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SCOLOPENDRA, in natural history, SCOLOSANTHUS, in botany, a gentis centipede, a genus of insects of the order of the Tetrandria Monogynia class and orAptera. Antennæ setaceous; two feelers der. Natural order of Luridæ. Rubiafiliform, united between the jaws ; lip ceæ, Jussieu. Essential character : calyx toothed and cleft; body long, depressed, four-cleft; corolla tubular, with a revolute consisting of numerous transverse segments: border; drupe one-seeded. There is but legs numerous, as many on each side as one species, viz. S. yersicolor; this small there are segments of the body. There are shrub was discovered in the island of Santa thirteen species, found in almost all parts of Cruz, by Ryan. the world ; they live in decayed wood, or SCOLYMUS, in botany, golden thistle, under stones, and some of them in fresh a genus of the Syngevesia Polygamia Ægnaand salt water: they prey on other insects. lis class and order. Natural order of Com. The larger species are found only in the positæ Semiflosculosæ. Cichoraceæ, Jus. hotter regions of the globe; they are in- sieu. Essential character: calyx imbricate, sects of a terrific appearance, and possess spiny; pappus none; receptacle chaffy. the power of inflicting severe pain and in. There are three species, natives of the flammation by their bite.
South of Europe. 8. morsitans is a native of Asia, Africa, SCOMBER, the maclarel, in natural and South America. It is eight or ten history, a genus of fishes of the order Tho. inches long, of a yellowish brown; the head racici. Generic character: head compressed, is armed on each side with a very large smooth; gill inembrane with seven rays; curved fang, of a strong or horny nature; body smoothi, oblong; lateral line carinate these fangs are furnished on the inside, near behind ; small fins, generally, both above the tip, with an oblong slit, through which; and below, near the tail. There are twentyduring the act of wounding, an acrimonous one species, of which we shall notice the or poisonous fluid, is discharged: the eyes following: are numerous on each side the head, and S. scomber, or the common mackarel. are placed in a small oval groupe; it has This is one of the most beautiful of fishes, twenty legs on each side the body
and inhabits both the European and AmeS. electrica has seventy legs on each side; rican seas. It is said by many to reside in its body is linear; it inbabits many parts of winter near the North Pole, and as the Europe, in decayed wood, and shines in the spring advances, to move in immense shoals dark; the body is very flat and tawny, with in a southerly direction, traversing a vast a black lie down the back. The motions space in a short period, and proceeding of this insect are tortuous and undulatory, nearly in a similar line of movement with seldom continuing long in the same direc- that attributed to the herring, from the tion. It is possessed of a high degree of same extremities of the north. Some of phosphoric splendor, which, however, seems the most eminent naturalists, however, have to be only exerted when the animal is entertained doubts of these extensive voy. pressed or suddenly disturbed, when it dif. ages in both cases, and it is imagined by fuses a beautiful light, so powerful as not such that these fishes take up their resito be obliterated by that of two candles on dence during the rigour of winter, in the the same table. It is very tenacious of muddy or gravelly bottoms near the coasts life, and will endure long in the closest where they abound so numerously in the confinement without food.
spring. Shaw relates, that M. Pleville de S. forticata is a very common insect found Peley saw the bottoms near the coasts of frequently under stones and flower pots; it Hudson's Bay, for a long space together, has a very swift motion, and is furnished bristled with the tails of mackarel, all their with fifteen legs on each side; it is of a other parts being imbedded in the gravel chesnut colour, and is about an inch and a or mud. The mackarel is a fish highly adhalf long.
" mired, both for its beauty and excellence, SCOLOPIA, in botany, a genus of the and has in every age attracted particular Icosandria Monogynia class and order. notice and partiality from both these cirEssential character: calyx inferior, three cumstances. The Romans prepared from or four-parted; corolla three or four-pe-' it a condiment or essence for the table, talled; berry crowned with the style, one which was in the highest estimation. The celled, six-seeded; seeds arilled. There is general length of this fish is fifteen inches, only one species, viz. S. pusilla, a native of but specimens far larger have been occasiCeylon, where it is called kbatu kurundu, onally met with. or thorpy cinnamon.
, S. thynnus, or the tunny, is sometimes
ten feet long, and on the Scotch coast one to be a native of the Cape of Good Hope,
head and body, the pectoral and the dorsal SCONCE, in fortification, a small fins, are covered with numerous abrupt cirri field-fort, built for the defence of some or beards; all the fins are supplied, on the pass.
fore part, with strong rays, and those of the SCOPARIA, in botany, a genus of the dorsal extend almost completely along the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. back. In various other particulars of its Natural order of Personalæ. Scrophularia, form it is singnlarly uncouth, and altogether Jussien. Essential character: calyx four presents one of the most repulsive objects parted; corolla four-parted, wheel-shaped; which can meet the eye. capsule one-celled, two valved, many.seed- SCORPIO, in natural history, a genus ed. There are three species.
of insects of the order Aptera. Generic SCOPOLIA, in botany, so named in ho- character: eight legs, besides two claspers, nour of Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, profes. or hands, seated on the fore-part of the sor of chemistry and botany at Pavia, a ge- head; eight eyes, three placed on each side. nus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and of the thorax, and two on the back; two order. Essential character: calyx five- feelers projecting cheliform; the lip is bifid, cleft; nectary none; stigma capitate; cap- and the tail long, jointed, and terminated snle berried, five-celled; seeds solitary. by a sharp, crooked sting; on the underThere are two species, riz. S. aculeata and side, between the breast and abdomen, are S. inermis.
two instruments resembling a comb. There SCOPUS, the umbre, in natural history, are ten species, all of which are armed with a genus of birds of the order Grallæ. Ge- a slightly pungent sting; and in hot climates neric character: bill long, thick, com- some of them are highly dangerous: they pressed, a little hooked ; nostrils linear, prey upon worms, spiders, flies, &c. and obliqne ; feet four-toed, cleft. The only even on one another. S. afer, or great Afria species, the umbretta, or tufted umbre, is can scorpion, is the largest and by far the about as large as a crow, and twenty inches most formidable of the whole genus : it is in length; its bill three inches and a half held in great dread by the inhabitants : its long; its body of a uniform brown colour, poison is evacuated through two very small whence it derives its name. It is supposed oblong foramina, situated ou each side the
tip of the sting. Scorpions are viviparous other laws of Scotland shall remain ini insects, producing a very considerable num. force, though alterable by the Parliament her of young at once: these are at first en- of Great Britain; and, particularly, laws tirely white, but acquire their dusky colour relating to public policy are alterable at in the space of a few days: they are ob. the discretion of Parliament. Laws relat. served to cast their skin from time to time, ing to private riglit are not to be altered, in the manner of spiders: the larva and pu- but for the evident utility of the people of pa are eight-footed, nimble, and resembling Scotland. Sixteen peers are to be chosen the perfect insect.
to represent the peerage of Scotland in Scorpion, scorpio, in astronomy, the Parliament, and forty-five members to sit eighth sign of the zodiac, denoted by the in the House of Commons. The sixteen character M. The stars in the constellation peers of Scotland shall have all privileges of scorpio, in Ptolemy's catalogue, are 20; in Parliament, and all peers of Scotland shall Tycho's 10; and in Mr. Flamsteed's 49. be peers of Great Britain, ranking next
SCORPIon, in the ancient art of war, an after those of the same degree at the time engine chiefly used in the defence of the of the union, and shall have all privileges of walls of fortified places, by throwing ar- peers, except sitting in the House of Lords, rows, fire-balls, or great stones.
and voting on the trial of a peer, SCORPIURUS, in botany, caterpillar, It was formerly resolved by the House of a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria class Lords, that a peer of Scotland, claiming and and order. Natural order of Papilionaceæ having a right to sit in the British House of or Leguminosæ. Essential character: le. Peers, had no right to vote in the election gume divided by isthmuses, or transverse of the sixteen Scotch peers; and that if any partitions, revolute cylindrical. There are of the sixteen Scotch peers are created four species, all natives of the south of peers of Great Britain, they thereby cease Europe.
to sit as representatives of the Scotch peerSCORSONERA, in botany, riper's grass, age, and new Scotch peers must be elected a genus of the Syngenesia Polygamia And in their room. Jis class and order. Natural order of Com- SCOTOGRAPH, an instrument to en. positæ Semiflosculosa. Cichoraceæ, Jus- able a person to write in the dark, invented sien. Essential character: calyx imbricate by Mr. John Isaac Hawkins, and incinded with scales, scariose at the edge; pappus in a patent taken out by him in 1803 for feathered, sessile; receptacle naked. There several other inventions relating to the gra. are nineteen species.
phic art. SCOT, a customary contribution laid Plate Scotograpli explains the construcupon all subjects according to their abilities. tion of this instrument. Fig. 1 is a plan of Whoever were assessed to any contribution, it; fig. 2, 3, and 4, parts; and fig. 5, a per. though not by equal portions, were said to spective view of the whole put together, pay scot and lot.
A B D E is a small box, covered with moSCOTLAND. By 5 Anne, c. 8, the rocco leather, to be carried in the pocket : union of England and Scotland was effected, its lid, FG, is made in two pieces, joined and the twenty-five articles of union, agreed together by binges in the middle, so as to to by the parliaments of both nations, were turn back, as slown in fig. 5, and is kept ratified and confirmed as follows: riz. the shut by a small spring catch. a a, (fig. 1) succession to the monarchy of Great Britain is a small brass shelt, fixed along one side of shall be the same as was before settled with the box, at about one-half of its depth from regard to that of England. The united the bottom, it is also seen in the end section kiogdoms shall be represented by one par- (fig. 1.) bdef, is a small pentagraph made liament. There shall be a communication of brass; one end of the rod, b, is jointed to of all rights and privileges between the a small linge, g, by which its motion allows subjects of both kingdoms, except where it the whole pentagraph to be lifted up; the is otherwise agreed. When England raises other end of the rod, b, is jointed to the rod 2,000,0001. by land-tax, Scotland shall raise f, and the small handle, h, or pencil, which 48,0001. The standards of the coin, of the writer holds in his band when in use, is weights, and measures, shall be reduced to attached to the other end by an universal those of England throughout the united joint, which allows it to move in any direckingdoms. The laws relating to trade, tion, to imitate as much as possible the mocustoms, and the excise, sball be the same tion of a pen; e and d are the other tuo in Scotland as in England. But all the bars, completing the pentagraph; i is the point wbich forms the letters; is screwed end of the lever, l, and forced down the into the bar d: FG is a piece of wood click, k, then takes into one of the tecth of glued to the bottom of the box, with a small the wheel, t, and turns it round one tooth; piece of ivory fastened upon the top of it, the pressure is then to be removed, and the to support the paper while it is written up. spring, m, lifts up the lever, l, just the proon: the surface of this ivory is about the per height to catch the next tooth of the same height as the brass shelf, a a, as is seen wheel, as is shown in fig. 4: this operation in the section fig. 4 : H and I are two small moves the paper forward just the proper rollers, (one of which is shown separately in space to write another line. One of the fig. 2) on which the paper is rolled; it is uses of the pentagraph is to reduce the fastened to them at both ends, by a small writing to half the size that it is made on brass lever, k, (fig. 2) which shuts down in the brass shelf, whereby double the number a groove made in the roller: when the pa- of lines are contained on a slip of paper that per is put under this lever, and shut down, would be if written the full size, and the it is beld fast, and by turning the roll is lines are but half the length, so that room is wound upon it: 1 m are two small milled lett at the ends of the rollers for the rachet heads, one on each roll, to turn them : at wheel and milled nuts. The rollers will one end of the roll, I, a small rachet wheel, hold a slip of thin paper twenty inches long, t, of six teeth, is fixed; it is turned round and contain 100 lines, each of two inches by a click, k, (tig. 4) jointed to a small lever, long: this will contain a considerable quan1, which is thrown op by a spring, m:n tity of information, and when it is all writ(tig. 1) is a piece of brass plate screwed to ten, and rolled upon the roll, I, the lever, the side of the box: it is shown separately k, (fig. 2) of the other roller will be ex. in fig. 3, and has two branches, to receive posed to view; then the pentagraph is to the pivots of the two rollers, HI; these be lifted up upon its hinge, g, and the lever arms are elastic, and press against the ends raised up by putting the nail under the end of the rollers, and causes them to turn rather of it: this releases one end of the paper; stiffly, so that they will not be liable to be and by pulling it the other roll will be un. moved by the elasticity of the paper which wound; and when the small lever of that is rolled upon them. The pentagraph is of roller is taken up, the paper will be quite the common kind: the three points, gi, loose : another piece will be fixed with and the end of h, being all in one line, as equal ease, by first fixing it to the roll H, explained in the article PENTAGRAPH : the and rolling it upon it, and then fastening it point i, which forms the letters, is a short to the other. If at any time any particopiece of silver wire, screwed into the bar d, lar line of the writing is wanted, it will be and pointed at the end to make this mark: easily brought into view, by turning the the paper is rubbed over with whiting, or rollers by their nuts, l, m. chalk; and when at any time the point is This instrument would be particularly worn away, it may be renewed by screwing useful to persons who have occasion to make it througlı the bar a little further; the point memorandums while on horseback, or tra. is always made to project so far, that when velling in a coach, as any degree of pressure the blunt point at the end of the pencil, h, may be given upon the brass shelf while rests upon the brass shelf, a a, the penta- writing, so as to avoid being disturbed by graph will be set a little upon the strain, the most violent shocks, which cannot be and by that means press' upon the paper done upon common paper for fear of breakwith a proper degree of force to write ing the pencil point, or of piercing the legibly. In using the machine, the lid, paper by it. Its use to blind people who FG, is to be half shut, as shown in fig. 5, have learned to write is very obvious. and thus form a support for the hand while SCRATCH, in the language of the saltwriting; the pencil, h, is held in the hand, workers of our country, the name of a caland pressed down to touch the brass shelf, careous, earthy, or stony substance, which a u, and used in the same manner as a com- separates from sea water in boiling it for mon pen or pencil, taking care to always salt. This forms a thick crust, in a few days, begin at the end of the shelf; the side of on the sides and bottoms of the pans, which the box, and a small ledge upon the edge of they are forced to be at the pains of taking the shelf, limits the height of the letters. off once in a week, or ten days, otherwise When the pencil arrives at the end of the the pans burn away and are destroyed. shelf, it is to be brought back again, and SCREW, one of the five mechanical the end of it is to be placed upon the powers. See MECHANICS,
SCRIBING, in joinery, &e. is a term they treat ; but they could not be so parts used when one side of a piece of stuff is to cular as to enable us to judge whether their be fitted to another that is irregular. In excellence approached the remains we posorder to make these join close all the way, sess derived from other sources. they scribe it; that is, they lay the piece T o proceed methodically on this subject, to be scribed close to the other they intend it becomes necessary to make a distinction to scribe it to, and opening their compasses between carving and sculpture ; the former to the widest distance these two pieces belonging exclusively to wood, and the latter stand from each other, they bear the point to stone. It is extremely probable that of one of the legs against the side they in- every essay at imitating animated objects tend to scribe to, and with the other point was in each nation made in wood originally, draw a line on the stuff to be scribed. Thus and it is vain to suppose the tools were any they form a line on the irregular piece pa- other at first than the sharp edges of broken rallel to the edge of the regular one; and stones or Aints; a visit to the British Muif the stuff be cut exactly to the line, when seum will afford the curious spectator a these pieces are put together they will seem competent idea of what the nearest descenda joint.
ants of Adam accomplished in the art of SCROPHULARIA, in botany, figwort, carving with instruments of the above dea genus of the Didynamia Angiospermia scription in the figures of the South sea idols. class and order. Natural order of Perso. The least enlightened nations possess in. natæ. Scrophulariæ, Jussieu. Essential dividuals of superior observation, who see character: calix five-cleft; corolla subglo. the defects of their neighbours, and by inbular, resupine ; capsule two celled. There struction or ridicule produce an attempt at are twenty-two species.
reformation: this has evidently been the SCROTUM. See ANATOMY.
case amongst the Egyptians and Greeks, SCROWLS, or Scrolls, in architec- who of all the people of antiquity made ture, the same with volutes.
the earliest and greatest progress in the art SCRUPLE, a weight equal to the third of sculpture. If the former commenced their part of a dram, or to twenty grains. Among imitation of nature in wood, it is probable goldsmiths it is equal to twenty-four grains. they soon discovered that it was incapable
SCUDDING, in naval affairs, is the of a durability commensurate with their movement by wbich a ship is carried preci- wishes, they therefore adopted a close grainpitately before a tempest, and is either per- ed and beautiful granite, which not only re. formed with a sail extended on her fore- quired tools of iron, but those of the most mast; or, if the storm is excessive, without perfectly tempered steel, to cut it; and with any sail, which is then called scudding un. such they have left us at this very distant der bare poles. In sloops and schooners, time vast numbers of excavated figures, as and other small vessels, the sail employed complete and as little injured as if executed for this purpose is called the square-sail. within our own memory. In larger ships it is the fore-sail.
In examining the various sculptures of SCULPTURE. It is beyond human re- the Egyptians, we find that a general chasearch to ascertain when this art was first racter prevails throughout their outlines, practised, and by what nation. We may, which demonstrate that the sculptors were however, safely conjecture that it was al. natives of Egypt, and that they rigidly most one of the original propensities of copied the expression and character of their man, and may be said to have been born countrymen, Had the persons employed in with him in every climate. This will still ap. decorating the numerous magnificent works, pear in the ardent and irresistible impluse of the ruins of which still surprise the spectator, youth to make representations of objects been invited from other countries, a variation in wood, and the attempts of savages to of style in the drawing would have been embody their conceptions of their idols. If a readily discovered. The circumstance of command from the Author of our being their figures, both inale and female, strongly was necessary to prevent the ancient Israel. resembling each other in every instance, ites from making graven images, it may be proves that this people were not deficient naturally inferred that the inhabitants of the in genius; and their spirited imitations of rest of the earth possessed similar propen- animals adds to our conviction, that had sities. The descriptions of the scriptures nature been more kind to the Egyptian in demonstrate that the art had been brought their forms and features, their sculptors were to great perfectiou at the period of which fully competent to give an accurate repre