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LETTER OF IGNATIUS TO THE CHURCH AT MAGNESIA BESIDE THE MÆANDER.

IGNATIUS. who is also called in name but in deed, neither is it 1 Theophorus, to the Church which enough to name the name of a bishop. is at Magnesia beside the * Mæander, and to do every thing without his wisheth salvation in God our Father concurrence. Such persons have and in the Lord Jesus Christ.

made shipwreck of conscience, beWhen I had learned the abundance cause they assemble together against of your charity according to God, I the commandment. Beloved, all had great joy, and deterinined to ad. things draw to an end: life and dress you in the faith of Jesus Christ. death are before us, and every one For having been accounted worthy of shall go to his own place; for as two that namet, which bears in it the ap- pieces of coin bear different imprespellation of the divine majesty; in sions, so also believers and unbelievers This chain which binds my body I se- have different characters impressed terally commend the Churches, for upon them, the one of God the other whom I earnestly wish an union both of the world. Since, therefore, in the of flesh and spirit with Jesus Christ persons of your ministers I have conour everlasting life, an union of faith versed with your whole assembly, I and love towards Christ and the fa- exhort you to study to do every thing ther, in whom, after having sustained in a spirit of divine harmony, the the assaults of the prince of this bishop presiding in the place of God, world and overcome, we shall finally the presbyters in that of the apostos enjoy God.

lical college, and lastly, the deacons, Since, therefore, I have been ac- to whom is committed the ministry counted worthy to behold you in the of Christ, who was with the Father person of Damas your bishop, of the before the world began, and hath presbyters Bassus and Apollonius, and now appeared in the fulness of time. my fellow servant Sotion the deacon, Imitating, therefore, the divine temwho is obedient to the bishop as to per which was in him, yield due rethe grace of God, and to the presbyters verence one to another, none regarda as to the Apostles, I entreat you, ing his brother according to the Aesh. brethren, not to despise the youth of but loving one another in Christ. your pastor), but reverence his per As therefore the Lord Jesus did son according to the divine authority nothing without the Father. Theing which belongs to his office, as I know one with him) either in his own pero the holy presbyters already do, not son or by the Apostles, so also do ye, regarding his want of age, but sub meeting together in one place, let mitting themselves as wise men unto there be among you one prayer, one him, or rather indeed to the Father. supplication, one mind, one hope in of Jesus Christ the universal bishop. charity and joy unreproved. Be ye You are bound, therefore, to obey, in all united as in the same temple, behonour of him who requires obedience fore the same altar, through the same at your hand, without hypocrisy : for Jesus Christ, who coming from the it is not enough that we be Christians same Father exists in, and returns to,

the same. Be not seduced by strange * So called to distinguish it from Mag doctrines nor old and useless fables ; desia on Mount Sipylus,

for if we shall continue to live accord† Thcophorus.

The word pastor is rarely applied in 8 diceroviar-we have no single word the writints of the Fathers to any but which will convey this appropriate mean

ing. Christ. Obsery. No. 16.

Dishops.

Cc

ing to the law of Moses, we thereby sured of the nativity, passion, and reacknowledge that we have not re- surrection, which things really, and ceived grace; for even the inspired not in appearance only, happened prophets of old lived according to unto the Lord Jesus, from whom Christ: for this cause they suffered God forbid that any one should fall persecution, in order to convince un- away. believers that one God manifested May I receive comfort from you in himself by Jesus Christ his Son, who all things, if I am worthy; for, though is the eternal word of the Father, not bound, I deserve not to be compared proceeding but of silence*, and in whom to you who are at liberty. I know the Father is well pleased. If, there that in you no pride hath place, before, they who lived under the old cause Christ dwelleth in you. So that dispensation attained to the hope of when I commend you, ye are covered the new, let us no longer observe the with confusion as it is written-" The sabbath, but sanctify the Lord's Day; righteous accuseth himself **.in which our life arose out of him and Study, however, to be confirmed his death, through which mystery we in the precepts of our Lord and his have received faith, and for which Apostles, that whatever ye do may we endure persecution through Jesus prosper, in flesh and spirit, in faith Christ the only teacher.

and charity, in the beginning and the And if the prophets themselves end, in the Father, Son, and Holy were his disciples, if they waited for Ghost, with your worthy Bishop, with him as their teacher in the spirit, and the spiritual crowntt of your Pre-by. if he, to whom they looked forward, tery, and with your godly and faithful hath by his coming raised them from Deacons. the deadt. how should we live when I know that ve are filled with God, separated from him. Let us not, and have therefore been the inors therefore, be insensible of his good- brief in my exhortations. Be mindness; for if he should follow our ex- ful of nie in your prayers, that I may amples, we should be undone for ever. attain unto God; and of the Church Since therefore we have professed which is in Syria, from which I am ourselves his disciples, let us walk ac- not worthy to be called forth to witcording to his law: work off, there. neşs the truth; for I want your united fore, the old and sour leaven, and be supplication and charity. May I be changed into the new leaven, which accounted worthy to be bedewed It is Christ; be salted in him that ye be by your intercessions. not corrupted in yourselves, for every They of Ephesus salute you from one shall be known by his scent. It Smyrna, whence I now write. Inis absurd to name the name of Christ, deed they have greatly refreshed me, and to Judaize; for Christianity hath together with Polycarp Bishop of the not passed away into Judaism but Smyrnxans. The other Churches $8 Judaism into Christianity, that every also salute you in the reverence of language and people under heaven, Jesus Christ. Farewell in the peace of by professing faith in Christ, might be gathered to God.

|| Opposed to the heresy of the Docetæ. And this I say, brethren, not be

Perhaps an oblique hint at the merit cause I know or suspect that any of

of of suffering for religion, an opinion too vou are tinctured with a Judaizing spre

* flattering to the pride of the hunnan heart

to be long excluded. rit, but as your interiors, I am anxiOUS ** Prov. xvii. . to put you upon your guard lest ye ++ I have chosen to preserve the ambifall into the shares of false doctrines; guity of the original, which signifies both and above all that ye may be fully as- an ornamental chaplet for the head, and a

circle or ring of men assembled for some * Silence, one of the errors of the Van particular purpose. In the latter sense, lentinians, a sect of early heretics, whose the Latin word corona is used by the best fantastic genealogies were exposed by Ire- writers. næus.

** This is the original word, which I of This is to be understood by antici- have been careful to preserve, though it pation,

might have been more properly applied to I Meaning, probably, in returning evil divine grace, descending like the dews of for evil.

heaven upon the subject of those intercesThe language of excessive humility, sions. however sincere, ought to be avoided, as $$ Whose deputies were present with it may be mistaken for affectation.

the writer,

God, and enjoy that inseparable spirit
which is Christ!

THE EARL OF STRAFFORD.
On Wednesday, May 12th, 1641,

the Earl was brought to the scaffold To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

on Tower-hill; as he passed near the

lodgings of the Archbishop of CanterThe presumptuous and daring manner bury, (whom he had desired by a in which Colonel Despard met his message to be at the window, and to fate upon the scaffold" has been an bless him as he went to execution) he affecting subject of reflection to every looked up, and bowing, said, My serious Christian. It affords a me. Lord, vour prayers and your blessing. lancholy specimen of the way in The Archbishop lifted up his hands which infidels die, and except in the for the sign of bestowing both, but case of a very few profligate crimi- was so overcome with grief, that he nals of the lowest order, has not been fell back in a swoon. The Earl bowa common spectacle in this kingdom. ed again, and said, Farewell, my In France, where public executions Lord ; God protect your innocency. were lately so very frequent, I have Many of the spectators observed, that often heard of the indifference, and he walked more like a general at the even gaiety, which were displayed head of an army than a condemned by many of the victims of the revo. man. The lieutenant desired him to lution, in their way to the guillotine, take coach, for fear the people should but it has not been my lot to meet rush upon him and tear him to pieces, with any recorded instances (though "No, said he, master lieutenant, I dare there may, doubtless, have been some) look death in the face, and I hope the of true fortitude and composure of people too; if that may give them mind in that awful hour upon princi- better content, it is all one to me.* ples truly Christian.. I cannot but Upon the scaffold, attended by the consider this as an effect of the bane. Archbishop of Armagh, the Earl of ful success of infidelity, and a proof Cleveland, his brother Sir George of the general ignorance of vital Wentworth, and his own chaplain, Christianity in that land. In our own he delivered the following speech country, the scaffold has often been with a very composed and couragethe scene of Christian edification. Ous air: The crowds surrounding it have felt the force of religious impressions, "My Lord Primate of Ireland, and their faith has been fortified, and my Lords, and the rest of these noble their piety kindled by the tranquillity Gentlemen. It is a great comfort to and resignation of the sufferer, by his me to have your Lordships by me affecting prayers, his penitent confes- this day, because I have been known sions, and his well-founded hopes of to you a long time, and I now desire pardon with God. It may be inte- to be heard a few words. resting, perhaps, to some of your "I come here, my Lords, to pay my reariers, to lay before them extracts last debt to sin, which is death; and from authentic accounts of the con- through the mercies of God, to rise versation and behaviour of some of again to eternal glory. our eminent men, who, in former " My Lords, if I may use a few times, perished on the scaffold. I words, I shall take it as a great courpurposely select my examples from tesy from you; I come here to submit the order of nobles, from the class of to the judgment that is passed against statesmen or soldiers, that it may ap- me: I do it with a very quiet and conpear that dignity of station, and the ac- tented mind. I do freely forgive all tive occupations of life, have not been the world; à forgiveness not from the found incompatible with Christian teeth outward (as they say), but from duties. It will be interesting also to my heart. I speak in the presence of observe what were the religious doc- Almighty God, before whom I stand, trines usually held in the good old that there is not a displeasing thought times, when religion, if not quite so that ariseth in me against any man. rational as in the present refined pe- I thank God, I say truly, my consciriod, certainly produced much more ence bears me witness, that in all the extensive and important effects.

honour I had to serve his majesty, I N. D. had not any intention in my heart, but what did aim at the joint and in- mercies of Jesus Christ my Saviour, dividual prosperity of the king and into whose bosom I hope shortly to be his people, although it be my ill-hap gathered, to enjoy eternal happiness, to be misconstrued: I am not the first which shall never have an end, I man that hath suffered in this kind: desire heartily to be forgiven of eyery it is a common portion that befals man, if any rash or unadvised words men in this life, righteous judgment or deeds have passed from me, and shall be hereafter; but we are subject desire all your prayers: and so, my to error, and misjudging one another. Lord, farewell; and farewell all things

“One thing I desire to be heard in this world. in, and do hope, that for Christian “ The Lord strengthen my faith, charity's sake I shall be believed; I and give me confidence and assurance was so far from being against parlia- in the merits of Christ Jesus: I trust ments, that I did always think parlia- in God, we shall all meet to live eterments in England to be the happy nally in heaven, and receive the acconstitution of the kingdom and na- complishments of all happiness, where tion, and the best means, under God, every tear shall be wiped from our to make the king and his people hap- eyes, and sad thoughts from our py. As for my death, I do here ac- hearts; and so God bless this kingquit all the world, and beseech God dom, and Jesus have mercy on my to forgive them. In particular I am soul.?' very glad his Majesty conceives me not meriting so severe and heavy a After this speech he prayed out of punishment, as the utmost execution the common prayer-book, laid by his of this sentence; I do infinitely re- chaplain before him; and then used joice in it, and in that mercy of his, some private devotions, concluding and do beseech God to return him the with the Lord's Prayer; then taking same, that he may find mercy when his leave of his brother, he said, he hath most need of it. I wish this “ Brother, we must part: remember kingdom all prosperity and happiness me to my sister, and to my wite; and in the world; I did it living, and now carry my blessing to my eldest son, dying, it is my wish.

and charge him from me that he fear “I profess heartily my apprehension, God, and continue an obedient son of and do humbly recommend it to you, the Church of England, and that he and wish that every man would lay approve himself a faithful subject of his hand on his heart, and consider the king; and tell him, that he should seriously, whether the beginning of not have any private grudge or rethe people's happiness should be writ- venge towards any concerning me; ten in letters of blood? I fear they are and bid him beware to meddle with in a wrong way: I desire Almighty Church Livings, for that will prove God, that no one drop of my blood a moth and canker to him in his rise up in judgment against them. I estate. I wish him to content bimhave but one word more, and that is self to be a servant to his country, as for my religion.

a justice of the peace in his county, "My Lord of Armagh, do profess not aiming at high preferments. Carmyself seriously, faithfully, and trų. ry my blessing also to my daughters ly, to be an obedient son of the Anne and Arabella, charge them to Church of England : in that Church fear and serve God, and he will bless I was born and bred, in that religion them, not forgetting my little infant, I have lived, and now in that I die; that knows neither good nor evil, and prosperity and happiness be ever to it. cannot speak for itself; God speak *.It hath been said I was inclined for it and bless it.” Then he said, “I to popery: if that be an objection have nigh done, one stroke will make worth the answering, let me say truly my wite husbandless, my dear chilfrom my heart, that since I wastwenty- dren fatherless, and my poor servants one vears of age unto this day, going masterless, and separate me from my on forty-nine years, I never had dear brother and all my friends; but thought or doubt of the truth of this let God be to you and them all in all." religion, nor had ever any the bold. The executioner struck off his head ness to suggest to me the contrary, tu at one blow; and so fell this noble my best remembrance.

Earl, who, if his master could have * And so being reconciled to the saved him, might have been able to

save his master. This was, indeed, This passage may, therefore, be the blow that by degrees reached up translated thus-" And his grave was to the King's own head.

appointed with the wicked, but it was with the rich man after his death;"

i, e. it was, before our Lord's death, To the Editor of the Christian Observer. appointed, or intended by those who

crucified him, that he should be buried I am pleased to observe, that in your in the same manner, perhaps in the review of Mr. Faber's Horæ Mosaicæ, same place, in which malefactors were Vol. I. p. 592, you express disappro- commonly buried; (see the quotation bation of Dr. Kennicott's conjectural from Geier in Mr. Faber's Horæ Moemendation (as it is called) of Isaiah saic:r, Vol.:11. p. 240) but after his lii. 9; (and he made his grave with death this purpose was frustrated by the wicked, and with the rich in his the providence of God, and he was death). I cannot but greatly regret actually interred in the tomb of a rich that any sound divine should sanc- man. This prophecy may be farther tion a mode of interpreting (or, may illustrated by observing, that it was I not rather say, of misrepresenting), not till after the deuth of our Lord that the sacred writings, so licentious in Joseph of Arimathea applied to Pilate its principle, and which may be so for permission to bury him. mischievous in its operation. Too Bishop Lowth renders we his great caution cannot be used in alter- tonib; but this sense of the word is ing the established text of the Scrip- not supported by any ancient version, tures on the authority of manuscripts or by any other passage in the Heand ancient versions; but in this in- brew Scriptures; it is in fact a meanstance the alteration is mercly conjec- ing invented for this particular place, tural, not being supported by one ma-, in order to get rid of the supposed nuscript or by any translation. Dr. difficulty of the common rendering. Campbell properly observes, in the As I am upon this subject, I will dissertation to which you refer, that trouble you with a few observations our present English version of the pas. on some other passages of the Bishop's sage in question is sufficiently intelligi- translation of this chapter. ble; but yet it seems capable of being In verse 6, the Bishop reads 137 improved in perfect consistency with instead of 19 (iniquitu) on the authe grammatical construction of the thority, as he represents it, of the anpresent text, and with the events of cient ir.terpreters, and of the Vulgate which it is an acknowledged predic. in one MS. This affords us an opportion, as I shall endeavour to shew in tunity of exposing the fallacy of the the following remarks.

principle on which this celebrated The original Hebrew is as follows: translator, and other modern Hebrew Prod

nap D'PWTON in critics, evidently build many of their "The first verb in this verse should alterations of the established text, probably," as Dr. Kenpicott observes, though they do not expressly avow it. "be rendered passively, in analogy It is this that the uncient interpreters to the verbs preceding;” and the par- rendered the Hebrew text VERBATIM. ticle, which begins the second clause Without assuming this as an axiom, of this passage, may be translated the Bishop could not have proposed but; that it very frequently has this this alteration contrary to the authorimeaning is well known to Ilebrew ty of manuscripts and editions, than scholars: vnpa I would render, af- which nothing can be more wanton ter his death." This rendering is au- and frivolous. Who does not perceive thorized by Moldius, who, among on that no, like its corresponding term in ther passages, cites this which we are the English and other languages, is a considering as one in which the par- word of which the singular number ticle signifies after. (Concord. Par- has a plural sense, except when extic. Ebr. Chald. p. 151). 1oz is in pressly limited to a single instance of the plural number, emphatically, by a wickedness, and may therefore be, poetical figure common to the Hebrew with equal propriety, rendered ini. writers and the classical poets. Jere- guity or iniquities. Accordingly the miah xvi. 4. Swann nion. Ezek. LXX frequently translate it adixias *xviij. 8. 950 mon. 10. 0579 nie. and apoptics, as they have by the latter Virg. Æn. x. 854. Omnes per mortes word in the following passages of animam sontem ipse dedissen.

Isaiah, besides that under considera

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