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most simple is merely to procure the salt defray the expense, the muriatic acid is by a slow artificial evaporation. It then collected and employed in the manufacture crystallizes with scarcely any mixture of of sal ammoniac, in the preparation of oxy. the others. This is the cause of the supe. muriatic acid for bleaching, or for any other rior purity of the bay-salt. Hence, also, the useful purpose to which it can be applied. larger the crystals of sea-salt are, they may The sulphate of soda is calcined in a reverbe justly supposed to be the purer, as the beratory furnace, to free it from any superlargeness of the crystals is owing to the fluous acid. It is then to be decomposed. slowness of the evaporation by which they It is of very extensive use. Its applica. are formed.
tion to preserve animal substances froin For chemical purposes, muriate of soda pntrefaction is well known; the theory is most easily purified, by dissolving it in of its antiseptic quality has never yet been water, and adding to its solution a solution properly explained. It is also taken uniof carbonate of soda, drop by drop, till no versally as a seasoning to food, and seems cloudiness is produced by the addition to be very necessary to promote digestion, Every foreign salt is thus decomposed and as even the lower animals, it has been precipitated, and the strained solution will proved, languisha when altogether deprived contain the pure muriate of soda, which may of it. It is employed in a variety of arts. be crystallized. Muriate of soda has a salt, In the manufacture of pottery of the rather agreeable taste, being, when pure, coarser kind, when it is thrown into the . free from all bitterness; it is soluble in ra- oven in which the ware is baked, it is conther less than three parts of water, at the verted into vapour, and, being applied in temperature of 60°. The crystals neither this state to the surface of the vessels, glazes deliqnesce, nor effloresce, on exposure to then, an effect probably owing to the comthe air ; the common sea-salt, indeed, is de bination of its alkali with the siliceous earth liquescent; but this is owing to the muriates of the pottery. It is employed in the ma. of magnesia and lime, which adhere to it. nufacture of glass, which it is said to render Exposed to heat, the crystals of muriate of whiter and clearer; in that of soap, which soda decrepitate from the sudden conver. it makes harder; as a Aux, in the melting sion of their water of crystallization into va of metals from their ores; and in a variety pour. If the temperature is raised to a red of chemical and pharmaceutical processes. heat, the salt melts ; in an intense heat, it Salt, in a chemical sense, is a chrystalis volatilized in white vapours, without hav. lizable substance, considerably soluble in ing undergone any decomposition.
water, and highly sapid. The term is ap. Crystallized muriate of soda contains 53 plied likewise by modern chemists to all of soda, and 47 of acid, containing, how the crystallizable acids, or alkalies, or earths, ever, some water of composition, so that of or combinations of acids with alkalies, real acid, the quantity is 38.83. Its speci. earths, or metallic oxides : hence salts in fic gravity is 2.12. This salt is decomposed chemistry are distinguished into alkaline, by the sulphuric and nitric acids, in the earthy, and metallic, and they take their same manner as the muriate of potash is. Dames from the acid, and alkali, &c. of It is from its decomposition by the sulphu which they are combined: thus the sulric acid, that the muriatic acid is best ob- pháte of soda is a combination of sulphuric taived, as bas already licen observed. When acid and soda; the sulphite of soda is a comdecomposed by the nitric acid, part of the bination of sulphurous acid and soda. The latter is decomposed, a quantity of its oxy- termination ate denotes that the salt is gen being transterred to the muriatic. One formed of the acid containing the greater of the most important practical problems in quantity of oxygen, and the termination ite chemistry is to decompose this salt, so as to of the acid, containing the smaller quanobtain its alkali. It abounds so much in tity of oxygen. There are also salts of triple nature, that if such a process, capable of combinations, as alum, tartarized antimony, being carried on to advantage, could be dis- &c. Salts are either also neutral, that is covered, a vast supply of soda would be ob- where the ingredients are in perfect satura. tained; and as this alkali can be employed tion, (see NEUTRALIZATION,) or with the for every purpose that potash can, and is acid in excess, of which tartar is an exam. even much superior to it for some uses, such ple, or with an excess of the base, as in a discovery would be of much importance to borax. Tliese circumstances bave been the chemical arts. Salt is decomposed in distingnished by the prefix super in the first the usual mode by sulphuric acid; and to case, and sub in the latter: bence tartar is
named the super-tartrite of potash; and little ball; calyx sub-globular, pubescent, borax, the sub-borate of soda.
one-celled, consisting of a double mem. SALVADORA, in botany, a genus of brane; corolla none, unless it be the inner the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. membrane of the calyx ; stamen an upNatural order of Atriplices, Jussieu. Es right pillar, placed on the base of the calyx: sential character: calyx four-cleft ; corolla female, in the middle of the ball, solitary; four-cleft; berry one-seeded; seed covered calyx and corolla as in the males; pistils; with an aril. There are three species found germs about fifteen, obliquely ovate, blunt, in China.
rugged with dots, each on distinct pedicles, SALVAGE money, a reward allowed by fastened to the bottom of the calyx; style the civil and statute law, for the saving of none; stigma a dot on the top of the germ; ships or goods from the danger of the seas, pericarpium none; seeds as many as there pirates, or enemies. Where any ship is in are germs, and of the same form. The danger of being stranded, or driven on male and female flowers may be distinshore, justices of the peace are to com- guished in the dry plant before the calyxes mand the constables to assemble as many open, by the size of the protuberant grains. persons as are necessary to preserve it; SALUTATION, the act of saluting, and on its being preserved by their means, greeting, or paying respect and reverence the persons assisting therein shall, in thirty to any one. There is a great variety in the days after be paid a reasonabie reward for forms of salutation. The orientals salute the salvage, otherwise the ship or goods by uncovering their feet, laying their hands shall remain in the custody of the officers on their breasts, &c. In England, we saof the customs, as a security for the same. Inte by uncovering the head, bending the
SALVIA, in botany, sage, a genus of the body, &c. The pope formerly paid reve. Diandria Monogynia class and order. rence to none except the emperor, to Natural order of Verticillatæ. Labiatæ, whom he stooped a very little, when he per. Jussieu, Essential character: corolla nn- mitted him to kiss his lips. A prince, or perequal; filaments fastened transversely to a son of extraordinary quality, is saluted at pedicle. There are seventy-nine species. his entering a garrison by the firing of the This extensive genus consists of herbs or cannon round the place. In the field, when under shrubs; the Aowers are from one to a regiment is to be reviewed by a king, three together from a bracte, or a leaf, fre. or his general, the drums beat as he apquently in spikes. S. officinalis, or common proaches, and the officers salute him one Jarge sage, which is cultivated in gardens, of after another, as he passes by, stepping which there are the following varieties : 1. back with the right foot and hand, bowing The common green sage. 2. The wormwood their half pikes to the ground, and then resage. 3. The green sage with a variegated covering them gently, bringing up the foot leaf. 4. The red sage. 5. The red sage and hand, and planting them; which done, with a variegated leaf. These are acci- they pull off their hats without bowing. dental variations, and therefore are not The ensigns salute all together, bringing enumerated as species. The common sage down their colours near the ground directly grows naturally in the southern parts of before them at one motion, and having Europe, but is here cultivated in gardens taken them up again, gently lift their hats. for use : but the variety with red or black. At sea, they salute by a discharge of canish leaves is the most common in the British non, which is greater or less, according to gardens : and the wormwood sage is in the degree of respect they would show; greater plenty here than the common green- and here ships always salute with an odd leaved sage, which is but in few gardens. number of guns, and galleys with an even S. auriculata, common sage of virtue, one. To salute with muskets is to fire one. which is also well known in the gardens and two or three vollies; which is a method of markets. The leaves of this are narrower salutation that sometimes precedes that of than those of the common sort; they are cannon, and is chiefly used on occasion of hoary, and some of them are indented on feasts. After the cannon, they also sometheir edges towards the base, which inden- times salute or hail with the voice, by a tures have the appearance of ears.
joint shout of all the ship's company, reSALVINIA, in botany, a genus of the peated three times; which salutation also Cryptogamia Miscellaneæ class and order. occasionally obtains where they carry no Generic character: male, flowers four to guns, or do not care to discharge any. Sanine, among whorled roots, heaped into a luting with the flag is performed two ways, either by holding it close to the staff so as suffocating wind peculiar to the desert of it cannot futter, or by striking it so as it Arabia. It blows over the deserts in the cannot be seen at all, which is the most re- months of July and August from the northspectful. Saluting with the sails is per., west, and sometimes it continues its proformed by hovering the topsails half-way gress to the very gates of Bagdad, but it is of the masts. Only those vessels that carry said never to affect any person within the no guns salute with the sails.
walls. It otten passes with the quickness The following regulations on this subject of lightning: and there is no way of avoidare deserving of notice : “ When any of his ing the dire effects but by falling on the Majesty's ships shall meet with any ship or ground, and keeping the face close to the ships belonging to any foreign prince or earth. Those who are negligent of this state, within his Majesty's seas, (which ex. cantion experience instant death. tend to Cape Finisterre) it is expected that SAMOLUS, in botany, a genus of the the said foreign ships do strike their top- Pentandria Monogynia class and order. sail, and take in their flag, in acknowledg.
Natural order of Preciar. Lysimachiæ, ment of his Majesty's sovereignty in those Jussieu. Essential character : corolla sal. seas : and if any shall refuse, or offer to ver-shaped ; stamina fenced by the scalelets resist, it is enjoined to all fag-officers and of the corolla ; capsule one.celled, inferior. commanders to use their ritmost endeavours There is but one species; riz. S. valerandi, to compel them thereto, and not suffer any brook weed or water pimpernel ; this plant dishonour to be done to his Majesty. And is an inhabitant of every quarter of the if any of his Majesty's subjects shall so much globe, in marshes, wet meadows, and forget their duty, as to omit striking their ditches; Mr. Miller considers it as an top-sail in passing by his Majesty's ships, annual; Linnæus marks it as bieunial ; the name of the ship and master, and from and others as perennial. whence, and whither bound, together with SAMYDA, in botany, a genus of the affidavits of the tacts, are to be sent up to
Decandria Monogynia class and order. Es. the Secretary of the Admiralty, in order sential character : calyx five-parted, coto their being proceeded against in the loured; corolla none; nest bell-shaped, sta. Admiralty Court. And it is to be ob. miniferous ; capsules berried within, fonr. served, that in his Majesty's seas, his Ma. valved, one-celled; seeds restling. There jesty's ships are in nowise to strike to are nine species. any; and that in no other parts, no ship’ SAND, in natural history, a genus of of his Majesty is to strike her fag or top- fossils, the characters of which are, that sail to any foreigner, unless such foreign they are found in minute concretions; formship shall have first struck, or at the same ing together a kind of powder, the genuine time, strike her flag or top sail to his Majes. particles of which are all of a tendency to ty's ship. The flag-officers and commanders one determinate shape, and appear regular, of his Majesty's ships are to be careful to thongli more or less complete concretions; maintain his Majesty's honour upon all oc. not to be dissolved or disupited by water, casions, giving protection to his subjects, and or formed into a coherent mass by means endeavouring, what in them lies, to secure of it, but retaining their figure in it; transand encourage them in their lawful comparent, vitrifiable by extreme heat, and not merce ; and they are not to injure, in any dissoluble in, nor effervescing with, acids. manner, the subjects of his Majesty's friends See SAND-STONE. and allies.”
Sand is of great use in the glass manufac. SAMARA, in botany, a genus of the ture; the white writing sand being employed Tetrandria Monogynia class and order for making of the white glass, and a coarse Natural order of Rhamni, Jussieu. Es. greenish-looking sand for the green glass. sential character: calyx four-parted; co- In agriculture it seems to be the office of rolla four-petalled; stamina immersed in sands to make unctuous earths fertile, and the base of the petal; drupe one-seeded. fit to support vegetables, &c. For earth There are four species.
alone, we find, is liable to coalesce, and ga. SAMBUCUS, in botany, elder, a genus ther into a hard coherent mass, as appears of the Pentandria Trigynia class and order. in clay; and being thus embodied, and as Natural order of Dumosæ. Caprifolia, Jus. it were glued together, is no way disposed sieu. Essential character: calyx five parts to nourish vegetables. ed; corolla five-cleft; berry three-seeded. Common sand is a very good addition, There are five species.
by way of manure, to all sorts of clay.lands; SAMIELS, the Arabian name for a bot it warms them, and makes them more open
and loose. The best sand for the farmer's ashes, which is probably owing to the shells use is that which is washed by rains from of muscles, and other fish of that or the like roads or bills, or that which is taken from colour, being broken and mixed among it the beds of rivers; the common sand that in great quantity. Westward, near the is dug in pits never answers nearly so well. Land's End, the sea-sand is very white, and However, if mixed with dung, it is much about the isles of Scilly it is very glistening, better than laid on alone : and a very fine with small particles of talc; on the coasts manure is made by covering the bottom of of the North Sea, the sand is yellowish, sheep-folds with several loads of sand every brown, or reddish, and contains so great a week, which are to be taken away, and laid quantity of fragments of cockle-sliells, that on cold stiff lands, impregnated as they are it seems to be chiefly composed of them. with the dung and the urine of the sheep. That sea sand is accounted best which is of
Beside clay-land there is another sort of a reddislı colour : the next in value to this ground very improveable by sand; this is is the bluislı, and the white is the worst that sort of black boggy land on which of all. Sea-sand is best when taken up bushes and sedge grow naturally, and which from under the water, or from sand-banks, they cut into turf, in some places. Six which are cuvered by every tide. The bundred load of sand being laid apon an small grained sand is most sudden in its acre of this land, according to the Cheshire operation, and is therefore best for the temeasure, wbich is near double the statute nant who is only to take three or four crops; acre, meliorate it so much, that without but the coarse or large grained sand is ploughing it will yield good crops of oats or much better for the landlord, as the good it tares, though before it would have produced does lasts many years. scarcely any thing. If this crop is taken off, Sand bags, in the art of war, are bags the land will be well dunged, and if then, filled with earth or sand, holding each about laid down for grass, it will yield a large crop a cubic foot : their use is to raise parapets of sweet hay.
in laste, or to repair wliat is beaten down. Once sanding this land will improve it for Sand flood, a terrible mischief, incident a vast number of years, and it will yield two to the lands of Suffolk, and some other parts crops of hay in the year, if there be weather of England; which are frequently covered to make it in. Some land in Cheshire has with vast quantities of sand, rolling in upon been, by this means, rendered of twelve them like a deluge of water, from sandy hills times its former value to the owner. The in their neighbourhood. bogs of Ireland, when drained, have been The Powing of sand, thongh far from rendered very fruitful land, by mixing sand being so tremendous and burtful as in Ara. in this manner among the earth, of which bia, is of very bad consequences in this they consist. Add to this, that in all these country, as many valuable pieces of land bogey lands, the burning them, or firing have thus been entirely lost; of which we their own turf upon them, is also a great give the following instances from Mr. Pen. advantage. The common peat, or turf- nant, together with a probable means of ashes, mixed with the sand for these pur. preventing them in future. “I have more poses, add greatly to its virtue. Sea-sand, than once,” says he,“ on the eastern coasts which is thrown up in creeks and other of Scotland, observed the calamitous state places, is by much the richest of all sand for of several extensive tracts, formerly in a manuring the earth; partly its saltness, and most flourishing condition, at present coverpartly the fat and unctuous filth that is ed with sands, unstable as those of the de. mixed among it, give it this great virtue. serts of Arabia. The parish of Furvic, in In the western parts of England, that lie the county of Aberdeen, is now reduced to upon the sea coast, they make very great two farms, and above 5001, a year lost to advantages of it. The fragments of sea- the Errol family, as appears by the oath of shells also, which are always in great abun. the factor in 1600, made before the Court dance in this sand, add to its virtues; and of Session, to ascertain the minister's salary. it is always the more esteemed by the far. Not a vestige is to be seen of any buildings, mers, the more of these fragments there are unless a fragment of the church. The esamong it.
tate of Coubin, near Forres, is another me. The sea.sand, used as manure in different lancholy instance. This tract was once parts of the kingdom, is of three kinds: worth 3001, a year, at this time overwhelmthat about Plymouth, and on other of the ed with sand. This strange inundation was southeru coasts, is of a blue-grey colour, like still in motion in 1769, chiefly when a strong wind prevailed. Its motion is so rapid, that disintegrated they form sand. We have I bave been assured, that an apple-tree had many varieties; as, 1. “ The calcareous been so covered with it in one season, that sand-stone,” which is of a green or greyish only the very summit appeared. This dis- colour: it is moderately hard, and gives tress was brought on about ninety years sparks when struck against steel. It efferago, and was occasioned by the cutting vesces with acids: when freed from the down some trees, and pulling up the bent calcareous cement there remains a very or star which grew on the sand-hills; which friable mass of fine white sand. 2. “ Thie at last gave rise to the act of 15 George II. ferruginous sand-stone,” which is of a red. c. 33, to prohibit the destruction of this dish brown: it is opaque and soft, and seluseful plant.
dom effervesces with acids : it readily dis. “I beg leave to suggest to the public a integrates by exposure to the weather. possible means of putting a stop to these 3. “ Grit-stone," which rarely effervesces destructive ravages. Providence hath kind- with acids, but gives very lively sparks ly formed this plant to grow only in pure when struck with the steel. It is not easily sand. Mankind was left to make, in after decomposed by exposure to the air. Sand. times, an application of it suitable to their stone is applied to many important purwants. The sand-hills on a portion of the poses in building; as flag-stones: and the Flintshire shores, in the parish of Llanasa, harder kinds of grit stone are made into are covered with it naturally, and keep firm grindstones, and on account of their infusiin their place. The Dutch perhaps owe bility they are employed for lining fur. the existence of part, at least, of their paces. country to the sowing of it on the mobile SANDARACH. See RESIN. solum, their sand-banks. My humane and SANDARACH, in natural history, a very amiable friend, the late Benjamiu Stilling. beautiful native fossil, though too often confeet, Esq. recommended the sowing of this founded with the common factitious red plant on the sandy wilds of Norfolk, that arsenic, and with the red matter formed by its matted roots might prevent the deluges melting the common yellow orpiment. It of sand which that country experiences. It is a pure substance, of a very even and rehas been already remarked, that whereso. gular structure, is throughout of that colour ever this plant grows the salutary effects which our dyers term an orange-scarlet, and are soon observed to follow. A single plant is considerably transparent even in the will fix the sand, and gather it into a lil thickest pieces. But though with respect lock; these billocks, by the increase of to colour it has the advantage of cinnabar vegetation, are formed into larger, till by while in the mass, it is vastly inferior to it degrees a barrier is made often against the when both are reduced to powder. It is encroachments of the sea, and might as moderately hard, and remarkably heavy: often prove preventative of the calamity in and when exposed to a moderate heat. question. I cannot, therefore, but recom. melts and flows like oil. If set on fire it mend the trial to the inhabitants of many burns very briskly. parts of North Britain. The plant grows It is found in Saxony and Bohemia, in in most places near the sea, and is known the copper and silver mines, and is sold to to the Highlanders by the name of murah; the painters, who find it a very fine and to the English by that of bent-star, mat valuable red; but its virtues or qualities in grass, or marram. Linnæus calls it arundo medicine are no more ascertained at this arenaria. The Dutch call it helm. This time than those of the yellow orpiment. plant hath stiff and sharp-pointed leaves, SANDORICUM, in botany, a genus of growing like a rush, a foot and a half long : the Decandria Monogynia class and order. the roots both creep and penetrate deeply Essential character : calyx five-toothed ; into their sandy beds: the stalk bears an ear petals five; nectary cylindrical, truncate, five or six inches long, not unlike rye; the bearing the anthers at its mouth; drupe seeds are small, brown, and roundish. . By filled with five nuts. There is only one good fortune, as old Gerard observes, no species, viz. S. indicum, a native of the Phicattle will eat or touch this vegetable, allot. lippine and Molucca islands. ted for other purposes, subservient to the SANGUINARIA, in botany, a genus of use of mankind."
the Polyandria Monogynia class and order. , Sand stone, in mineralogy, is chiefly com- Natural order of Rhoeadeæ, Papaveraceæ, posed of quartz in rounded grains of various Jussieu. Essential character: calyx twosizes. Sand-stones are stratified, and when leaved; corolla eight-petalled; silique ovate,