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SAILING also denotes a particular me. sential character: monogynous, or onethod of navigation; in which sense we say, styled ; calyx five-parted; corolla five-peMercator's sailing, plane sailing, parallel talled; anthers placed on the apex of the sailing, middle latitude sailing, and great germ. There are two species, viz. S. chicircle sailing.
nensis, and S. cochinchinensis. SAILING, great circle, in navigation, the SALE of goods. If a man agrees for the art of finding what places a ship must go purchase of goods, he shall pay for them, through, and what courses to steer; so that before he carries them away, unless some her tract shall be in the arch of a great cir- term of credit is expressly agreed upon. cle, or nearly so, passing through the place I f a man upon the sale of goods, warsailed from and that bound to. It is chiefly rants them to be good, the law annexes to on account of the shortest distance, that this contract a tacit warranty, that if they this method of sailing has been proposed; be not so, he shall make compensation to for in the sphere, it is well knowo that the the purchaser ; such warranty, however, shortest distance between two places is the must be on the sale. But if the vender arch of a great circle intercepted between knew the goods to be unsound, and has them, and not in the rhumb or spiral pass- used any art to disguise them, or if in any ing through those places.
respect, they differ from what he repreAs, in Mercator's sailing, the several sents them to be to the purchaser, he will be cases are solved by plane triangles ; so answerable for their goodness, though no the solution of the cases of great circle-sail- general warranty will extend to those deing is obtained by means of spherical trian- fects that are obvious to the senses. gles : and, therefore, the navigator should If two persons come to a warellouse, and be master of spherical trigonometry, before one buys, and the other to procure him he attempts this method. See TRIGONO. credit, promises the seller, “if he do not pay METRY,
you, I will;" this is a collateral undertaking, SAILORS, the principal seamen who and void without writing, by the statutes of are employed in working or managing the frauds; but if he say, let him have, the sails, the tackle, steering, &c.
goods, I will be your paymaster, this is an SAL ammoniac, natural, in mineralogy, absolute undertaking as for himself, and he a species of the fossil salts, is of a greyish shall be intended to be the real buyer, and white colour, passing to yellow. It is flaky, the other to act only as his servant. The and of a saline consistence, It occurs mas question in these cases is always which sive, and likewise crystallized; the crystals party was originally trusted. For if the are small and adhere or intersect one ano. party to whom the goods are delivered was ther; externally shining, internally splen ever considered as responsible, the engagedent or shining, and lustre vitreous. The ment of the other is void, unless it is in substance is composed of
writing ; after earnest is given, the vender
cannot sell the goods to another without a Muriate of ammonia ... 97.50 Sulphate of ammonia .. 2.50
default in the vender, and therefore, if the
vendee does not come and pay, and take 100.00
the goods, the vender ought to give him
notice for that purpose; and then if he When placed on burning coals it emits a does not come and pay, and take away the peculiar odour, and is volatilized in the goods in convenient time, the agreement is form of white smoke; when burned or dissolved, and lie is at liberty to sell theni rubbed with lime, it emits an ammoniacal to any other person. smell. It is said to be the product of vol- SALEP, or SALOp. See Sago. canoes, and pseudo-volcanoes, where it oc. SALIANT, in fortification, denotes procurs in different forms ; it is also found in jecting. There are two kinds of angles, the waters of different lakes in Tuscany; the one saliant, which are those that preit is found at Vesuvius, Etna, and the Li. sent their point ontwards; the other repari Eolian islands ; in France; at Mount entering, which have their points inwards, Hecla, in Iceland ; and in the vicinity of Instances of both kinds we have in tenailles inflamed beds of coal in Scotland and Eng. and star-works. land. It is also found in divers parts of SALIANT, SALIENT, or SAILLANT, in Asia, and in the Isle of Bourbon.
heraldry, is applied to a lion, or other beast, SALACIA, in botany, a genus of the when its fore-legs are raised in a leaping Gynandria Triandria class and order. Es posture. A lion salient is that which is erected bend-ways, standing so as that his four-tifths of its quantity of water almost right fore-foot is the dexter chief point, and pure, a little carbonate of ammonia, some his hinder lett foot is the sinister base point oil, and an acid. What remains behind of the escutcheon, by which it is distinguish- consists of muriate of soda, phosphate of ed from rampant.
soda and of lime. SALIC, or SALIQUE LAW, an ancient SALIX, in botany, willou, a genus of the and fundamental law of the kingdom Dioccia Diandria class and order. Natural of France, usually supposed to have been order of Amentaceæ. Essential character: made by Pharamond, or at least by Clovis, calyx ament, composed of scales; corolla in virtue whereof males are only to in none; male, nectary a melliferous gland : herit.
female, style bifid; capsule one celled, two SALICORNIA in botany, jointed glass- valved; seeds downy. There are fifty. wort, a genus of the Monandria Monogynia three species ; of which we may notice the class and order. Natural order of Holo following: the S. caprea, or common sallow. raceæ. Atriplices, Jussieu. Essential cha- tree, grows to but a moderate height, having racter: calyx, ventricose, entire ; petals smooth, dark-green, brittle branches; oval, none; stamens one or two; seed one cover- waved, rongh leaves, indented at top, and ed by the calyx. There are nine species, woolly underneath. It grows abundantof wbich the most remarkable is the S.. ly in this country, but more frequently in perennis, with a shrubby branching stalk, dry than moist situations. It is of a brittle which grows naturally in Sheppey island. nature, and unfit for the basket-makers; but They are perennial, and produce their will serve for poles, stakes, and to lop for fireflowers in the same manner as the former. wood: and its timber is good for many purThe inhabitants near the sea.coasts where poses. The S. alba, white, or silver-leaved these plants grow, cut them up toward the willow, grows to a great height and conlatter end of summer, when they are fully siderable bulk, having smooth, pale-green grown: and after having dried them in the shoots; long, spear-shaped, acuminated, sun, they burn them for their ashes, which sawed, silvery.white leaves, being downy are used in making of glass and soap. These on both sides, with glands below the ser. herbs are by the country people called ratus. This is the common white willow, kelp, and promiscuously gathered for use, which grows abundantly about towns and vil.
SALISBURIA, in botany, so named in lages, and by the sides of rivers and brooks, honour of Richard Anthony Salisbury, a &c. S. fragiles, fragile or crack willow, genus of the Monoecia Polyandria class and rises to a middling stature, with brownish, order. Essential character: male, amenta. very fragile, or brittle branches ; long, oval, ceous; anthers incumbent, deltoid: female, lanceolate, sawed, smooth leaves of a shining solitary; calyx four cleft; drupe with a green on both sides, having dentated glan. triangular shell. There is only one species, dular foot-stalks. This sort in particular riz. S. adiantifolia.
being exceedingly fragile, so that it casily SALIVA. The saliva which is secreted cracks and breaks, is unfit for culture in by peculiar glands, and which flows into the osier-grounds. S. Babylonica, Babylonian mouth, is a clear viscid Aluid, without taste pendulous Salix, commonly called weeping or smell. It has generally a frothy appear willow, grows to a largish size, having nuance, being mixed with a quantity of air. merous, long, slender, pendulous branches, Saliva has a strong attraction for oxygen, hanging down loosely all round in a curious which by trituration it communicates to manuer, and long; narrow, spear-shaped, some metallic substances, as mercury, gold, serrated, smooth leaves. This curious wil. and silver. When saliva is boiled in water. low is a native of the East. albumen is precipitated, and when it is slow. All the species of Salix are of the tree ly evaporated, muriate of soda is obtained. kind, very hardy, remarkably fast growers, A vegetable gluten remains behind, which and several of them attaining a considerable burns with the odour of prussic acid. stature when permitted to run up to standSaliva becomes thick by the action of acids. ards. They are usually of the aquatic Oxalic acid precipitates lime. Saliva is tribe, being generally the most abunalso inspissated by alcohol. It is decomdant, and of most prosperous growth, in posed by the alkalies; and the nitrates of watery situations; they, however, will lead, of mercury, and the silver, precipitate grow freely almost any where, in any commuriatic and phosphoric acids. By distil- mon soil and exposure ; but considerably lation in a retort, it froths up, atfords nearly the fastest and strongest in low moist land,
particularly in marshy situations, by the with extreme care, in recesses in the sands. verges of rivers, brooks, and other waters; Here it remains till the advance of spring, likewise along the sides of ditches, &c. when the young are completely developed, which places often lying waste, may be and grow with such rapidity, that, by the employed to good advantage in plantations beginning of August, they attain to the of willows for different purposes.
weight of six or seven pounds, and occaSALLY, in the military art, the issuing out sionally even more. Some hundreds have of the besieged, from their town or fort, and been occasionally taken in a single draught; falling upon the besiegers in their works, in but the average number is not above fifty. order to cut them off, nail their cannon, These fishes, in their most abundant season, hinder the progress of their approaches, are salted and barrelled for exportation. destroy their works, &c.
The principal part of these, taken before SALMASIA, in botany, so named in April, is sent to the London market, in a memory of Claudius Salmasius, a genus of fresh state, and packed in ice. In July, the Pentandria Trigynia class and order. the most plentiful month in the year, salNatural order of Cisti, Jussieu. Essential mon have been sold at Berwick, at the rate character: calyx, five parted; corolla, five of less than a halfpenny per pound. The petalled; style none; capsule, three celled, rent of the forty principal salmon-fisheries three valved, many seeded. There is but on the Tweed, between its mouth and fourone species, viz. S. racemosa, a native of teen miles upwards, towards its source, the woods of Guiana.
amounted, many years since, to between SALMO, the salmon, in natural history, five and six thousand pounds per annum, a genus of fishes of the order Abdominales. and the number of fishes annually taken by Generic character: head smooth, compress - these, is calculated at upwards of two huned; tongue white and cartilaginous; teeth dred thousand. It is a singular circumin the jaws and on the tongue; gill-mem- stance, that no food, if we may believe the brane from four to twelve-rayed ; body fur- uniform statements of fishermen, is ever nished at the hind part with an adipose fin. found in the stomach of the salmon ; yet Gmelin enumerates fifty-five species, and fishes and worms are employed by the angler Shaw sixty-two, of which we shall notice with success in taking them. The case may the following:
possibly be, that, at particular seasons, they S. salar, or the common salmon. This may totally neglect food, as is the case abounds principally in the Northern Seas, with some other species of animals, partiwhich it quits at particular periods, to as- cularly seals, which abstain for a series of cend rivers to a very considerable height, months, and this instance of exception may and deposit its spawn in them. In order have been exaggerated into a universal to gain the favourite spots in rivers for this practice. purpose, which are sometimes at the dis- S. fario, or common trout, is found in altance of several hundred miles from the most all the European streams, at least ocean, these fishes will overcome diffi- sach as are cool and clear. Its length, in culties of surprising extent, stemning the general, is about fourteen inches. Occamost rusbing currents, and leaping with sionally, it has been known to weigh ten astonishing activity over various elevations. pounds. Trout of the common size, howIt is related, that the same individual fishes ever, are far preferable to those of such will return to the same spot for a succes- extraordinary magnitude. These tishes subsion of seasons ; in this respect exhibiting sist on worms, small fishes, shell-fish, and preferences similar to those of birds in simi- water-insects. They are extremely rapalar circuinstances. The salmon is generally cious and devouring, and not unfrequently about two feet and three-quarters long, and prey upon each other. Those are most has been seen of the length of six, and esteemed which are found in the coldest weighing, in this case, seventy-four pounds. streams, and they are generally regarded as This fish is remarkable for the excellence an elegant and luxurious article of food, of its flavour, and its richness, and is a wel. They appear to have been only slightly come dish at every table. It constitutes, known to the Greeks and Romans, and to also, an important article of commerce. have been rather admired for the beauty of The principal fishery for salmon, in this their appearance, than eagerly sought after island, is at Berwick on the Tweed. In for the table. November, they begin to ascend that river, S. salvelinus, or red ciiarr, is about a foot and soon afterwards deposit their spawn long, very similar in form to the common
salmon, but more slender. It abounds in of the Pentandria Digynia class and order. the rivers of Siberia, and the lakes of Ger- Natural order of Holoracex. Atriplices, many, and in this country, in the lakes of Jussieu. Essential character: calyx, five. Crimberland and Westmoreland. It is con- leaved, corolla nope; capsule one-seeded; sidered as one of the highest delicacies, seed screw-shaped. There are thirty.one and bas the most brilliant colours, and species. These plants are well known for finest flavour, when inhabiting the coldest producing alkaline salt, commonly called waters.
barilla, soda, or kelp; many of them are The S. eperlanus, or smelt, is about se. herbaceous and annual, some have shrubby ven inches long, highly elegant, of a taper- stems. The leaves are generally alternate, ing form, and semi-transparent appearance. in some opposite, others round or tlat; It has an odour not unlike that proceeding flowers terminating or axillary. S. kali from vegetables, and which has by some grows naturally in the salt marshes in been resembled to that of a violet, and by divers parts of England. It is an annual others to that of a cucumber. In the win- plant, which rises above five or six inches ter months it is caught in extreme abun- bigh, sending out many side branches, dance in the rivers Thames and Dee. which spread on every side, with short awl
The S. Greenlandicns, or Greenland sale shaped leaves, which are fleshy, and termon. These abound off the coast of Green. minate in acute spines. S. soda rises with land, where they are taken in vast quanti- herbaceous stalks near three feet higli, ties and dried, not only for the use of man, spreading wide. The leaves on the prin. but of cattle, for which they constitute a cipal stalk, and those on the lower part valuable food in winter. It is about the of the branches, are long, slender, and have size of a smelt.
no spines; those on the upper part of the S. thymallus, or the grayling, is abont a stalk and branches are slender, short, and foot and a half long, and abounds in the ri- crooked. All the sorts of glass-wort are some. vers of mountainous countries in Europe times promiscuously used for making soda and Asia. It resembles the trout in form. or mineral alkali, but this species is esteemIn some of the rivers of England, it is found ed best. The manner of making it is as in great perfection. It feeds on insects follows: having dug a trench near the sea, and fishes, and is highly voracious, catches they place laths across it, on which they lay. with extreme avidity at the bait, and swims the herbs in heaps, and having made a fire with extraordinary rapidity, passing through below, the liquor which runs out of the the water like a dart, or a meteor through herbs drops to the bottom, which at length the air.
thickening, becomes soda, which is partly SALON, or Saloon, in architecture, a of a black, and partly of an ash-colour, very very lofty spacious hall, vaulted at top, and sharp and corrosive, and of a saltislı tasle. sometimes comprehending two stories or This, when thoroughly hardened, becomes ranges of windows. The salon is a grand like a stone, and in that state is transportroom in the middle of a building, or at the ed to different countries for the making of head of a gallery, &c. Its faces or sides glass, soap, &c. ought all to have a symmetry with each S ALT, culinary, or MURIATE of Soda. other; and as it usually takes up the height This salt is one of the most abundant proof two stories, its ceiling, should be with a ductions of pature, and exists native in moderate sweep. Salons are frequently much greater quantity than any other neubuilt square, and sometimes octagonal. tral salt. The waters of the ocean owe
SALPA, in natural history, a genns of their saltness to it, it is found in a number the Vermes Mollusca class and order : body of mineral springs, and it forms immense loose, payant, gelatinous, tubular, and open strata in the bowels of the earth, or rising at each extremity: intestine placed ob- on the surface, even to the height of mounliquely: eleven species have been enume- tains. According as it is produced from rated, in two divisions ; A furnished with nn these sources, it is named sea-salt, or rock. appendage: B. without the terminal ap- salt. Rock-salt is solid, hard, and more or pendage. The animals of this genus are of less transparent, of a white, grey, or redà gregarious nature and often adhere to dish colour, sometimes of a bright or deep gether: they swim with great facility, and red, or yellow, and more rarely with spots have the power of contracting or opening at of blue. Its fracture is foliated or fibrous ; pleasure the cavities at the extremities. generally it is massive, but sometimes crysSALS OLA, in botany, salt-wort, a genus tallized in cubes, and its fragments are als
ways of a cubical form. The colours have without the reach of the tide. The bottom been supposed to depend on the oxide or of these is made of clay, well beaten, and muriate of iron. In general it is pure, and they are divided into several departments. hence its taste is purely saline ; but some- The fluid being thus spread out on an exten. times it is bitter from the presence of fo- sive surface, quickly evaporates, and by reign salts. There are immense mines of sluices it is removed from one department it in different countries. Those of Cracow, .to another, so that when it arrives at the in Gallicia, have been long celebrated. It last, it is a strong brine, and the salt is soon abounds in the east and south of Germany, deposited. It is necessarily mixed with is found in large quantities in Spain, and the clay of the ground, and with several of likewise in Cheshire, in England. In Afri- the Deutral salts, and other impurities. ca, Asia, and America, it is not less exten- which sea-water contains. Salt, prepared sively distributed, forming hills above the in this manner, is known by the name of surface, or very extensive beds. It is al
bay-salt. In colier climates, recourse must ways connected with rocks of secondary be had to artificial evaporation. The wa. formation, and generally with gypsum or ter is heated in shallow iron pans. Murista sulphate of lime
of soda possesses the singular property, Dr. Watson, in the second volume of his that it is as soluble in cold as in hot war “Essays," speaking of the salt mines, says, after due evaporation, therefore, it begin « There are several mines of rock-salt near to crystallize on the surface of the hot li. Northwich in Cheshire, the first of which quor; the crystals, as they increase, fall to, was discovered as they were boring for coal the bottom of the vessel, are raked out, and in the year 1670. The springs which are set to drain. This is the process by which met with both above and below the level it is obtained in this country. Sometimes of the Northwich bed of rock-salt, are this method is conjoined with natural eva. strongly impregnated with salt. This is poration. The sea.water, before it is re. easily accounted for: the rain-water, in ceived into the boiler, is pumped into a sinking through the ground which lies over large reservoir, under which faggots of the rock-salt, at last arrives at the salt; its thorns, &c. are suspended. It is allowed further descent is in a great measure ob to drop over these, and a large surface bestructed by the solid body of salt; it rests
body of salt: it rests ing thus presented to the atmosphere, while upon it, and, in resting upon it, dissolves it, the air is also rapidly renewed, a considerand thus constitutes a brine-spring above ably part of the water is evaporated. It is the level of the bed of rock-salt. The brine then conveyed to the boiler, and evaporated springs, which are found below that level, in the usual manner. Or, in some of the probably arise from the water, which has
er which has northern departments of France, the sea. dissolved a portion of rock-salt, in sinking water is made to flow over a bottom of clav to that depth in the earth. I have,” conti covered with sand, which favours both the nues the Doctor, “had the curiosity to go evaporation of the water, and the concre. to the bottom of some of the most famous
of the most famous tion of the salt; the saline deposit, which is mines in England, but I never thought my at length formed, is lixiviated with sea-wa. labour, in these subterraneous expeditions, ter, which, becoming thus more imprev. so well rewarded as in the sight of the nated with salt, is concentrated by boiling rock-salt mines at Northwich. These are so as to afford it by basty crystallization. superior to the mines at Cracow, in Poland, Sea-salt, obtained by auy of these pro. which have, for many centuries, been the cesses, is never perfectly pure. Sea-water, subject of general admiration." A single by its analysis, is found to contain, besides pit, at Northwich, yields, at a medium, muriate of soda, several other neatral salts. 4,000 tons of salt in a year.
particularly muriate of magnesia, muriate In different countries, the process of ob- of lime, and sulphate of soda. These being taining salt is different. In very cold cli- much more soluble in hot, than in cold wa. mates, the water being received into shal. ter, remain dissolved in the hot liquor, from low ditches during the winter, is frozen, by which the salt crystallizes. A small quan. which a great part of the superfluons water tity of them, however, still adheres to the is removed, and the remaining liquor af. muriate of soda, they render it deliquescent. fords salt, by artificial evaporation. In give it a bitter taste, and considerably im. warm climates, it is obtained by sponta- pair its antiseptic power. Differeni pro. neous evaporation. The water is received cesses have therefore been contrived to obipto broad, shallow trenches at the sea-side, tain the salt free from these mixtures. The