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one-celled. There is only one species, viz. remains in India. The red sanders, though S. canadensis, Canadian sanguinaria, blood- in less estimation, and less generally used, wort, or puccoun: a pative of the northern is sent by preference into Europe. This is parts of America, where it grows plentifully the produce of a different tree, which is in the woods; and in the spring, before the common on the coast of Coromandel. Some leaves of the trees come out, the surface of travellers confound it with the wood of the ground is in many places covered with Caliatour, which is used in dyeing. the flowers, which have some resemblance The S. album, or white sanders, is to our wood anemone; but they have short bronght from the East Indies, in billets naked pedicels, each supporting one flower about the thickness of a man's leg, of a at top. Some of these flowers will have ten

pale-whitish colour. It is that part of the or twelve petals, so that they appear to yellow sanders wood' which lies next the have a double range of leaves, which has bark. . Great part of it, as met with in the occasioned their being termed double fow. shops, has no smell or taste, nor any sepsiers; but this is only accidental, the same ble quality that can recommend it to the roots in different years producing different

notice of the physician. flowers.

The s. flavum, or yellow sanders, is SANGUISORBA, in botany, a genus of

the interior part of the wood of the same the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order.

tree which furnishes the former, is of a pale Natural order of Miscellaneæ, Linnæus.

yellowish colour, of a pleasant smell, and a Rosaceæ, Jussien. Essential character:

bitterish aromatic taste, accompanied with calyx two-leaved, inferior; corolla supe.

an agreeable kind of pungency. This elerior; germ between the calyx and corolla.

gant wood might undoubtedly be applied to There are three species with several va.

valuable medical purposes, though at prerieties.

sent very rarely used. Distilled with water, SANICULA, in botany, sanicle, a genus

it yields a fragrant essential oil, which of the Pentandria Digynia class and order.

thickens in the cold into the consistence of Natural order of Umbellatæ, or Umbelli.

a balsam. Digested in pure spirit, it imferæ. Essential character : umbels clus.

parts a rich yellow tincture; which being tered, subcapitate; fruit rugged; flowers

committed to distillation, the spirit arises of the disk abortive. There are three

without bringing over any thing considerspecies.

able of the flavour of the sanders. The reSANTALUM, in botany, a genus of the

siduum contains the virtues of six times its Tetrandria Monogynia class and order.

weight of the wood. Natural order of Onagræ, Jussieu. Essen

SANTOLINA, in botàny, lavender-cot. tial character: calyx four-toothed; corolla

ton, a genus of the Syngenesia Polygamia four-petalled, with the petals growing on

Æqualis class and order. Natural order of the calyx, besides four glands; berry infe

Compositæ Discoideæ. Corymbiferæ, Jusrior, one-seeded. There is only one species,

sien. Essential character: calyx imbricate, riz. S. album, white and yellow sandal

hemispherical ; down none ; receptacle wood. This tree has the appearance of a

chaffy. There are six species, S. chamamyrtle, with stiff branchiate branches, joint

cyparisus, common lavender-cotton; grows ed; in habit, leaves and inflorescence re.

naturally in the southern parts of Europe, sembling the privet. It is a native of many

and is much cultivated in English gardens. parts of India. In the Circar mountains,

All the species are ornamental plants, and where it is wild, it is of little value, as it is

may be propagated by planting slips and generally of a small statnre. On the Mala.

cuttings in the spring. bar coast it is very large, and the wood of the best kind. The difference of colour SAP. See PLANT. constitutes two kinds of sanders, both em. The sap of trees, chemically considered, ployed for the same purposes, and having is a watery mucilaginous liquid,often strongly equally a bitter taste, and an aromatic smell. saccharine, so as to yield a large quantity With the powder of this wood a paste is of sugar, and to furnish a very strong ferprepared, with which the Chinese, Indians, mented liquor. Persians, Arabians, and Turks, anoint their SAP, or SAPP, in the art of war, is the bodies. It is likewise burnt in their houses, digging deep under the earth of the glacis, and yields a fragrant and wholesome smell. in order to open a covered passage into the The greatest quantity of this wood, to which moat. It is only a deep trench, covered at a sharp and attenuating virtue is ascribed, top with boards, hurdles, earth, sand-bags,

Ac. and is usually begun five or six fathoms stalk is also terminated by a loose bunch of from the saliant angle of the glacis. . flowers growing in form of an umbel; they

SAPPHIC, in poetry, a kind of verse have each a large swelling cylindrical em. much used by the Greeks and Latins, deno. palement, and five broad obtuse petals, minated from the inventress Sappho. The which spread open, of a purple colour. sapphic verse consists of five feet, whereof These are succeeded by oval capsules, with the first, fourth, and bifui, are trochees, the one cell filled with small seeds. The decocsecond a spondee, and the third a dactyl; tion of this plant is used to cleanse and as in

scour woollen cloths : the poor people in

some countries nse it instead of soap for I I 2 3 1 4 1 5 .

washing; from which use it had its name. Aure- am quis quis mediocri- tatem Dili g il, tu- tus caret obso- leli

SAPPHIRE. See CORUNDUM, where we Sordi I bus te- | cti, caret | invi- l denda.

dendo have given the analysis of the blue corun

dum, or sapphire. It is infusible without adand after every three sapphic verses there dition before the blow-pipe, but with borax is generally subjoined an adonic verse, as it melts with effervescence. Sapphire, and Sobrius aula.

oricntal ruby, of which an analysis is also

- given in the article CORUNDUM, are next to SAPINDUS, in botany, soap-berry-tree, the diamond, the most valuable of precious a genus of the Octandria Trigynia class and stones, and are used in the finest kind of order. Natural order of Tribilatæ. Sa- jewelry. The oriental ruby differs from the pindi, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx sapphire in its colour: it is also softer and four-leaved; petals four; capsule flesliy, con- of less specific gravity. In its geognostic nate, ventricose. There are thirteen species; character, it differs also from the ruby, as of which we shall notice the S. saponaria, it occurs sometimes imbedded in corunwith winged leaves, which grows naturally dum, which is an inmate of primitive mounin the islands of the West Indies, where it tains, while sapphire appears to be a prorises with a woody stalk from 20 to 30 feet duction of a later period. The violet co. trigh, sending out many branches with wing. loured sapphire is the oriental amethyst: ed leaves, composed of several pair of spear. the yellow, the oriental chrysolite and shaped lobes. The flowers are produced topaz; and the green, the oriental emerald. in loose spikes at the end of the branches; SARACA, in botany, a genus of the Diathey are small and white, so make no great delphia Hexandria class and order. Na. appearance. These are succeeded by oval tural order of Lomentaceæ. Essential berries as large as middling cherries, some character: calyx none; corolla funneltimes single, at others, two, three, or four form, four-cleft; filaments three on each are joined together; these have a sapona. side the throat; legume pedicelled. There ceous skin or cover, which incloses a very is but one species, viz. S. indica, a native of smooth roundish mut of the same form, of a the East Indies. shining black when ripe. The skin, or pulp, SARCOCOL, in chemistry, a gum resin, which surrounds the nuts, is used in America supposed to be the product of the penæa to wash linen; but it is very apt to burn sarcocolla. It is brought from Persia and and destroy it if often used, being of a very Arabia, in the form of small grains ; they acrid nature.

have sweet and bitterish taste, and are SAPONARIA, in botany, soap-wort, a very soluble in water. genus of the Decandria Digynia class and SARMENTACACEÆ, in botany, the order. Natural order of Caryophyllei. name of the eleventh class in Linnæus's Caryophyllex, Jussieu. Essential charac. Fragments of a Natural Method, consisting ter : calyx one-leafed, naked; petals five, of plants that have climbing stems and clawed; capsule oblong, one celled. There branches, which like the vine attach them. are nine species. S. officinalis, a British selves to the bodies in their ueighbourhood plant, has a creeping root, so that in a short for the purpose of support. time it would fill a large space of ground. SAROTHRA, in botany, a genus of the The stalks are above two feet high, and of a Pentandria Trigynia class and order. Na. purplish colour, The foot-stalks of the tural order of Rotaceæ. Caryophylleæ, flowers arise from the wings of the leaves Jussieu. Essential character: calyx, five opposite; they sustain four, five, or more parted; corolla five petalled ; capsule onepurple fowers each, which have generally celled, three-valved, coloured. There is iwo small leaves placed under them. The but one species, riz. S. gentianoides an annual plant, and a native of Virginia and ported in large straight blocks : it is said Pennsylvania, growing abundantly in the to be warm, aperient, and corroborant ; fields, and under the bushes, in a dry sandy and frequently employed, with good sucground, near the capital of the latter pro cess, for purifying the blood, for which purvince. salmon, but more slender. It abounds in of the Pentandria Digynia class and order, the rivers of Siberia, and the lakes of Ger- Natural order of Holoracex. Atriplices, many, and in this country, in the lakes of Jussieu. Essential character: calyx, five. Cumberland and Westmoreland. It is con- leaved; corolla none; capsule one-seeded; sidered as one of the highest delicacies, seed screw-shaped. There are thirty.one and bas the most brilliant colours, and species. These plants are well known for finest flavour, when inhabiting the coldest producing alkaline salt, commonly called waters.

pose an infusion, in the way of tea, is a very SARRACENIA in botany, side-saddle pleasant drink: its oil is very fragrant, and flower, so named in honour of Dr. Sarrazin, possesses most of the virtues of the wood. professor of botany, a genus of the Polyan SATELLITES, in astronomy, are cerdria Monogynia class and order. Natural tain secondary planets, moving round the order of Succulentæ. Essential character: other planets, as the Moon does round the calyx double, three-leaved, and five-leaved; Earth. They are so called because they al. corolla, five-petalled; capsule, five-celled, ways attend them, and make the tour about with the style having a clypeate stigma. the Son together with them. The words mood There are four species, all natives of North and satellite are sometimes used indifferent America.

ly: thus we say, either Jupiter's moons, or SARSAPARILLA, in pharmacy, the Jupiter's satellites; but usually we distinroot of the rough smilax of Peru, consisting guish, restraining the term moon to the of a great number of long strings hanging Earth's attendant, and applying the term from one head: these long roots, the only satellite to the little moons more recently parts made use of, are about the thickness discovered about Jupiter, Saturn, and the of a goose-quill, or thicker, flexible, and Herschel planet, by the assistance of the composed of fibres running their whole telescope, which is necessary to render them length: they bave a bitterish but not un- visible. grateful taste and no smell: and as to their The satellites move round their primary medicinal virtues, they are sudorific and planets, as their centres, by the same laws attenuant, and should be given in decoc. as those primary ones do round their centre tion, or by way of diet-drink.

the Sun; viz. in such manner that, in the SASH, a mark of distinction, which in satellites of the same planet, the squares of the British service is generally made of the periodic times are proportional to the crimson silk for the officers, and of crimson cubes of their distances from the primary mixed with white cotton for the serjeants. planet. It is worn round the waist in inost regiments; SATELLITES of Jupiter, are four little in some few, particularly in the Highland moons, or secondary planets performing corps, it is thrown across the shoulder their revolutions about Jupiter, as that Sashes were originally invented for the con- planet does about the Sun. venience and ease of wounded officers, &c. Simon Marius, mathematician of the by means of which, in case any of them Elector of Brandenburg, about the end of were so badly wounded as to render them November 1609, observed three little stars incapable of remaining at their posts, they moving round Jupiter's body, and proceedmight be carried off with the assistance of ing along with him; and in January 1610, two men. They are now reduced to a very he found a fourth, In January 1610, Galileo small size, and of course unfit for the ori. also observed the same in Italy, and in the , ginal purpose. Both the sash and gorget, same year published bis observations. These indeed, must be considered as mere marks satellites were also observed in the same of distinction, to point out officers on duty. month of January 1610, by Thomas Harriot, In some instances they are worn together; the author of a work upon algebra, and in others, the gorget is laid aside, and the who made constant observations on these sash only worn. The British cavalry tie satellites, from that time till the 26th of the sash on the right, the infantry ou the February 1612. left side. The sashes for the imperial When Jupiter comes into a line between army are made of crimson and gold, for any of his satellites and the Sun, the satellite the Prussian army black silk and silver, the disappears, being then eclipsed, or in volved Hanoverians yellow silk, the Portuguese in his shadow. When the satellite goes crimson silk with blue tassels. The French behind the body of Jupiter, with respect have their sashes made of three colours, viz. to an observer on the Earth, it is then said white, pink, and light-blue, to correspond to be occulted, being hidden from our sight with the national flag.

by his body, whether in his shadow or not. SASSAFRAS, in pharmacy, the wood of And wben the satellite comes into a posian American tree, of the laurel-kind, im- tion between Jupiter and the Sun, it casts

VOL VI.

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barilla, soda, or kelp; many of them are The S. eperlanus, or smelt, is about se- herbaceous and annual, some have shrubby ven inches long, highly elegant, of a taper- stems. The leaves are generally alternate, ing form, and semi-transparent appearance. in some opposite, others round or tlat; It has an odour not unlike that proceeding flowers terminating or axillary. S. kali from vegetables, and which has by some grows naturally in the salt marshes in been resembled to that of a violet, and by divers parts of England. It is an annual others to that of a cucumber. In the win plant, which rises above five or six inches ter months it is caught in extreme abun- bigh, sending out many side branches, dance in the rivers Thames and Dee. which spread on every side, with short awl

The S. Greenlandicus, or Greenland sal- shaped leaves, which are fleshy, and termon. These abound off the coast of Green. minate in acute spines. S. soda rises with land, where they are taken in vast quanti- berbaceous stalks near three feet high, ties and dried, not only for the use of man, spreading wide. The leaves on the prin. but of cattle, for which they constitute a cipal stalk, and those on the lower part valuable food in winter. It is about the of the branches, are long, slender, and have size of a smelt.

110 spines; those on the upper part of the S. thymallus, or the grayling, is about a stalk and branches are slender, short, and foot and a half long, and abounds in the ri- crooked. All the sorts of glass-wort are some. vers of mountainous countries in Enrope times promiscuously used for making soda and Asia. It resembles the trout in form. or mineral alkali, but this species is esteemIn some of the rivers of England, it is found ed best. The manner of making it is as in great perfection. It feeds on insects follows: having dug a trench near the sea, and fishies, and is highly voracious, catches they place laths across it, on which they lay, with extreme avidity at the bait, and swims the herbs in heaps, and having made a fire with extraordinary rapidity, passing through below, the liquor which runs out of the the water like a dart, or a meteor through herbs drops to the bottom, which at length the air.

thickening, becomes soda, which is partly SALON, or Saloon, in architecture, a of a black, and partly of an ash-colour, very very lofty spacious hall, vaulted at top, and sharp and corrosive, and of a saltish taste. sometimes comprehending two stories or This, when thoroughly hardened, becomes ranges of windows. The salon is a grand like a stone, and in that state is transport. room in the middle of a building, or at the ed to different countries for the making of head of a gallery, &c. Its faces or sides glass, soap, &c. ought all to have a symmetry with each SALT, culinary, or MURIATE of Soda. other; and as it usually takes up the height This salt is one of the most abundant pro. of two stories, its ceiling, should be with a ductions of nature, and exists native in moderate sweep. Salons are frequently much greater quantity than any other neubuilt square, and sometimes octagonal.

tral salt.
tral salt. The waters of the

The waters of the ocean owe SALPA, in natural history, a genus of their saltness to it, it is found in a number the Vermes Mollusca class and order : body of mineral springs, and it forms immense loose, nayant, gelatinous, tubular, and open strata in the bowels of the earth, or rising at each extremity: intestine placed ob- on the surface, even to the height of mounliquely: eleven species have been enume- tains. According as it is produced from rated, in two divisions ; A furnished with an these sources, it is named sea-salt, or rock. appendage: B. without the terminal ap- salt. Rock-salt is solid, hard, and more or pendage. The animals of this genus are of less transparent, of a white, grey, or redá gregarions nature and often adhere to dish colour, sometimes of a bright or deep gether: they swim with great facility, and red, or yellow, and more rarely with spots have the power of contracting or opening at of blue. Its fracture is foliated or fibrous ; pleasure the cavities at the extremities. generally it is massive, but sometimes crysSALS OLA, in botany, salt-wort, a genus tallized in cubes, and its fragments are als

or.

ways of a cubical form. The colours have without the reach of the tide. The bottom been supposed to depend on the oxide or of these is made of clay, well beaten, and muriate of iron. In general it is pure, and they are divided into several departments. hence its taste is purely saline ; but some. The fluid being thus spread out on an exten. times it is bitter from the presence of fo- sive surface, quickly evaporates, and by reign salts. There are immense mines of sluices it is removed from one department it in different countries. Those of Cracow, .to another, so that when it arrives at the in Gallicia, have been long celebrated. It last, it is a strong brine, and the salt is soon abounds in the east and south of Germany, deposited. It is necessarily mixed with is found in large quantities in Spain, and the clay of the ground, and with several of likewise in Cheshire, in England. In Afri. the neutral salts, and other impurities, ca. Asia, and America, it is not less exten- which sea-water contains. Salt, prepared sively distributed, forming hills above the in this manner, is known by the name of surface, or very extensive beds. It is al- bay.salt. In coliler climates, recourse must ways connected with rocks of secondary be had to artificial evaporation. The waformation, and generally with gypsum orter is heated in shallow iron pans. Muriste sulphate of lime.

of soda possesses the singular property, Dr. Watson, in the second volume of his that it is as soluble in cold as in hot ware 6 Essays," speaking of the salt mines, says, after due evaporation, therefore, it bevina 66 There are several mines of rock-salt near to crystallize on the surface of the hot li. Northwich in Cheshire, the first of which quor; the crystals, as they increase, fall to was discovered as they were boring for coal the bottom of the vessel, are raked out and in the year 1670. The springs which are set to drain. This is the process by which met with both above and below the level it is obtained in this country. Sometimes of the Northwich bed of rock-salt, are this method is conjoined with natural eva. strongly impregnated with salt. This is poration. The sea water, before it is re. easily accounted for: the rain-water, in ceived into the boiler, is pumped into a sinking through the ground which lies over large reservoir, under which faggots of the rock-salt, at last arrives at the salt; its thorns, &c, are suspended. It is allowed further descent is in a great measure ob- to drop over these, and a large surface be. structed by the solid body of salt; it rests ing thus presented to the atmosphere, while upon it, and, in resting upon it, dissolves it,

the air is also rapidly renewed, a considerand thus constitutes a brine-spring above ably part of the water is evaporated. It is the level of the bed of rock-salt. The brine then conveyed to the boiler, and evaporated springs, which are found below that level, in the usual manver. Or, in some of the probably arise from the water, which has

northern departments of France, the sea. dissolved a portion of rock-salt, in sinking water is made to flow over a bottom of clav to that depth in the earth. I have,” conti- covered with sand, which favours both the nues the Doctor, “had the curiosity to go

« had the curiosity to go evaporation of the water, and the concre. to the bottom of some of the most famous tion of the salt; the saline deposit, which is mines in England, but I never thought my at length formed, is lixiviated with sea-walabour, in these subterraneous expeditions, ter, which, becoming thus more imprese. so well rewarded as in the sight of the nated with salt, is concentrated by boiling rock-salt mines at Northwich. These are so as to afford it by hasty crystallization. superior to the mines at Cracow, in Poland, Sea-salt, obtained by auy of these pro. which have, for many centuries, been the cesses, is never perfectly pure. Sea-water. subject of general admiration.” A single by its analysis, is found to contain, besides pit, at Northwich, yields, at a medium, muriate of soda, several other neutral salts. 4,000 tons of salt in a year.

particularly muriate of magnesia, muriate In different countries, the process of ob- of lime, and sulphate of soda. These being taining salt is different. In very cold cli- much more soluble in hot, than in cold wa. mates, the water being received into shal. ter, remain dissolved in the hot liquor, from low ditches during the winter, is frozen, by which the salt crystallizes. A small quan. which a great part of the superfluous water tity of them, however, still adheres to the is removed, and the remaining liquor af. muriate of soda, they render it deliquescent. fords salt, by artificial evaporation. In give it a bitter taste, and considerably im. warm climates, it is obtained by sponta- pair its antiseptic power. Different pro. neous evaporation. The water is received cesses have therefore been contrived to obinto broad, shallow trenches at the sea-side, tain the salt free from these mixtures. The

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