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penetrating smell, and very hot acrid distance. As the plane of this ring keeps taste.
always parallel to itself, that is, its situation SATURN is a very conspicuous planet, in one part of the orbit is always parallel to though not so brilliant as Jupiter. The that in any other part, it disappears twice period of his sidereal revolution round in every revolution of the planet, that is, the earth is 10,759 days. He moves from about once in fifteen years, and he somewest to cast nearly in the plane of the times appears quite round for nine months ecliptic, and exhibits irregularities simi. together. At other times, the distance be. lar to those of Jupiter and Mars. He be tween the body of the planet and the ring is comes retrograde both before and after his very perceptible, insomuch that Mr. Whisopposition, when at the distance of about ton tells us of Dr. Clarke's father having 109° from the Sun. His retrograde motion seen a star through the opening, and supcontinues about 139 days, and during its posed him to have been the only person continuance he describes an arc of about 6o. who ever saw a sight so rare, as the openHis diameter is a maximum at his opposi. ing, though certainly very large, appears tion, and his mean apparent diameter is 18", very small to us. Saturn, when viewed through a good tele. When Saturn appears round, if our eye scope, makes a more remarkable appear. be in the plane of the ring, it will appear ance than any of the other planets. Gali. as a dark line across the middle of the pla. leo first discovered his uncommon shape, net's disc, and if our eye be elevated above which he thought to be like two small the plane of the ring, a shadowy belt will globes, one on each side of a large one, be visible, caused by the shadow of the and he published his discovery in a Latin ring as well as by the interposition of part sentence, the meaning of wbich was, that of it between the eye and the planet. The he had seen him appear with three bodies, shadow of the ring is broadest when the though, in order to keep the discovery a Sun is most elevated, but its obscure parts secret, the letters were transposed. Hay appear broadest when our eye is inost ing viewed him for two years, he was sur. elevated above the plane of it. When prised to see him become quite round, it appears double, the ring next the body without these appendages, and then, after of the planet appears brightest. When some time to assume them as before. These the ring appears of an elliptical form, the adjoining globes were what are now called parts about the ends of the largest axis are the ansæ of his ring, the true shape of which called the ansæ, as has been already men. was first discovered by Huygens, about tioned. These, a little before and after forty years after Galileo, first with a tele. the disappearing of the ring, are of unequal scope of twelve feet, and then with one of magnitude; the largest ansa is longer visitwenty-three feet, which magnified objects ble before the planet's round phase, and one hundred times. From the discoveries appears again sooner than the other. On made by him aud other astronomers, it ap. the first of October, 1714, the largest ansa. pears that this planet is snrrounded by a was on the east side, and on the twelfth on broad thin ring, the edge of which reflects the west side of the disc of the planet, which little or none of the Sun's light to us, but makes it probable that the ring has a rota. the planes of the ring reflect the light in tion round an axis. Herschel has demonthe same manner that the planet itself does, strated, that it revolves in its own plane in and if we suppose the diameter of Saturn 10h 32' 15.4". The observations of this to be divided into three equal parts, the philosopher have added greatly to our knowdiameter of the ring is about seven of these ledge of Saturu's ring. According to him parts. The ring is detached from the body there is one single, dark, considerably broad of Saturn in such a manner, that the dis line, belt, or zone, which he has contance between the innermost part of the stantly found on the north side of the ring. ring and the body is equal to its breadth. As this dark belt is subject to no change Both the outward and inward rim of the whatever, it is probably owing to some per. ring is projected into an ellipsis, more or maneat construction of the surface of the less oblong, according to the different de- ring : this construction cannot be owing to grees of obliquity with which it is viewed. the shadow of a chain of mountains, since Soinetimes our eye is in the plane of the it is visible all round on the ring; for there ring, and then it becomes invisible, either could be no shade at the ends of the ring ; because the outward edge is not fitted to a similar argument will apply against the reflect the Sun's light, or more probably opinion of very extended caverns. It is because it is too thin to be seen at such a pretty evident that this dark zone is con.
tained between two concentric circles, for pidly round his shorter axis, and that the all the phenomena correspond with the pro- ring moves in the plane of his equator. jection of such a zone. The nature of the Herschel has confirmed this opinion by ring Dr. Herschel thinks no less solid than actual observation. He has ascertained the that of Saturn itself, and it is observed to duration of a revolution of Saturn round cast a strong shadow upon the planet. The his axis to amount to 0.428 day. Huygens light of the ring is also generally brighter observed five belts upon this planet nearly than that of the planet, for the ring appears parallel to the equator. sufficiently bright when the telescope af. SATYRIUM, in botany, a genus of the fords scarcely light enough for Saturn. The Gynandria Diandria class and order. NaDoctor concludes that the edge of the ring tural order of Orchideæ, Essential characis not flat, but spherical, or spheroidical. ter: pectary serotiform, or twin-inflated The dimensions of the ring, or of the two behind the flower. There are twenty-one rings with the space between them, Dr. species. Herschel gives as below:
SAUCISSE, or SAUSAGE, in the military Inner diameter of smaller ring 146,345
art, a long train of powder, sewed up in a roll
of pitched cloth, about two inches in diameOutside diameter of ditto ..... 184,393 Inner diameter of larger ring 190,248
ter, serving to set fire to mines. There are
usually two saucisses extended from the Outside diameter of ditto ..... 204,883 Breadth of the inner ring ..... 20,000
chamber of the mine to the place where the Breadth of the outer ring .....
engineer stands; that in case one should
7,200 Breadth of the vacant space,
fail, the other may take effect.
SAUCISSON, in fortification, a mass of or dark zone ................ 2,839
large branches of trees bound together; There have been various conjectures rela, and differing only from a fascine, as this is tive to the nature of this ring. Some per- composed of small branches of twigs. . Sausons have imagined that the diameter of the cissons are employed to cover the men, and planet Satnrn was once equal to the present to make epaulements. diameter of the outer ring, and that it was SAVILLE (SJR HENRY), in biography, hollow : the present body being contained a very learned Englishman, the second son within the former surface, in like manner as of Henry Saville, Esq. was born at Brada kernel is contained within its shell; they ley, near Halifax, in Yorkshire, November suppose that, in consequence of some con- the 30th, 1549. He was entered of Mercussion, or other cause, the outer shell all ton College, Oxford, in 1561, where he took fell down to the inper body, and left only the degrees in arts, and was chosen fellow, the ring at the greater distance from the When he proceeded master of arts, in 1570, centre, as we now perceive it. This con. be read, for that degree, on the Almagest jecture is in some measure corroborated by of Ptolemy, which procured him the reputhe consideration that both the planet and tation of a man eminently skilled in mathe. its ring perform their rotations about the matics, and the Greek language; in the same common axis, and in very nearly the former of which he voluntarily red a pabo same time. But from the observations of lic lecture in the University for some time. Dr. Herschel, he thus concludes: “It does In 1578, he travelled into France, and not appear to me that there is sufficient other countries; where, diligently improve ground for admitting the ring of Saturn to ing himself in all useful learning, in lanbe of a very changeable nature, and I guages, and the knowledge of the world, guess that its phenomena will hereafter be he became a most accomplished gentleman, so fully explained, as to reconcile all obser. At his return, he was made tutor in the vations. In the meanwhile we must with Greek tongue to Queen Elizabeth, who had hold a final judgment of its construction, a great esteem and respect fr him. till we can have more observations. Its In 1595, he was made Warden of Mer. division, however, into two very unequal ton College, which he governed six and parts, can admit of no doubt,” The dia thirty years with great honour, and immeters of Saturn are not equal: that which proved it by all the means in his power. In is perpendicular to the plane of bis ring ap. 1596, he was chosen Provost of Eton Colpears less by one-eleventh than the diame. lege; which he filled with many learned ter situated in that plane. If we compare men. James 1. upon his accession to the this form with that of Jupiter, we have crown of England, expressed a great rereason to conclude that Saturn turns ra. gard for him, and would have preferred him
either in church or state; but Saville de the best writers of our English History, to clined it, and only accepted the ceremony which he added chronological tables at the of knighthood from the King, at Windsor, end, from Julius Cæsar to William the Conin 1604. His only son, Henry, dying about queror. that time, be henceforth devoted his fortune 4 The Works of St. Chrysostom, in to the promoting of learning. Among other Greek, in eight volumes, folio, 1613. This things, in 1619, be founded, in the Univer. is a very fine edition, and composed with sity of Oxford, two lectures, or professor- great cost and labour. In the preface he ships, one in geometry, the other in astro. says, “that having himself visited, about pomy; which he endowed with a salary of twelve years before, all the public and pri. 1601. a year each, besides a legacy of 6001, to vate libraries in Britain, and copied out purchase more lands for the same use. He thence whatever he thought useful to this also furnished a library with mathematical design, he then sent some learned men into books, near the mathematical school, for France, Germany, Italy, and the East, to the use of his professors; and gave 1001. to transcribe such parts as he had not already, the mathematical chest of his own appoint and to collate the others with the best maing; adding afterwards a legacy of 401. a nuscripts." At the same time be makes year to the same chest, to the University, his acknowledgements to several eminent and to his professors jointly. He likewise men for their assistance; as Thuanus, Velgave 1201. towards the new building of the serus, Schottus, Casaubon, Ducæus, Gruter, schools, beside several rare manuscripts and Hoeschelius, &c. In the eighth volume are printed books to the Bodleian Library; inserted Sir Henry Saville's own notes, with and a good quantity of Greek types to the those of other learned men. The whole pripting press at Oxford.
charge of this edition, including the several After a life thus spent in the encourage- sums paid to learned men, at home and ment and promotion of science and litera. abroad, employed in finding out, transcribe ture in general, he died at Eton College, ing, and collating the best manuscripts, is the 19th of February, 1622, in the seventy: said to have amounted to no less than third year of his age, and was buried in the 8,0001. Several editions of this work were chapel there. On this occasion the Uni- afterwards published at Paris. versity of Oxford paid him the greatest ho- 5. In 1618 he published a Latin work, nours, by having a public speech and verses written by Thomas Bradwardin, Archbi., made in his praise, which were published shop of Canterbury, against Pelagius, ensoon after in 4to. under the title of “Ulti. titled De Causa Dei contra Pelagium, et ma Linea Savillii.”
de virtute Causarum; to which he prefixed As to the character of Saville, the highest the Life of Bradwardin. encominns are bestowed upon him by all 6. In 1621 he published a Collection of the learned of his time ; by Casaubon, Mer. his own Mathematical Lectures on Euclid's cerus, Meibonius, Joseph Scaliger, and Elements ; in 4to. especially the learned Bishop Montague, 7. Oratio coram Elizabetha Regina Oxo. wbo, in his “ Diatribæ npon Selden's His: niæ habita, anno 1592. Printed at Oxford tory of Tythes," styles him, “ that magazine in 1658. 410. of learning, whose memory shall be honour- 8. He translated into Latin King James's able amongst not only the learned, but the Apology for the Oath of Allegiance. He righteous for ever."
also leit several manuscripts behind him, Several noble instances of his munifi. written by order of King Janies; all which cence to the republic of letters have alrea. are in the Bodleian Library. He wrote dy been mentioned : in the account of his notes likewise upon the margin of many publications many more, and even greater, books in his library, particularly Eusebius's will appear. These are,
Ecclesiastical History; which were after. 1. Four Books of the Histories of Corne. wards used by Valesius, in his edition of lins Tacitus, and the Life of Agricola, with that work in 1659. Four of his Letters to Notes upon them, in folio ; dedicated to Camden are published by Smitb, among Queen Elizabeth, 1581.
Camdeu's Letters. 1691. 4to. 2. A View of certain Military Matters, SAUNDERS, or SANDERS. See Sanor Commentaries respecting Roman War. TALUM. fare. 1598.
SAUNDERSON (Dr. Nicholas), in 3. Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores post biography, an illustrious professor of mathe. Bedam, &c. 1596. This is a collection of matics in the University of Cambridge, and
a fellow of the Royal Society, was born at foundations of his lectures, and afforded Thurlston in Yorkshire in 1682. When him a noble field for the display of his gehe was but twelve months old, he lost not nius; and great numbers came to hear a only his eye-sight, but his very eye-balls, blind man give lectures on optics, discourse by the small pox; so that he could retain on the nature of light and colours, explain no more ideas of vision than if he had been the theory of vision, the effect of glasses, born blind. At an early age, however, the phenomenon of the rainbow, and other being of very promising parts, he was sent objects of sight. to the free school at Penniston, and there As he instructed youth in the principles laid the foundation of that knowlege of the of the Newtonian philosophy, he soon beGreek and Latin languages, which he after came acquainted with its incomparable auwards improved so far, by his uwn applica- thor, though he had several years before tion to the classic authors, as to hear the left the University; and fregnently conworks of Euclid, Archimedes, and Dio. versed with him on the most difficult parts phantes read in their original Greek. of his works : he also lield a friendly com
Having acquired a grammatical educa. munication with the other eminent mathetion, lis father, who was in the excise, in- maticians of the age, as Halley, Cotes, structed him in the common rules of arith- De Moivre, &c. ; metic. And here it was that his excellent Mr. Whiston was all this time in the ma. mathematical genius first appeared; for he thematical professor's chair, and read lecvery soon became able, to work the com- tures in the manner proposed by Mr. Saunmon questions, to make very long calcula. derson on his settling at Cambridge; so tions by the strength of his memory, and to that an attempt of this kind looked like an forin new rules to bimself for the better re encroachment on the privilege of his office; solving of such questions as are often pro but, as a good natured man, and an enposed to learners as trials of skill.
courager of learning; he readily consented At the age of eighteen, our author was to the application of friends made in behalf introduced to the acquaintance of Richard of so uncommon a person. West, of Underbank, Esq., a lover of mathe- Upon the removal of Mr. Whiston from matics, who, observing Mr. Saunderson's un. his professorship, Mr. Saunderson's merit common capacity, took the pains to instruct was thought so much superior to that of any him in the principles of algebra, and geo- other competitor, that an extraordinary metry, and gave him every encouragement step was taken in his favour, to qualify him in his power to the prosecution of these with a degree, which the statute requires : studies. Soon after this he became ac. in consequence he was chosen, in 1711, Mr. quainted also with Dr. Nettleton, who Whiston's successor in the Lucasian profes. took the same pains with him. And it was sorship of mathematics ; Sir Isaac Newton to these two gentlemen that Mr. Saunderson interesting himself greatly in his favour. owed bis first institution in the mathema. His first performance, after he was seated tical sciences; they furnished him with in the chair, was an inaugural speech made books, and often read and expounded them in very elegant Latin, and a style truly Cito him. But he soon sarpassed his masters, ceronian; for he was very well versed in and became fitter to teach, than to learn the writings of Tully, who was his favourite any thing from them.
i in prose, as Virgil and Horace were in His father, otherwise barthened with a verse. From this time he applied bimself numerous family, finding a difficulty in sup closely to the reading of lectures, and gave porting him, his friends began to think of up bis whole time to his pupils. He con. providing both for his education and main- tinued to reside among the gentlemen of tenance. His own inclination led him Christ College till the year 1723, wlien he strongly to Cambridge, and it was at length took a house in Cambridge, and soon after determined he should try luis fortune there, married a daughter of Mr. Dickens, rector not as a scholar, but as a master : or, if this ot' Boxworth, in Cambridgeshire, by whom design should not succeed, they promised he had a son and a danghter. themselves success in opening a school for In the year 1728, when King George vihim at London. Accordingly he went to sited the university, he expressed a desire Cambridge in 1707, being then twenty-five of seeing so remarkable a person; and acyears of age, and his fame in a short time cordingly our professor attended the king filled the University. Newton's Principia, in the senate, and by his favour was there Optics, and Universal Arithmetic, were the created doctor of laws.
Dr. Sannderson was naturally of a strong learned logic, but geometry also, to a very healthy constitution ; but being too seden. great perfection, which seems most of all tary, and constantly confining himself to to require sight. But, if we consider that the house, he became a valetudinarian: and the ideas of extended quantity, which are in the spring of the year 1739 he com- the chief objects of mathematics, may as plained. of a numbness in his limbs, which well be acquired by the sense of feeling as ended in a mortification in his foot, of that of sight, that a fixed and steady attenwhich he died the 19th of April that year, tion is the principal qualification for this in the 57th year of his age.
study, and that the blind are, by necessity, There was scarcely any part of the ma. more abstracted than others, (for which thematics on which Dr. Saunderson had reason, it is said, that Democritus put out not composed something for the use of his his eyes, that he might think more inpupils. But he discovered no intention of tensely), we shall perhaps find reason to publishing any thing, till, by the persuasion suppose that there is no branch of science of his friends, he prepared his Elements of 80 much adapted to their circumstances. Algebra for the press; which, after his At first, Dr. Saunderson acquired most death, were published by subscription in of his ideas by the sense of feeling; and 2 vols. 4to. 1740.
this, as is commonly the case with the blind, He left many other writings, though none he enjoyed in great perfection. Yet he perhaps prepared for the press. Among could not, as some are said to have done, these were some valuable comments on distinguish colours by that sense; for, after Newton's Principia, which not only ex. having made repeated trials, he used to say, plain the more difficult parts, but often it was pretending to impossibilities. But improve upon the doctrines. These are he could with great nicety and exactness pablished in Latin at the end of his post. observe the smallest degree of roughness, or bamous Treatise op Fluxions, a valuable defect of polish, in a surface. Thus, in a set work, published in 8vo, 1756. His manu- of Roman medals, be distinguished the ge. script lectures too, on most parts of natural nuine from the false, though they had been pbilosophy, might make a considerable vo- counterfeited with such exactness as to delume, and prove an acceptable present to ceive a connoisseur who had judged from the public if printed.
the eye. By the sense of feeling also, he Dr. Saunderson, as to his character, was distinguished the least variation; and he a man of much wit and vivacity in copver. has been seen in a garden, when observa. sation, and esteemed an excellent compa. tions have been making on the sun, to take nion. He was endued with a great regard notice of every cloud that interrupted the to truth; and was such an enemy to dis. observation, almost as justly as they who gnise, that be thought it his duty to speak his could see it. He could also tell when any thoughts at all times with unrestrained free thing was held near his face, or when he dom. Hence his sentiments on men and passed by a tree at no great distance, opinions, his friendship or disregard, were merely by the different impulse of the air expressed without reserve; a sincerity wbich on his face. raised him many enemies.
His ear was also equally exact. He could A blind man, moving in the sphere of a readily distinguish the 5th part of a note. matbematician, seems a phenomenon diffi- By the quickness of this sense he could cult to be accounted for, and has excited judge of the size of a room, and of his distance the admiration of every age in which it has from the wall. And if ever he walked over a appeared. Tully mentions it as a thing pavement, in courts or piazzas which rescarcely credible in his own master in phi- flected a sound, and was afterwards conlosophy, Diodotus ; that he exercised him. ducted thither again, he could tell in what self in it with more assiduity after he be part of the walk he had stood merely by came blind; and, what he thought next to the note it sounded. impossible to be done without sight, that be D r. Saunderson had a peculiar method of professed geometry, describing his diagrams performing arithmetical calculations, by an 60 exactly to his scholars, that they could ingenious machine and method which has draw every line in its proper direction. St. been called his Palpable Arithmetic, and is Jerome relates a still more remarkable in particularly described in a piece prefixed stance in Didymus of Alexandria, who, to the first volume of his Algebra. That though blind from his infancy, and there. he was able to make long and intricate cal. fore ignorant of the very letters, not only culations, both arithmetical and algebraical,