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By heating it exbibits positive electricity at lon, has been called the daurite, siberite, one end, and negative at the other: as it and rubellite. Mr. Greville is in possession cools, these electricities are reversed. It of the most magnificent specimen of the occurs in primitive rocks, chiefly in quartz red variety, it is valued on account of its and granite; with the former, it constitutes beauty and rarity at 10001. a peculiar mountain rock. It is found on SCHOTIA, in botany, so named from many parts of the Continent, and in Scot. Richard Vander Schot, a genus of the Deland. It differs from tourmaline in colour, candria Monogynia class and order. Nalu. degree of lustre, fracture, transparency, ral order of Lomentaceæ. Leguminosa, and distinct concretions; also in geonostic Jussien. Essential character: calyx five. situation; tourmaline occurs almost always cleft; petals five, inserted into the calyx, imbedded, and in single crystals; but schorl closed by the sides lying over each other ; is aggregated, and occurs in beds. i legume pedicelled. There is but one spé.
Tourmaline, called also electricus turma- cies, riz. S. speciosa, lentiscus-leaved schoJin, is of a green or brown colour, passing tia. It is a native of Senegal and the Cape into others even to the indigo blue. The of Good Hope. colonrs are mostly dark. It occurs very S CHRADERA, in botany, so named in seldom massive, oftener in rolled pieces, honour of Henr. Adolpii. Schrader, a genus but most frequently crystallized. The crys- of the Hexandria Monogynia class and ortals are generally three sided prisms; they der. Essential character: calyx a superior are usually imbedded; the internal lustre is rim, qúite entire; corolla five or six.cleft; splendent and vitreous. It is hard and stigmas two; berry one.celled, mavy-seeded. easily frangible. Specific gravity from 3.08 There are two species, viz. S. capitata and to 3.36. Before the blow pipe it melts S. cephalotes. into a greyish-white vesicular enamel. It S CHREBERA, in botany, a genus of the was found in Ceylon and the Brazils in the Diandria Monogynia class and order. Es16th century; and since that in Madagascar - sential character : calyx two-lipped; co. and Ava, in many parts of the European rolla from five to seven-cleft; capsule pearcontinent, and in Scotland. Two speci: shaped, two-celled, two-valved ; seeds from mens have been analysed by Bergman and eight to ten, membranaceous winged. There Vanquelin, the former was brought from is but one species, vir. S. swietenioides. Ceylon, the latter from Brazil.
SCHWALBEA, in botany, 'so named in Tourmaline of Ceylon. Of Brazil.
honour of Schwalbe, a physician, a genus of Silica.................... 37.0 ...... 40.0
the Didynamia Angiospermia class and orAlumina................. 39.0 ...... 39.0
der. Natural order of Personatæ. - Schro. Lime.................... 15.0) ...... 3,84
phulariæ, Jussieu. Essential character: ca. Oxide of iron.......... 9.0 ..... 12.50
lyx four-cleft, the upper lobe very small; manganese... ..... ...... 2.00
the lowest very large and emarginate. There
is but one species, viz. S. Ainericana. 100.8 97.34
SCHWENKFELDIA, in botany, 80 Loss 2. 66 named in memory of Caspar Schenckfelt,
a Silesian physician, a genus of the Pentan 100
dria Monogynia class and order. Natural
order of Rubiaceæ. Essential character: Tourmaline has been long celebrated for involucre four-leaved; corolla funnel-form; its electrical effects, which are exhibited stigmas five; berry five-celled, many-seeded. by friction, and also by heating; but if it is There are three species. made very hot, as beyond 200° of Fahren.. SCHWENKIA, in botany, so named heit, it is deprived of its electrical proper- from Martin Welhelm Schwencke, professor ties. The more transparent the tourma- of botany at the Hague, a genus of the Diline the stronger its electrical properties. andria Monogynia class and order. Natural It is sometimes cut and polished, and worn order of Luridæ. Scrophulariæ, Jussieu. as a jewel; but on account of its want of Essential character: corolla almost equal, transparency it is not very highly esteemed with the throat plaited and glandular; sta. The green coloured tourmaline has been mens three, barren; capsule two-celled, described as the emerald; the blue, as the many-seeded. There is only one species, sapphire; and the crimson-red variety first viz. S. Americana, Guinea Schwenkia. found in Siberia, and since in Ava and Cey. SCIÆNA, in natural history, a genus of".
fishes of the order Thoracici. Generic lectual world, wholly separate and distinct character: head covered with scales ; gill- one from another. membrane generally with about six rays; SCILLA, in botany, squill, a genus of the two dorsal fins placed in a furrow, into Hexandria Monogynia class and order. Na-. which they are often withdrawn. There tural order of Coronariæ. Asphodeli, Jus. are twenty nine species, the principal of sieu. Essential character : corolla six-pewhich is the S. cirrosa or bearded-sciana, talled, spreading, deciduous ; filaments filiwhich inhabits the European and American - form. There are twenty-two species. The seas, and is from one to two feet in length. most remarkable is S. maritima or sea onion, It was known to the ancients and esteemed whose roots are used in medicine. Of this by them for the table. It is of a pale yellow there are two sorts, one with a red, and the colour, striped longitndinally with dusky. other with a white root: which are supblue. Its tail is slightly lunated, and it posed to be accidental varieties, but the has under its chin a short fleshy beard. white are generally preferred for medicinal
SCIAGRAPHY, the profile or vertical use. The roots are large, somewhat oval. section of a building used to show the inside shaped, composed of many coats lying over of it. The same term is used in astronomy each other like onions; and at the bottom for the art of finding the hour of the day, or come out several fibres. From the middle night, by the shadow of the sun, moon, of the root rise several shining leaves, which stars, &c.
continue green all the winter, and decay in SCIENCE, in philosophy, denotes any the spring. Then the flower-stalk comes doctrine deduced from self evident and cer- out, which rises two feet high, and is naked tain principles, by a regular denionstration. half-way, terminating in a pyramidal thyrse Sciences may be properly divided as fol- of flowers, which are white, composed of six lows : 1. The knowledge of things, their petals, and spread open like the points of a constitutions, properties, and operations; star. This grows naturally on the seathis, in a little more enlarged sense of the shores, and in the ditches where the salt word, may be called Quoia', or natural phi- water naturally flows with the tide, in most losophy; the end of which is speculative of the warm parts of Europe, so cannot be truth. 2. The skill of rightly applying propagated in gardens ; the frost in winter these powers, çaxlıxm; the most consi- always destroying the roots, and for want of derable under this head is ethics, which is salt water they do not thrive in summer. The the seeking out those rules and measures of root is very nauseous to the taste, intensely human actions that lead to happiness, and bitter, and so acrimonious that it ulcerates the means to practise them; and the next the skin if much handled. is mechanics, or the application of the SCIOPTIC, or SCIOPTRIC ball, a sphere, powers of natural agents to the uses of life.
uses of life. or globe of wood, with a circular hole or per
or globe of wond with a See PhiLOSOPHY, moral. 3. The doctrine
foration, wherein a lens is placed.
It is so of signs, ontwrinn ; the most usual of which
fitted that, like the eye of an animal, it may being words, it is aptly enough termed
be turned round every way, to be used logic. See Logic.
in making experiments of the darkened This, says Mr. Locke, seems to be the
room.' most general, as well as natural, division
SCIRPUS, in botany, club rusl, a genus of the objects of our understanding. For a man can employ his thoughts about of the
out of the Triandria Monogynia class and ornothing but either the contemplation of der. Natural order of Calamariæ. Cy. things themselves for the discovery of truth: peroideæ, Jussieu. Essential character : or about the things in his own power, which glames chaffy, imbricate every way : co. are his actions, for the attainment of his owu rolla nope; seed one, beardless. There are ends ; or the signs the mind makes use of. sixty nine species. both in the one and the other, and the SCIRE facias, is a judicial writ, and proright ordering of them for its clearer under perly lies after a year and a day after judg. standing. All which thrce, riz. things, as ment given ; whereby the sheriff is com. they are in themselves knowable ; actions, manded to summon or give notice to the de. as they depend on us in order to happiness; fendant, that he appear and show cause and the right use of signs, in order to know why the plaintiff should not have execution. ledge, being toto cælo different, they seem A scire facias, is deemed a judicial writ, to be the three great provinces of the intel- and founded on some matter of record, as judgment, recognizances, and letters pa. others build in trees. They are sprightly, · tent, on which it lies to enforce the execa elegant, and interesting.
tion of them, or to vacate or set them S. maximus, or the great squirrel, is the aside ; and if execution is not taken ont largest known species, being equal in size within a year, it is necessary to revive the to a cat. It is found in the East Indies, judgment by scire facias. But if execution where it pierces the cocoa for the sake of has issued within that time, a further writ of the liquor, to wbich it is extremely attachiexecution may be bad without a scire facias. ed. It is easily tamed. This writ is so far in nature of an original, S. vulgaris, or the common squirrel, that the defendant may plead to it, and it is abounds almost throughont Europe, and in in that respect considered as an action. the tenperate climates of Asia. Its length Wherefore a release of all actions, or a re- is about seven inches to the tail, which mea. lease of all executions, is a good bar to a sures about eight. During the summer's scire facias,
day, it generally remains in its nest, apSCIRRHUS, in surgery and medicine, a pearing to be anuoyed by the heat ; but at hard tumour of any part of the body, void night it is full of alertness and vivacity, and of pain, arising from the inspissation and devoted to excursion and repast. It coninduration of the fluids contained in a gland, structs its nest generally in the fork of two though it may appear in any other part, es- branches of trees, and with particular prepecially in the fat, being one of the ways caution, with respect to dryness, warmth, wherein an inflammation terminates. See and cleanliness. The young are produced SURGERY.
sometimes about the beginning of summer, SCITAMINEÆ, in botany, the name of in general, about the middle of it, and are the eighth order in Linnæus's Fragments of three or four in number. Its food consists a Natural Method, consisting of beautiful of various nuts and fruits, of which it stores exotic plants, some of which, as the banana, considerable quantities for its winter confurnish exquisite fruits, and others have a sumption; it is fond also of certain species fine aromatic scent; among these are the of fungi. In confinenent it will take a vast amomum or ginger; the canna, Indian variety of vegetable substances; but apflowering reed; and musa, the banana, or pears to prefer sugar to every other nourishplantain tree. The plants of this order are ment. See Mammalia, Plate XVIII, fig. 1. all natives of very warm countries; they S. cinereus, or the grey squirrel, is pecugrow to great heights, but they are only pe. liar to North America, and is about the rennial at the roots. Some of these plants size of a half grown rabbit. It resembles are cultivated in high perfection at the bo- the former in its shape and manners. These tanical garden at Liverpool.
animals have occasionally committed exSCIURIS, in botany, a genus of the treme ravages in some of the states of Diandria Monogynia class and order. Es- · North America, in the cultivated lands: sential character : corolla uneqnal, with and to reduce their numbers, the legislathe upper lip trifid, the lower bifid and ture proclaimed a reward for their destruc. shorter ; stamina five, but three barren, tion. In the year 1730, a sum of no less capsule five, united, one celled, one seeded. than eight thousand pounds was distributed There is only one species, viz. S. aromatica, in premiums, to persons who had been ene found in the wood of Guiana.
gaged in killing them, and who must have SCIURUS, the squirrel, in natural his. destroyed between six and seven hundred tory, a genus of Mammalia, of the order thousand. It is not easily destroyed by Glires. Generic character: two fore-teeth the gun, on account of the perpetual versain the upper-jaw wedge-formed, in the tility of its movements, and some of the best lower sharp; five grinders in each side of marksmen are often baffled by this extreme the upper-jaw, and four in each in the agility. It is easily familiarized, and ap. lower; clavicles in the skeleton; tail spread. pears susceptible of affection and gratitude ing towards each side ; long whiskers. to its benefactors. These animals live principally on seeds and The S. variegatus, or varied squirrel, is fruits. They are extremely active and nim- nearly twice the size of the last, and differs ble, climbing trees with great rapidity, and also in habits, as it resides in holes under bounding from one to another with a spring the roots of trees, where it produces its truly astonishing. Some are supplied with young, and, like the rest of the genus, accumembranes, which enable them to extend mulates its stores. It is a native of Mexico. this leap into something approximating to a S. striatus, or the striped squirrel, is met short flight. Some are subterraneous, and with in the north of Asia and America, iz subterraneous in its habitation, like the last, wards the extremities. This is the largest and is also addicted to hoarding, for winter, of all the flying squirrels, and is eighteen nuts and grain. It is distinguished, how inches long, exclusively of the tail. For ever, from every other species, by being the Barbary squirrel and the black squirrel provided with bags or pouches attached to see Mammalia, Plate XVIII, fig. 2. and 3. its cheeks, in which, for the convenience of SCLERANTHUS, in botany, knawel, a carriage, it can deposit large quantities of genus of the Decandria Digynia class and food, to take home with it after having order. Natural order of Caryophillei Porswallowed a full meal. These squirrels tulaceæ, Jussieu. Essential character : caabound in Siberia, amidst the woods of ma- lyx one-leafed, inferior ; corolla none; seeds ple and fir, at the roots of which they make two inclosed in the calyx. There are three their burrows. They never mount trees, species. but when they have no other means of escape SCLERIA, in botany, a genus of the
SCLERIA in botany from an enemy, yet then they climb them
Monoecia Triandria class and order. Es. with great celerity. They are very discri
sential character : male, calyx glume from minating in their selection of food, and
two to six-valved, mapy-flowered, awnless : bave been seen frequently to exchange car
female, calyx from two to six-valved, onegoes contained in their pouches, for a spe
flowered, awpless ; stigmas one to three; cies of food which they casually and unex
seed nut subglobular, somewhat boney, pectedly met with, and which they happen
coloured. There are nine species. ed to prefer to the former. They retain in captivity much of their native wildness,
SCLEROCARPUS, in botany, a genus and appear to evince no feelings of regard
of the Syngenesia Polygamia Frustranea to their protectors.
class and order. Natural order of DisS. volans, or the common flying squirrel,
coides. Corymbifera, Jussieu. Essential is the only one of that description in Eu
character : calyx six-leaved, three exterior rope, and is found there only in the coldest
larger, like the leaves, three interior climates. In the vorth of Asia it occurs
smaller, like scales, alternate; pappus none;
receptacle chaffy. more frequently. Its colour above is a white
There is only one spe
cies, riz, S. Africanus, a native of the Cape grey, and beneath a perfect white. It is about six inches in length to the tail. It
of Good Hope. resides generally in hollow trees near the
pes near the SCLEROTICA, in anatomy, one of the top, is solitary in its habits, associating even
tunics, or coats of the eye ; it is hard, in pairs only in the spring. It feeds princi- opaque, and extended from the cornea to pally on the catkins of the birch, and in
the optic nerve ; its forepart is transparent, winter secludes itself in its nest, occasion
and called the cornea. ally quitting it in fine weather. By means SCOLEX, in natural history, a genus of of an expansile furry membrane reaching the Vermes Intestina, class and order : from the fore feet to the hind ones, these body gelatinous, variously shaped, broadish animals are enabled to spring or Ay to the on the fore-part and pointed behind ; somedistance of thirty or forty yards. Climbing times linear and long, sometimes wrinkled nearly to the top of one tree, it directs its and short, round, flexuous, or depressed; movements always downwards, and by head protrusile and retractile. Two species spreading this membrane as widely as pos- only are mentioned, viz, the pleuronectidis sible, with its fore feet extremely distant and lophii ; the former is found in the intesfrom each other, presents such a surface to tinal mucus of the turbot, sole, plaise, the air beneath as gives it considerable gwiniard, and the lump fish, seldom visible buoyancy, and converts its elastic bounds to the naked eye. The other, as its name into a species of flight. The membranc is denotes, is discovered in the intestinal also highly serviceable in cherishing the mucus of the lophins piscatorius : the young ones, which are produced usually in body is minute, and hardly visible to the May, and about three at a birth. See Mam naked eye. malia, Plate XVIII. fig. 4.
SCOLIA, in natural history, a genus of S. petaurista, or the sailing sqnirrel, is an insects of the order Hymenoptera : mouth inliabitant of Java and the Indian islands, with a curved sharp mandible, crenate and can spring to an immense distance from withir ; jaw compressed, projecting, entire tree to tree, by means of a membrane simi. and horny ; tongue inflected, trifid, very lar to that of the preceding, which is ex. short ; lip projecting, membranaceous at the tremely thin in the middle, and thicker to. tip and entire ; four feelers equal and fili
form, in the middle of the lip; antennæ overcome obstacles in its way, even by thick, filiform, the first joint longer. There leaping only off a small stone. It is, from this are about twenty species.
indolent tendency, decoyed into the direction SCOLOPAX, the curlew, in natural his. which, liowever smooth and pleasant at tory, a genus of birds of the order Gralla. first, terminates in ruin. Its flesh is highly Generic character : the bill long and incur valued, but is considered as affording its vated ; face covered with feathers; nostrils full relish, only when the bird is dressed linear and longitudinal, near the base ; extirely undrawn, in which state with more tongue short and sharp-pointed; toes con epicurism than delicacy, it is generally pected by a membrane to the first point. eaten. See Aves, Plate XIII. fig. 5. There are fifty species, of wbich the follow. S. gallinago, or the snipe, weighs about ing are the chief: S. arquata, or the com- four ounces, is abont twelve inches long, mon curlcw, is generally about two feet and to be found in nearly every country of long, and is to be met with in England the world. Its food consists of worms and throughout the year, either on the coasts or insects, which it seeks near small streamlets, near the mountains. Slugs and worms, and in general in wet grounds. It eats which its bill extracts from the ground in also slugs. It is a bird of extreme caution the morning and the evening, constitute its and vigilance, and the sight of the sportsman inland subsistence; and when on the shores or the dog impels it to immediate concealof the sea it feeds on marine animals. These ment amidst the dry herbage of its haunts, birds are often observed in large flocks, from which the resemblance of colour and are nsed by many for food. Those renders it almost impossible to discriminate killed on the coasts, however, are rank and it. On the approach of the enemy it bursts fishy.
from its shelter with such uncommon vas, rusticola, or the woodcock. These riety of direction and velocity of motion, as birds are about fourteen inches in length. renders its destruction by the gun one of They are migratory in this conntry, and the greatest atchievements of the sportssupposed to proceed from Sweden. They man's art. Snipes are sometimes approached arrive about the beginning of October, but nearly, by the accurate imitation of their have never been observed on their first sounds and shot upon the ground, and they reacliing land, and are supposed always to are often taken by snares, like the wood. effect this by night or in inisty weather cock. The flavour and the preparation of When first seen they are extremely weak them are also similar. They are in this counand exhausted, and liave sometimes scarcely try nigratory, but cases have occurred of retained strength enough to fly to a very their breeding in it. . short distance, having been destroyed in S. ægocephalus, or the common godwit, numbers by a stick only. Bcfore the is of the weight of twelve ounces, and ranks rigonrs of winter set in, they reside in in the highest order of delicacies. It is moory and mountainous districts; but in the found in almost every country, and in the extreme cold they change their baunts for marshy grounds of Lincolnshire and Camsuch as are lower and warmer, and frequent bridgeshire is particularly abundant, feeding particularly warm springs in glens and dells, on insects and small worms, but approaches covered with sheltering trees and brushi. the sea shore on the advance of the rigours wood. They occasionally breed in this of winter. These birds, in several parts of country, some few instances of this having the country, are caught in nets, into which been unquestionably authenticated ; but, they are deluded by representations of with such very extraordinary exceptions, birds of their own species, made of wood woodcocks collect together about the mid- and painted with some correctness of redle of March to return to their native coun- semblance. After they are taken they are try. They are often, however, like other by some fattened for sale with great facility voyagers detained by unfavourable winds, and success. and in such circumstances sportsmen find S. calidris, or redshank, is not uncom. them in considerable numbers, and destroy mon in this island, and particularly towards tem with urmerciful eagemess. The the south. It breeds ju the marshes, and woodcock is more remarkable for stupidity is remarkable for flying in a direction comthan intelligence, and is easily taken in pletely irregular round its nest, by which it traps and sprynges, which are placed for it is very frequently, discovered. Its length near tepid springs, in passages artificially is twelve inches. For the redshank see managed, as this bird pever attempts to Aves, Plate XIII, fig. 6.