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sentation of personal grace. Their limited “ I had only time to view the sphinx, and absurd ideas of religion were a decided which deserves to be drawn with a more bar to improvement, and led them to debase scrupulous attention than bas ever yet been rather than improve the human form; hence bestowed upon it. Though its proportions we sometimes find the heads of animals at are colossal, the outline is pure and graceful; tached to the bodies of men, and the ridicu- the expression of the bead is mild, gracions, lons imputed acts of their idols are repre- and tranquil; the character is African; but sented in strange unnatural positions, and the mouth, the lips of which are thick, has those frequently repeated; hence the idea a softness and delicacy of execution truly of grouping their figures was decidedly admirable; it seems real life and flesh. Art banished, except in a few cases, when the must have been at a high pitch when this same outline occurs to the depth of four monument was executed; for, if the head and tive persons, each performing the same wants what is called style, that is to say, act, with the uniformity of a set of recruits, the straight and bold lines which give exunder the care of a drilling serjeant. pression to the figures under which the
The errors of the Egyptians on this head Greeks have designated their deities, yet cannot be more forcibly illustrated than by sufficient justice has been rendered to the mentioning their manner of expressing a fine simplicity and character of nature general punishment; a gigantic figure wields which is displayed in this figure.” a weapon with one hand, and with the other These observations corroborate what we grasps the hair of a group of kneeling have already advanced of the capability of figures, placed in a circle, with three ranges the Egyptians to execute had their concepof heads appearing above each other, the tions been equally correct; but as those bands, knees, bodies, and profiles exactly were limited, their genius for excellent parallel. A second mistake in their sculpture sculpture can only be collected from dewas the disproportion of their figures to the tached objects, where a ray has accidently object decorated with them, as it frequently emanated, and meeting with apathy from happens that the same building contains hie the public, perhaps another has never been roglyphics not three inches in length, which excited in the mind of the artist; hence it is in another part of the structure are extend that we must look for elegance in their reed to several feet ; indeed, all their produc- presentations of animals, foliage, and flowers, tions in this art were a compound of little which being admired by all, and not subness and vastness. Thus the temple of Apol. ject to the changes and varieties exhibited linopolis Magna, at Elfu, has its side covered in the human frame and countenance, áre with figures half the height of the building, more readily copied. In this part of our and the front with others not a sixth part pursuit we are again assisted by Denon, of their size.
who has presented us with many traces of Very few of the detached figures or sta- simplicity in the capitals of their pillars, tues sculptured by the Egyptians deserve some of which are of about the same degree notice, otherwise than as objects of curio- of excellence with the best specimens of sity ; indeed to examine them critically Saxon sculpture, and in some cases strongly would be mere waste of time, as they are renrind us of the works of that people; and too frequently wilfully distorted to suit my. it may be worthy of observation, that the thological conceptions : it is therefore im- shape of the Egyptian capital differs very possible to select a subject deserving of little from those invented by the Greeks : examination, ly which to judge of their one in particular might be supposed to be skill in delineating the swells of the mus. the work of the latter, as it is surrounded cles in various positions. Denon has given by a range of beautiful full-grown leaves of several valuable specimens of their remains, the palm, disposed as the acanthus leaf afteramongst which are a species of caryatides, wards was ; another formed of a collection of or naked figures, standing erect with their palm stalks, before the branches and leaves arms crossed on their breasts : these, how are fully developed, shows that a very little ever, are very little calculated to raise our taste, added to the disposition, would have opinion of the merit of the artists who raised the reputation of Egyptian sculpture made them; and, indeed, the only instances to a level with that of their more polished we recollect of correctness and propriety, imitators, as there can be no doubt that are the sphinx, and the enormous clenched they have afforded hints to the Greeks. band, now in the British Museum. Of the The frieze of the great temple at Tentyra, former, Denon speaks with enthusiasm : also shows that the ideas of the Egyptians, When confined to objects intended merely tuate the memory of great men, and to for ornament, approached very near perfec- lionour their gods with their representations tion; in this instance, the sculptures of the as votives to the numerous temples, made wings of birds, variously and tastefully dis- liberal remuneration, and it is to be loped posed, deserve the approbation of the en- equal to the merit of the work. lightened observer.
The Romans were fully sensible of the We must now turn our attention to the superior excellence of the Greeks in sculpacknowledged masters of the sublime art ture, and although we cannot approve of ot' sculpture, the ancient Greeks, to whom their motives in plundering them of their every nation of the earth still pays willing best works, yet we involuntarily feel satishomage, and from whose matchless works fied that it is through their rapacity that each sculptor is happy to concentrate and we now possess those fascinating models improve iis observations on the human for imitation, which has formed the taste of figure, presented by them to his contempla- the Italian sculptors, and excited that emu. tion in its most graceful perfection. Such, lation which enabled artists to rouze the indeed, has been the excellence and cor- public mind to a state of enthusiasm suffi. rectness of their imitations of nature, and ciently powerful to crowd churches and the retined elegance of their taste, that many palaces with mementos of the great and ages have elapsed, not one of which have af. the good. Besides this superior branch of forded a single instance of improvement, the art, we are not less indebted to the even in the disposition of their scrolls, or ancient Grecians for the invention and disother fanciful ornaments.
tribution of the most retiued taste in the inAs modelling figures in earth has been a ferior parts of sculpture : under this head practice for ages, previous to their sculpture we need ouly remind the reader of the in stone, it may be supposed that this was grand conceptions distributed from the base the original method of making isolated re- to the summit of Grecian buildings, in reliefs semblances of men ; indeed, the facility with of various rich ornaments. which alterations and improvements might It appears almost superfluous to mention be accomplished, seems to point out the the Laocoon, ibe Venus di Medicis, the propriety of using that material before the Apollo Belvidere, the Meleager, the Antiart of cutting stone was invented. Calis- nous, the Niobe, &c. &c. of the Grecian thenes, who was an Athenian, made a num- school, as efforts never to be exceeded, or ber of models, with which he adorned his perhaps equalled. How does this fact ex. residence; but it is of the sculptor,and not alt the character of the people thus fathe modeller, that we are to treat at pre- voured, and how does it humble the pride sent. Of the latter, we might mention a very of the moderns! And yet the knowledge of considerable number, whose names have infinite superiority attached to them should reached us with their works, were they not depress the efforts of the student, but pecessary, and yet compared with the statues rather rouze him to increased exertion; at distributed in every part of Europe, they all events recollecting, that Phidias, Praxi. are a very inconsiderable portion of the telles, Agesander, Po'ydore, and Atheno. eminent men who have flourished in the dorus studied models far beyond the reach different states of Greece. When we con- of perfect imitation, even the animated hue template the beautiful specimens of their man form. consummate art, we are at a loss which most Our limits will not permit is to enlarge, to admire, the softness and delicacy given to or enter into an inquiry as to the compathe marble, or the exquisite skill demon. rative merits of the different modern schools strated in every feature and muscle, which of Enrope, of which Italy bears away the could only have been acquired by the most unrivalled palin through several concurrent attentive observation of living subjects circumstances, and of those it is imme. placed in each natural and easy attitudc. diately obvions, that piety and superstition Had not the people generally admired and are the principal; the legends of their respected the arts, so great a degrees of per- saints produce an incredible variety for fection would never have been attained, illustrating the violent emotions of the sout for the operation of producing a fine figure in ardenl devotion and the pangs of mar. requires a mind at ease, and the means of tyrdom, and it cannot be disputed, that subsistence beyond the mere wants of the they have in many instances very nearly day; it is therefore extremely probable that approached the expression and excellence those who employed statuaries to perpo. of their masters; of those Michael Angelo Buonaroti bas been honoured by his coun- stance may be partly accounted for; besides, trymen with the title of divine, nor was by the situations they occupied on the walls Bernini much less deserving of this honour, of sacred edifices, and their being invariably
The French, although favoured with a placed in niches, and those in the pointed climate little inferior to that of Italy, and style of artichecture, whence it became a situated upon its borders, have less distin. matter of necessity to introduce but one guished themselves in sculpture than might figure, and that in an upriglit position; yet have been expected, but the national cha- under all these disadvantages, a competent racter is too volatile for the productions of judge may discover in the majority of the tedious and incessant exertion, absolutely works of our ancient sculptors a freedom necessary in the scuiptor; hence it is that and correctness that would, with due envery few French pames are celebrated as couragement, bave produced works little, statuaries. It would, however, be unjust not if at all, inferior to those of the Italian to mention Roubiliac, who honoured Eng. school. If we examine the turns or lines of land with his works, which deserve every the faces of the kings and saints, scattered praise for just conception, and perhaps over the surfaces of our cathedrals and some · there is no modern instance of more beauparish churches, it will be found that the titui contrast than in his monument to the artists who made them were capable of memory of Lady Nightingale in Westmin. expressing dignity and piety, and their draster Abbey, on which the lifeless figure of pery is generally correspondent to the posithe dying lady, and the eager and terrified tion of the limbs, and in large graceful folds. husband, have and eyer will be greatly ad. The admirer of this art cannot fail of being mired. The skeleton wrapped in sepul- highly gratified by tracing the progress of chral drapery, aiming a dart at the breast English sculpture in that vast field for obof the female, needs no other encomium servation, Westminster Abbey; where, in than that of the celebrated anatomist Jolin the cloisters, they will find the rude figures Hunter, who pronounced it a most perfect of abbots coeval with the time of William representation. François Girardon should of Normandy, from which period down to also be mentioned as doing honour to the the present moment there is almost an anFrench nation by his numerous works, and mual succession of figures ornamental and by none more than his tomb of Cardinal monumental. Richlien, originally placed in the college of The Abbey having been partly rebuilt by the Sorbonne at Paris.
Henry III, the structure was continued as The Germans and Dutch have distin. the abbots could obtain the nieans, conseguished themselves greatly in painting, but . quently there is an actual gradation in the taking the subject in an enlarged point of excellence of the sculpture down to the view, they have done next to nothing in reign of Henry VII. The latter monarch sculpture ; peither has the Spanish nation determined to excel all his predecessors, any very strong claim to distinction on this and his chapel, or burial-place, is one blaze head. The sculpture of Great Britain is of rich decoration in every possible direcalmost entirely confined to the interiors and tion. Having tinis directed the attention exteriors of churches, and the statues which of the reader to the place where a perfect adorn them, are all, without exception, an- knowledge of this subject may be obtained, cient; when the religion of our ancestors we shall proceed to notice another branch was the same as that of the greatest part of of the art, which has been continued in the continent of Europe, they gave large Great Britain from the time of the refor. sums for the production of shrines and saints mation, at which period sculpture received without number, but they seem to liave had its fiat as far as relates to the use of it for no idea of encouraging the noblest part pious purposes. We know but little of the of the art, by selecting men of superior ge. statues which were placed about the altars nius, and employing them on groups or and shrines of old times in this country, single figures in white marble, the only sub- as they were destroyed without mercy, but stance calculated to give due effect to the vast numbers of tom's remain uninjured in skill of the statuary; this parsimonious con- every county ; in speaking of those, we must duct, and probal·ly very indifferent re- premise that very little opportunity was wards, was the cause that all our old sta given the artist to expand aud improve his wes are made of coarse and perishable ideas, as a slavish custom prevailed of placstone, and that they are in truth little bet. ing all the statues on them in a posture, of all ter than copies of each other, which circum. others, the most rigid and ungraceful, which
was on their backs, and with the hands rouze from its torpid state, and at length joined in prayer: under this obvious disad- Cibber flourished, to whom we are indebted vantage our ancient sculptors contrived to for many very excellent statues, and some make many excellent and interesting figures rich embellishments at St. Paul's cathedrai. in beautiful transparent alabaster, although Without invidiously mentioning names and almost all the males are represented in ar making comparisons, it would be impossible mour. As the effigies of persons were fre to enter more fully into the progress of sculp. quently accompanied by that of their con ture since the date just mentioned; we sball sort, more scope for genius and variety pre therefore merely say, that numerous proofs vailed in the latter, and consequently we exist that the modern English possess a gefind females in the habits of their times, nius for sculpture equal to the inhabitants and represented in the rich ornaments of of any nation, but unfortunately it seems to the sex, and making due allowance for the be nearly confined to the execution of mostiffness of their cumbent position, the dra. numents, on which a routine of genii, anpery is frequently placed in true and well cient gods and goddesses, and virtues, are conceived folds ; as to expression in the constantly introduced, to the total extincfeatures beyond a mere state of quiet, as it tion of taste, as they must each possess their would not have been proper, it is not to attributes to point out their names. be discovered in any instance. Some of Little need be said of the mechanical the tombs under consideration are divided part of this art, as various chissels, a mallet, into compartments, in each of which small compasses, and materials for polishing marbas reliefs are introduced of the children ble, are all that is required; the essential is of the deceased, or monks or nuns telling seated in the mind, and as Roubiliac used their beads; these are frequently well exe. to say, “the figure is in the substance of the cuted, and so far so as to make us wish the marble, I only extricate it from the encloartist had been indulged to the full extent sure, or pick it out." of his abilities.
SCUTAGE, was anciently a tax imposed It appears, upon an attentive compari. on such as held lands, &c. by knight's serson, that the figures, executed between the vice, towards furnishing the King's army : reigns of Henry III. and Henry VII. are hence scutagio habendo was a writ that infinitely superior to those placed on tombs lay for the king, or other lord, against teduring and after the time of Henry VIII. as nants holding by knight's service, to serve in his, and the two preceding reigns, the in person, or send a sufficient man in their effigies were generally exhibited either room, or pay a certain sum, &c. kneeling at prayer, or cumbent, in a most S CUTELLARIA, in botany, skull-cap, a miserable taste indeed, which was made genus of the Didynamia Gymnospermia still more disgusting by the custom of paint. class and order. Natural order of Verticiling and gilding the drapery. In the period latæ. Labiatæ, Jussieu. Essential characof the interregnum, nothing was done in the ter: calyx with an entire mouth, after flow. art of sculpture, as, unfortunately, the era ering closed by a lid. There are sixteen alluded to completed the destruction begun species; these are all perennial plants, at the reformation, by the application of a chiefly herbaceous, with square stalks, and blind principle of dislike, wbich prevented opposite leaves ; the flowers are either solithe preservation of the statues of saints, not tary, axillary, and naked, or else in termias objects to excite devotion, but as the nating bracted spikes, with one bracte, or only mementos that existed that the art floral leaf to each flower; they are chiefly had ever been encouraged in England. natives of the South of Europe.
As might have been anticipated, sculp- SCUTTLES, in a ship, square holes cut tnre sunk into a state of total neglect, if in the deck, big enough to let in the body not of contempt; but, after the restoration, of a man, serving to let people down into the ancient habits of the people recurring, any rooin below upon occasion, or from statues of the dethroned king, and of his son one deck to another. They are generally and successor, were erected in every die before the main-mast, before the knight in rection, and in some instances they are the forecastle ; in the gun-room, to go down tolerable figures; but the monumental of to the stern-sheets ; in the round-house, to the same date are wretched indeed, as they go down into the captain's cabin, when are clad in Roman armour, and their beads forced by the enemy in a fight aloft. There and shoulders sustain enormous wigs. En. are also some smaller scuttles, which have courageinent increasing, the art began to gratings over them : and all of them have
covers, that people may not fall down of the earth, and so have rendered it utterly through them in the night. Scuttle is also uninhabitable for terrestrial animals; for a name given to those little windows and the centre of the earth being the common long holes which are cut out in cabins, to centre of gravity, and the nature of fluids let in light.
being such, that they equally yield to equal SCYLLÆA, in natural history, a genus powers; and the power of attraction being of the Vermes Mollusca class and order. cvery where equal at equal distances from Body compressed, and grooved along the the centre, it follows, that the superficial back ; mouth consists of a terminal tooth
a terminal tooth- parts of the water will every where conless aperture; tentacula, or arms, three on
form themselves to an equidistant situation each side, and placed beneatlı. Two spe- from the centre, and, consequently, will cies are noticed, riz. the Pelagica and Gom form the surface of a sphere, so far as they phodensis.
extend. Hence, that the sea seems higher SCYTHROPS, the Channel-bill, in natural than the earth or land, results from the falhistory; a genus of birds of the order Picæ. lacy of vision, whereby all objects, and the Generic character: the bill large, convex, parts of land as well as sea, the further cultrated, furrowed at the sides, booked at they are off from us, the bigher they ap. the tip ; nostrils round, naked at the base pear; the reason of all which is plain from of the bill; tongue cartilaginous, split at optics ; for it is well known, that the denser the point ; toes two before, and two be any medium is, through which we behold hind; tail of ten feathers. Of this genus objects, the greater is the refraction; or the only one species is known. This is an in- more their images appear above the hori. habitant of New South Wales, and is gene. zontal level; also the greater quantity of rally designated as the New South Wales the medium the rays pass through, the more Channel-bird. Its size is that of a crow; will they be bent from their first direction ; but its length is considerably greater, mea on both these accounts, the appearances of suring two feet seven inches. It is seldom things remote, and on the sea, will be someseen, excepting in the morning and even- what above the horizon, and the more so ing, generally in pairs, sometimes in very as they are the more remote. small tiocks; its noise resembles the scream- . With regard to the depth or profundity ing sonnd of alarm uttered by poultry in of the sea, Varenius affirms, that it is in
danger. It is migratory, and supposed to some places unfathomable, and in other · feed on the seeds of trees, on fruits, and the places very various, being in certain places
exuviæ of beetles. The tail is sometimes to tak, 176, 27, 41 English miles, in other unfolded like a fan, both during the flight places deeper, and much less in bays than and sitting of the bird, and gives it an in- in oceans. In general, the depths of the teresting and dignified appearance. It ap- sea bear a great analogy to the height of pears not to be easily tameable ; but of the mountains on the land, so far as is hitherto nature, manners, and habits of this bird, discovered : and it is a general rule among little is at present ascertained.
sailors, and is found to hold true in many SEA, is frequently used for that vast instances, that the more the shores of any tract of water encompassing the whole place are steep and bigh, forming perpendi. earth; but is more properly a part or divi- cular cliffs, the deeper the sea is below sion of these waters, and is better defined a and that, on the contrary, level shores de lesser assemblage of water, which lies before, note shallow seas. Thus the deepest part and washeth the coasts of, some particular of the Mediterranean is generally allowed countries, from whence it is generally de to be under the height of Malta. And the nominated, as the Irish Sea, the Mediter- observation of the strata of earth and other ranean Sea, the Arabian Sea, &c. .
fossils, on and near the shores, may serve to What proportion the superficies of the form a good judgment as to the materials sea bears to that of the land, is not pre to be found in its bottom. For the veins of cisely known, though it is said to be some salt and of bitumen doubtless run on the what more than two-thirds. As the waters same, and in the same order, as we see of the earth must necessarily rise to the them at land ; and the strata of rocks that surface thereof, as being specifically lighter · serve to support the earth of hills and ele. than the earth, it was necessary there vated places on shore, serve also, in the same should be large cavities therein, for recep- continued chain, to support the immense tacles to contain them, otherwise they quantity of water in the bason of the sea. ; would have overspread all the superficies The coral fisheries have given occasion