are, age he was put apprentice to a merchant at first thrown in bundles into the river for Manchester; but his genius led him so twelve hours, then laid in the mill trough, strongly to the study of mathematics, both and fulled without oil till they be well soft. theoretical and practical, that he soon be. ened; then oiled with the hand, one by came uneasy in that situation of life. By one, and thus formed into parcels of four the mutual consent, therefore, of his master skins each, which are milled and dried on and himself, though not altogether with that chords a second time, then a third ; then of his father, he quitted the business of a oiled again and dried.
merchant. Upon this he removed to LiverThis process is repeated as often as neces- pool, where he gave himself op wholly to sity reqnires; when done, if there be any the study of mathematics, astronomy, &c. moisture remaining, they are dried in a and where for a subsistence be opened a stove, and made up into parcels wrapped school, and taught writing and accounts, up in wool; after some time they are open- &c. ed to the air, but wrapped up again as be- He had not been long at Liverpool, when fore, till such time as the oil seems to have he accidentally fell in company with a merlost all its force, which it ordinarily does in chant, or tradesman, visiting that town from twenty-four hours.
London, in whose house it seems the astroThe skins are then returned from the nomer Flamsteed then lodged. With the mill to the chamoiser to be scoured; which view, therefore, of becoming acquainted is done by putting them into a lixivium of with this eminent man, Mr. Sharp engaged wood-ashes, working and beating them in it himself with the merchant as a book-keeper. with poles, and leaving them to steep till In consequence he soon contracted an intithe lye have had its effect; then wrung out, mate acquaintance and friendship with Mr. steeped in another lixivium, wrung again, Flamsteed, by whose interest and recomand this repeated till all the grease and oil mendation he obtained a more profitable be porged out. They are then half dried, employment in the dock-yard at Chatham ; and passed over a sharp-edged iron instru. where he continued till his friend and pament, placed perpendicular in a block, which tron, knowing his great merit in astronomy opens, softens, and makes them pliable: and mechanics, called him to his assistance lastly, they are thoroughly dried, and pass. in contriving, adapting, and fitting up the ed over the same instrument again, which astronomical apparatus in the royal obser. finishes the preparation, and leaves them in vatory at Greenwich, which had been lately form of shammy.
built, namely, about the year 1676; Mr. Kid and goat skins are chamoised in the Flamsteed being then thirty years of age, same manner as those of sbeep, excepting and Mr. Sharp twenty-five. that the hair is taken off without the use of In this situation he continued to assist any lime; and that when brought from the Mr. Flamsteed in making observations (with mill they undergo a particular preparation the mural arch, of eighty inches radius, and called ramalling, the most delicate and diffi- 140 degrees on the limb, contrived and gracult of all the others. It consists in this, duated by Mr. Sharp) on the meridional zethat as soon as brought from the mill they with distances of the fixed stars, Sun, Moon, are steeped in a fit lixivium : taken out, and planets, with the time of their transit stretched on a round wooden leg, and the over the meridian ; also the diameter of the hair scraped off with the knite ; this makes Sun and Moon, and their eclipses, with those them smooth, and, in working, cast a fine of Jupiter's satellites, the variation of the nap. The difficulty is in scraping them compass, &c. He assisted him also in makevenly.
ing a catalogue of nearly 3000 fixed stars, as SHARK, in ichthyology, the English to their longitudes and magnitudes, their name of two species of squalus, distinguish- right ascensions and polar distances, with