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SAB S f, or s, the eighteenth letter, and the other doctrines of grace, as they are

y fourteenth consonant of onr alphabet; sometimes called, viz. the Trinity, Atone. the sound of which is formed, by driving the ment, Predestination, &c. &c. breath through a narrow passage between In our own country, this sect is by no the palate and the tongue elevated near it means numerous. They bave only two together with a motion of the lower jaw and congregations in London ; the one of Gene. teeth towards the upper ; the lips being a ral Baptists, and the other of Particular, or little way open, with such a configuration of Calvinistic Baptists. In America, however, every part of the mouth and larynx, as as we are informed by Morse, author of the renders the voice somewhat sibulous and American Geography, there are many hissing. Its sound however varies, being christians of this persuasion, particularly in strong in some words, as this, thus, &c. and Rhode Island, New Jersey, and at Ephrate soft in words which have a final e, as muse, in Pennsylvania. wise, &c. It is generally doubled at the This tenet, frivolous and unimportant as end of words, whereby they become hard it may appear, has contributed its quota to and harsh, as in kiss, loss, &c. In snme the odium theologicum of modern divinity, words it is silent, as isle, island, riscount, &c. and has been productive of several weighty Used as a numeral, S anciently denoied controversies. Drs. Chandler and Kenni. seven; in the Italian music, & signifies solo; cott; Messrs. Amner, Palmer, and Estlin. and in books of navigation, S stands for in behalf of the Sunday christians; and Mr. south ; S. E. for south-east; S. W. for Cornthwaite on the side of the Sabbatasouth-west ; S. S. E. for south south-east; rians, have all displayed their ingenuity S. S. W. for south south west, &c.

apd talents on this very important ques. SABBATARIANS, a sect of Christians, tion. chiefly Baptists, who observe the Jewish or SABELLA, in natural history, a genus of Saturday Sabbath, from a persuasion that, the Vermes Testacea class and order. Ge. it being one of the ten commandments, neric character: animal a nereis, with a which they contend are all in their nature ringent mouth, and two thicker tentacula moral, was never abrogated by the New Tes. behind the head; shell tubular, composed tament. They say that Saturday must at of particles of sand, broken shells and vege. least be deemed of equal validity for public table substances, united to a membrane by worship with any day never particularly set a glutinous cement. There are twenty-tive apart by Jesus Christ and his Apostles. Those species ; of which we may notice S. scru. of this sect who are what are denominated, posa; shell solitary, loose, simple, curved, Particular Baptists, hold, in common with with lentiform glossy granulations. It inmost other christians of the present day, all habits India and the American islands. The VOL. VI.

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shell is subulate, obtuse at the tip, as thick the stalk to the next joint above its ingeras a swan's quill, and composed of equal tion, before it expands; from hence to the white grains of sand. S. alveolata, has pu- point it is three or four feet in length, on merous parallel tubes communicating by an the under side is a deep whitish furrow, or aperture, forming in the mass the appear- hollowed midrib, broad and prominent; the ance of boney-combs. This is described edges are thin, and armed with small sharp by Ellis and Pennant. It is found on Euro teeth, which are scarcely to be discerned pean coasts, covering the rocks for a con- with the naked eye; the flowers are produsiderable space, and easily breaking under ced in panicles, at the top of the stalks, from the feet. The shell is composed chiefly of two to three feet long, composed of many sand, and very fine fragments of shells; spikes, nine or ten inches in length; these the tubes straightish, two or three inches are again subdivided into smaller spikes, long.

having a long down inclosing the flowers, SABLE. See MUSTELA.

so as to hide them from sight; the seed is Sable, in heraldry, denotes the colour oblong, pointed, and ripens in the valves black, in coats of arms belonging to gentle.

ing to gentle of the flower. It has been asserted that men; but in those of noblemen it is called the sugar-cane is not indigenous of Ame. diamond; and in those of sovereign princes,

rica; but that it migrated through the Eu. saturn. It is espressed in engraving by

is expressed in engraving bý ropeans from Sicily and Spain to Madeira perpendicular and horizontal hatches cross. and the Canary islands, afterwards to the ing one another.

West Indian islands, to Mexico, Peru, and SABRE, a kind of sword, or scimetar, Brazil. with a very broad and heavy blade, thick at SACCOLATES, in chemistry, salts form. tie back, and a little falcated, or crooked ed from the SACLACTIC acid, which see. towards the point. It is generally worn by SACERDOTAL, something belonging to the heavy cavalry and dragoons. The gre. priests. nadiers, belonging to the whole of the SACK of vool, a quantity of wool conFrench infantry, are likewise armed with taining just twenty-two stone, and every sabres. The blade is not so long as that of stone fourteen pounds. In Scotland, a sack a small sword, but it is nearly twice as is twenty-four stone, each stone containing broad. French hussars wear the curved sixteen pounds. ones somewhat longer than those of the Sacks of earth, in fortification, are can. grenadiers. Perhaps it may be in the con- vas-bags filled with earth. They are used templation of his Royal Highness the Com- in making intrenchments in haste, to place mander in Chief, to arm the British gre. on parapets, or the head of the breaches, nadiers with this useful and formidable &c. to repair them, when beaten down. weapon.

SACKBUT, a musical instrument of the SACCHARUM, in botany, sugar cane, a wind kind, being a sort of trumpet, though genus of the Triandria Digynia class and different from the common trumpet both in order. Natural order of Gramina, Grami. form and size : it is fit to play a bass, and is nex, or Grasses. Essential character: ca. contrived to be drawn out, or shortened, lyx two-valved, involucred with a long according to the tone required, whether lanugo; corolla two-valved. There are grave or acute. eleven species ; among which we shall no. SACLACTIC acid. To this acid Four. tice the S. officinarum, common sugar cane, croy has given the name of mucous acid, the root of this plant is jointed, like that of because it is obtained from gum arabic and other sorts of cane, or reed; from this root other mucilaginous substances. This acid arises four, five, or more shoots, proportion may be obtained by the following process : able to the age or strength of the root, To one part of gum-arabic, or other mucieight or ten feet high according to the good. laginous substance, add two parts of nitric ness of the ground; in very good rich soils, acid in a retort, and apply a gentle heat. canes bave been measured nearly twenty There is at first disengaged a little nitrous feet in beight, these are not so much esteem- gas and carbonic acid gas, after which let ed as those of a middling growth, abound the mixture cool. There is then precipiing in jnice, and having little of the essen- tated a white powder which is slightly acid. tial salt.

This powder is the saclaetic acid. Thus obThe canes are jointed, more or less dis- tained, saclactic acid is a little gritty, and tant according to the soil; a leaf is found with a weak acid taste. It is readily decomat each joint, the base of which embraces posed by heat, and yields an acid liquor wluicla

crystallizes by rest in the shape of needles. stranger, for his safe coming into, and pass. It is partly sublimed in needles, or brown ing out of the realm. Passports, however, plates, with an odour similar to that of ben- under the King's sign manual, or licences zoic acid. Saclactic acid, in the state of from his ambassadors abroad, which are powder, is not very soluble in water. Cold now more usual, are obtained with greater water does not take up more than 200 facility. or 300 parts of its weight ; boiling water SAFFRON. See Crocus. does not take up above one half more. On

Saffron is cultivated in fields for use, and cooling, the acid is deposited in brilliant

is no where raised with so much success as in scales, which become white in the air.

England, the English saffron being generally The solution has an acid taste. It reddens the tincture of turnsole.

allowed to be greatly superior to any other.

Its specific gravity at the temperature of 59° is nearly the

The usual way of propagating it is by the

bulbs, of which it annually produces new same as that of water. This acid enters into combination with earths, alkalies, and

ones. These are planted out in trenches at metallic oxides; and the salts which it

five inches distance, or less, and they sel

dom fail. They produce only leaves the forms are known by the name of sacco. lates.

first year, but in September, or October, SACRAMENT, signifies, in general, a

of the year following, they flower. The sign of a thing sacred and holy; and is de

saffron is gathered as soon as the flowers fined to be an outward and visible sign of a

open, and is then separated from all filth, spiritual grace. Thus there are two objects

and formed into cakes by a very careful in a sacrament, the one the object of the

pressure and gentle heat. At the end of senses, and the other the object of faith.

October, when the flowering season is over, Protestants admit only of two sacraments,

the bulbs are taken out of the ground aad baptism and the eucharist, or Lord's sup

hung up in a dry place, and in spring are per: but the Roman Catholics own seven, pemea

put into the ground again. viz. baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, It is not, however, the entire flower of penance, extreme unction, ordination, and the plant that produces it, but only some of marriage.

its interual parts. It is met with in the SACRIFICE, a solemn act of religious shops in flat and thin cakes, into which it worship, which consisted in dedicating or has been formed by pressing, and which offering np something animate or inanimate consist of many long and narrow filaments, on an altar, by the hands of the priest, ei. that are smallest in their lower part, where ther as an expression of gratitude to the they are of a pale yellow colour; in their deity for some signal mercy, or to acknow. upper part they are broader and indented ledge a dependance on him, or to conci. at their edges, and of a very strong and liate his favour.

deep orange colour, approaching to redness. SACRILEGE, is church robbery, or a They are somewhat tongh, moderately taking of things out of an holy place, as beavy, very easily cut, of an acrid, pene. where a person steals any vessels, orna. trating, but not unpleasant smell, somewhat ments, or goods of the church.

affecting the head, and of a bitterish and SADDLE, is a seat upon a horse's back, hot, but highly cordial taste. Thrown into contrived for the conveniency of the rider. water, they almost instantaneously give it a The ancient Romans are supposed not to strong yellow or reddish colour, according have made use of saddles and stirrups, and to the quantity used. These filaments are it is thought that they did not come into the cristated capillaments, into which the use till the time of Constantine the Great, pistil of the flower divides at its head; they A.D. 340, as appears from the Greck his. are of a deep reddish orange colour, while torian, Zonaras, who (through his whole growing, and there are only three of them history) makes no mention of a saddle for a in each flower. horse, before such time as Constans, at Hitherto saffron has not been subjected tempting to deprive his brother Constantine to a correct chemical analysis. From the of the empire, made head against bis army, experiments of Neumann, it does not apand entering into the squadron where he pear that any volatile oil can be procured himself was, cast him beside the saddle of from it by distillation. It is probable, howhis horse.

ever, that it owes its strong smell to such a SAFE conduct, in law, is a security given principle, though in too small a quantity to by the King, under the Great Seal, to a be easily obtained separate. The colouring

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matter of saffron is equally soluble in alco. ter; it is washed, passed through a perfo. hol and water.

rated copper plate, so as to reduce it to SAGAPENUM. See Gum resin. grains, which are dried. Salop is the proSAGE. See SALVIA.

duce of the orchis mascula. The lately SAGINA, in botany, pearl-wort, a genus

introduced arrow.root powder is said to be of the Tetrandria Tetragynia class and or.

the produce of the maranta arundinacea. der. Natural order of Caryophyllei, or

Cassava is prepared from the tuberose root Caryophylleæ. Essential character: calyx

of the manise (jatropha manihot). With four-leaved; petals four; capsnle one-celled, we recura

the fecula of this root, there is associated four-valved, many seeded. There are five an acrid and poisonous juice, which is, how. species, of which the most remarkable is ever, completely separated by washing, in the sagittafolia, growing naturally in many the process by which it is extracted. The parts of England. The root is composed

roots of the bryonia alba, and the arum of many strong fibres, which strike into the maculatum, are likewise composed princimud; the footstalks of the leaves are in pally of fecula, associated with acrid mat. length proportionable to the depth of the ter, which is separated in the process by water in which they grow : so they are which the fecula is extracted from them. sometimes almost a yard long: they are These two were formerly prepared for methick and fungous; the leaves, which float dicinal use. Wheat affords, perhaps, a upon the water, are shaped like the point larger quantity of fecula than any other of an arrow, the two ears at their base vegetable substance, and in a state of perspreading wide asunder, and are very sharp fect purity. A very pure fecula, in large pointed. There is always a bulb at the quantity, is also extracted from the potatoe, lower part of the root, growing in the solid the root being peeled, well cleansed, and earth beneath the mnd. This bulb consti: rasped, the pulp placed on a hair sieve, tutes a considerable part of the food of the and water poured on it until the fecnla is Chinese ; and upon that account they culti- extracted, which, after being deposited, is vate it. Horses, goats and swine eat it; washed and dried. cows are not fond of it.

SAHLITE, in mineralogy, a species of SAGITTA, in astronomy, the arrow, or the Talc genus, of a light greenish-grey codart, a constellation of the northern hemis. lour ; it occurs massive; externally it is phere, near the eagle, consisting of five shining and splendent; its principal fracstars, according to Ptolemy and Tycho; tore is foliated; fragments frequently rhombut in Mr. Flamsteeds catalogue, of no boidal; consists of very coarse grannlar dis. less than twenty-three.

tinct concretions ; it is translucent on the SAGITTA, in geometry, a term used for edge; semihard, brittle, and easily frau. the absciss of a curve.

gible ; specific gravity 3.21. It is found at SAGITTA, in trigonometry, the same with Sahlberg in Sweden. the versed siue of an arch.

SAICK, or Saique, a Turkish vessel, SAGITTARIA, in bolany, arrow-head, very common in the Levant for carrying of a genus of the Monoecia Polyandria class merchandize. and order. Natural order of Tripetaloi. SAIL, in navigation, an assemblage of deæ. Junci, Jussieu. Essential charac- several breadths of canvass, sewed together ter: calyx three-leaved ; corolla three-pe by the lists, and edged round with a cord, talled ; male, filaments commonly twenty fastened to the yards of a ship, to make it four: female, pistils many ; seeds many, drive before the wiod. Every yard in a naked. There are five species.

ship has its proper sail, except the cross. SAGITTARIUS, the archer, in astro. jack, which takes its name from the yard : nomy, the ninth sign of the zodiac. The and those which are not bent to the yard, stars in this constellation in Ptolemy's cata- are the flying jib, fore, foretop, main, mainlogue are thirty-two, in Tycho's sixteen, top, maintop-gallant, mizeu, mizentop-mast, and in Mr. Flamsteed's fifty-two.

stay-sails, main and maintop studding sails. SAGO, a simple brought from the East SAILING, properly denotes the art of Indies, of considerable use in diet as a navigating and working a ship, or of causing restorative.

her to observe such motious and directions Sago and salop are vegetable fecula. The as are assigned by the navigator ; in which former is the produce of the cycas circina. sense, sailing differs from navigation, and lis, and is extracted from the pith of the must be learned by practice on shipboard. stem and branches, by maceration in wa. See NAVIGATION.

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