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qbmitted the amendments. Others spect to such critical components as
were voted upon by the committee, and Ughts, brakes, and suspension systems,
finally, we wrote the bill which is now the automobile of 1966 demonstrates
before the Senate. It is a bull which we marked improvement over its predeces-
think meets the need for automotive sors.
safety. It is also a sensible and practical But the committee met with disturbing
bull.

evidence of the automobile industry's I am sure that the Senate will agree chronic subordination of safe design to with the committee action after the de- promotional styling and of an overriding bate today.

stress on power, acceleration, speed, and Mr. President, the legislation which "ride" to the relative neglect of safe perthe Commerce Committee unanimously formance or collision protection. The reports today reflects the conviction of committee cannot judge the truth of the the committee that the soaring rate of conviction that "safety doesn't sell," but death and debilitation on the Nation's It is a conviction widely held in industry highways is not inexorable. This legis- which has plainly resulted in the inadelation also reflects the committee's judg. quate allocation of resources to safety ment that the Federal Government has engineering. a major responsibility to meet in assur. Until the industry had been subjected ing safer performance of private passen- to the prod of heightened public interest

hich it has not yet met. Final- and governmental concern. new modeis ly, this legislation reflects the faith that showed little improvement in safe design the restrained and responsible exercise or in the incorporation of safety devices. and I underline the word "responsible" Such elemental safe design features as exercise of Federal authority can channel safety door latches made their appear

e creative energies and vast technology ance as standard equipment only a decof the automobile industry into a vigor- ade after their desirability and feasious and competitive and I underline bility had been established. the word "competitive"-effort to im As late as 1959, in testimony before a prove the safety of vehicles.

committee of Congress, the chairman of It should not be necessary to call the Automotive Manufacturer's Associaagain the grim roll of Americans lost tion's Engineering Advisory Committee and maimed on the Nation's highways. was still resisting the suggestion that seat Yet the compelling need for the strong belt fittings be made standard equipment automobile safety legislation which the on all automobiles. Commerce Committee is today reporting The committee hearings also docules embodied in those statistics: 1.6 mented past laxity in furnishing ademillion dead since the coming of the quate notification to car owners of latent automobile; over 50,000 to die this year. defects which had crept into the manuAnd, unless the accelerating spiral of facturing process-defects frequently dideath is arrested. 100,000 Americans will rectly related to safety. Equally disturbdie as a result of their cars in 1975. ing was evidence that the manufacturers

On March 2 of this year President have not always taken effective steps to Johnson delivered to Congress his mes- insure the speedy and efficient repair of sage on transportation and traffic safety, such defects. Although current industry together with the proposed Traffic defect-curing practices now appear to be Safety Act of 1966. In this message, the improved, the committee concluded that President urged that the Secretary of Federal oversight of defect notification, Commerce "be given authority to and correction is essential. determine the necessary safety perform- For too many years, the public's proper ance criteria for all vehicles and their concern over the safe driving habits and components.” In addition, he called for capacity of the driver-the "nut behind the dynamic expansion of Federal traffic the wheel"-was permitted to overshadow research programs, including the devel- the role of the car itself. The "second opment of a national highway safety collision"-the impact of the individual research and test center.

within the vehicle against the steering It was the committee's task to deter- wheel, dashboard, windshield, and other mine the extent to which Federal auto- parts of the car-has been largely nemobile safety standards could contribute glected. The committee was greatly imto the reduction of traffic deaths and in- pressed by the critical distinction bejuries on the highways. To that end, tween the causes of the accident itself the committee held 7 days of hearings, and causes of the resulting death or incalling upon distinguished witnesses, en jury. Here, the design of the vehicle as compassing the widest range of expertise well as the public willingness to use in the automotive safety field.

safety devices, such as seat belts, are the The American automotive industry critical factors. Recessed dashboard inhas been for many years one of the most struments and the use of seat belts can dynamic factors in the entire national mean the difference between a bruised economy. One out of every six Ameri- forehead and a fractured skull. cans is employed in the industry or in The committee heard compelling testhe provision of automotive components timony that passenger cars can be deor the service of automotive vehicles. signed and constructed so as to afford The industry's growth and productivity substantial protection against the "sechave been outstanding. And American ond collision" for both driver and pascars-whatever their present shortcom- senger; further, that some of these deings are among the world's safest. sign changes can be achieved at little or

Moreover, the hearings produced evi- no additional manufacturing cost. dence that the automobile industry has Yet the committee was presented with made commendable progress in many graphic evidence that the interior design aspects of automotive safety. With re- of many 1966 model cars reveal interiors

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bristling with rigid tubes, angles, knobs, States a consultative role in the set sharp instruments, and heavy metal of ting of standards, the primary responsismall radius of curvature. While such bility for regulating the national autoobjects are sometimes placed and shaped motive manufacturing industry must fall as they are for the convenience of driver

nience of driver squarely upon the Federal Government. and passenger, substantial safety im This is the only manner in which this provement could be achieved without in course could be pursued legally. convenience to the car occupants.

Third. The Federal Government must The committee was likewise made develop a major independent technical aware of the substantial needless hazards capacity suficient to perform compreto pedestrians presented by external fins, hensive basic research on accident and ornamental protrusions, sharp edges, Injury prevention, adequate to test and stylistically angled bumpers.

contribute to the quality of the industry's Finally, motor vehicles can also be a safety performance; a technical capacity source of injury to people when the ve- capable of Initiating Innovation in safety hicle is not in use as a vehicle. Thou design and engineering and of serving as sands of minor injuries, and some major & yardstick against which the performones, occur in entering and exiting the ance of private industry can be measvehicle, and during the service and main ured; and, finally, a technical capacity tenance of the vehicle. Many of these capable of developing and implementing injuries can be avoided or diminished in meaningful standards for automotive severity by careful design, such as the safety. common "hand caught in the door" ac Fourth. While the sharing of safety cidents, engine compartment hoods fall technology among motor vehicle and moing, vehicles slipping off jacks, and burns tor vehicle equipment manufacturers can from engine components.

factutate the development of advanced Federal standards for the safety of safety design and engineering, vigorous ships at sea long antedate the Civil War. competition in the development and By the year 1907, the Interstate Com marketing of safety improvements must merce Commission was requiring that be maintained. pullman cars be constructed of steel Firth. Deficiencies in past industry rather than of wood. Aviation safety

practices relating to the notification and regulations were first authorized in the

curing of manufacturing defects necessiAir Commerce Act of 1926, a year in tate the imposition of mandatory procewhich domestic airlines carried a total of dures to insure such notification of purless than 6,000 passengers.

chasers and correction of all safetyYet, with the exception of a handful related defects. of State regulations and the Federal seat Sixth. The Individual in the marketbelt and brake fluid laws, the automobile

place, upon whom the free market econosold generally in Interstate commerce is my normally relles to choose the superior today subject only to the standards pro

as pro- among competing products, is incapable duced by the committees of the Society of

of evaluating the comparative safety of Automotive Engineers. These SAE

competing model cars. The public, which standards are the product of a committee has lately become increasdngly interested consensus, subject to a single manufac- in safety. still has no means of satisfying turer's veto, while affording no consumer

that interest. Both industry and Govor user representation: Compliance is

ernment share the responsibility for supvoluntary. There exist no procedures to

plying adequate consumer Information of compel their adoption, monitor their use.

automobile safety. or evaluate their effectiveness.

It is to the credit of the automotive While the General Services Adminis

Industry that industry leaders have come tration has the authority-given to it 3

to recognize the gravity of the problem or 4 years ago by the Committee on Com

and have joined in support of a law esmerce-to set the safety standards for

tablishing binding Federal vehicle safety the vehicles which the Government pur standarda chases, and individual States have be

The committee also recognizes that gun to explore the possibility of uniform

the broad powers conferred upon the State motor vehicle standards, these ef

Secretary, while essential to achieve imforts are necessarily limited because

proved traffic safety, could be abused in there exists today no significant alterna

such a manner as to have serious adverse tive source of standards to the SAE.

effects on the automotive manufacturing There is in being no systematic re

Industry. The committeee is not emsearch, testing, development, and evalua

powering the Secretary to take over the tion program for safety standards capable of assigning priorities or correlat- private industry. The committee expects

design and manufacturing functions of ing existing standards with accident and

that the Secretary will act responsibly injury prevention.

and in such & way as to achieve & subOut of the committee's hearings, there

stantial Improvement in the safety charemerged a clear outline of the basic needs

acteristics of vehicles. to be served by Federal legislation:

It is the committee's Judgment that First. The promotion of motor vehicle

enactment of this legislation can further safety through voluntary standards has

industry efforts to produce motor vehicles largely failed. The unconditional im

which are, in the first instance, not unposition of mandatory standards at the

duly accident prone; and perhaps, even earliest practicable date is the only course commensurate with the highway involved in accidents, will prove crash

y more signincantly, vehicles which, wben death and injury toll.

worthy enough to enable their occupants Second. While the contribution of the

to survive with minimal injuries. several States to automobile safety has been significant, and justifies securing to

We were faced with the problem of proceeding as rapidly as possible in the

ding.

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hope that we could slow up the carnage occupant size and to include 48-degree Le on the highways by directing the Secre

torals to cach side. Also added knce area tary to establish interim standards. The

protection and beader and corner post padcommittee finally approved of the pro

No. 515/38 Recessed Instrument Panel vision for interim standards to be estab- Instruments and Control Devices for AutoIished by January 31, 1967, and to become motive Vehicles. Expanded impact areas to effective within 6 months to 1 year there- include extremes of occupant sizes and to after.

include 45-degree laterals to each side. AddIt is the home of the committee with ed requirement that specided essential conthat provision on interim standards, that

trols be in reach of upper torso belted op

erator. the 1968 model cars will comply with

No. 616/48 Energy Adsorbing Steering these interim safety standards.

Control System for Automotive Vehicles. We do not tell the Secretary what to

Changed title from "Impact Absorbing do. But it is the committee's hope that Steering Wheel and Column Displacement he will take into consideration and eval for Automotivo Vehicles." This proposal uate the current General Service Admin. more clearly permits collapsible steering colistration safety standards for Govern

umns, denies clothes-catching hardware on

steering wheel and increases barrier collision ment purchased vehicles. A copy 01 these standards is included in the ap

test to 30 miles per hour.
No. 615/

5 Safety Door Latches and pendix to the report. The list now in

Hinges for Automotive Vehicles. Increased cludes 17 items of safety equipment to be door latch load requirements and added a placed on automobiles which the Gov requirement for & positive locking device or ernment buys. There are nine more handles not operable by accidental side, items that have been proposed by the rearward or forward force. General Services Administration. The

No. 515, 68- Anchorage of Seats for Autoindustry needed some time to achieve

motive Vehicles. Added a requirement for

locking devices for folding and pedestal type and work out those nine devices. With

seats. the inclusion of the 9 devices, there will

No. 515, 9a-Hydraulic Service Brake Sysbe a total of 26 safety devices. They are tems for Automotive Vehicles. Title changed all included in the appendix to the report. from "Dual Operation of Brake System for

Mr. President, I ask unanimous con Automotive Vehicles." Brake performance sent to have printed in the RECORD the

requirements for sedans, carryalls, and stalist of 26 items which appears in the

tion wagons added. Brake fuld system report.

changed to exclude absorption of moisture.

Provisions made to more clearly permit other There being no objection, the list was

than hydraulic actuadon of emergency backordered to be printed in the RECORD, AS up system. follows:

No. 515/12&Windshield Wipers and (From Federal Register Appendix, Mar. 8,

Washers for Automotive Vehicles. Changed 1966)

to include a speciic area to be wiped. GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION, FODRAL

No. 615/13a-Glare Reduction Surfaces for SUPPLY SERVICE (41 CFR SUBPART 101-293)

Automotive Vehicles. Expanded require

ments to include all interior surfaces in the FEDERAL STANDARD No. 616% STANDARD SAJTTY DEVICES TOR AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES

operator's feld of view. Title changed from

"Glaro Reduction Surlaces Instrument NOTICE OF PROPOSED REVISION

Panel and Windshield Wipers for AutomoNotico is hereby given that a revision 1 tivo Vehicles." proposed lo Federal Standard No. 616 which No. 615/14anControl of Air Pollution from 18 prescribed in | 101-29 303 of the Federal Automotive Vehicles. Title changed from Property Management Regulations. The ro "Exhaust Emission Control System for Autovision As Anally published will be issued motive Vehicles." Incorporated requirepursuant to Public Law 88-518, approved .ments contained in a new standard proposed August 30, 1964 (78 Stat. 696), and the Fed. by Department of Health, Education, and eral Property and Administrative Services Welfare. Act of 1949 (83 Stat. 377), as amended, and

No. 515/17&Rearview Mirror (3) for Autowill be effective 1 year and 90 days after the motive Vehicles. Changed title from "Outdate of publication in the FADERAL REGista. side Rearview Mirror(s) for Automotivo Ve Federal Standard No. 515 was published hicles." Added breakaway or detachable re originally in the FEDRAL REGISTA on June 30, quirement for the inside rearview mirror and 1965 (30 PR, 8319).

Increased outside mirror minimum size to The revision of Federal Standard No. 616 6 inches. involves the addition of new detalled stand Comments and suggestion are welcomed ard, and changes in existing detalled stand and should be submitted, in duplicate, to ards and was developed through consultation the Commissioner, Federal Supply Service, with tho automotivo industry, technical so General Services Administration, Washingcieties, trade Associations, the medical pro ton, D.O. 20406, within the period of 30 ression, and Government agencies. Proposed

calendar days from the date of publication new detalled standards are designated AS

of this notice in the FEDERAL REGISTER. Federal Standards Nos. 515/18 through 618/ Tho text of the changes in and additions 26. Proposed changes in existing detailed to the Federal Standard No. 515 are set standards are indicated by the letter "g" forth below. following the detalled standard number

Dated: March 4, 1966. (e.g., 615/1a indicates the revision of 515/1).

LAWSON B. KNOTT, Jr., The changes in the existing detailed stand

Administrator of General Services. ards are as follows:

Section 101-29.303 Ls amended as follows: No. 618/14Anchorages for Seat Belt - $ 101-29.303 Federal Standard No. 618semblies for Automotive Vehicles. Made Standard Safety Devices for Automotivo provisions for seat belt anchoragos to the Vebiclo. seats of school buses. Added anchorages for

buses. Added anchorages for (a) This section prescribes Federal standupper torso restraints for all outboard for- and No. 616, covering safety devices for autoward facing seating positions in vehiclos motive vehicles, u required by Publio Lay other than buses.

88-816, August 30, 1964 (78 Stat. 896). AutoNo. 815/28 Forward Compartment Energy motive vehicles purchased by the Federal Absorption for Automotive Vehicles. Titlo Government for use by the Federal Governchanged from "Padded Instrument Panel ment shall be equipped with safety devices and Visors for Automotive Vehicles." Es conforming to Federal Standard No. 818. panded Impact area to include extremes of copies of this standard my be obtained from

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Commissioner. Federal Supply Service, "NOTE: Copies of SAE publications may be eneral Services Administration, Washing- obtained from the Society of Automotivo ton, D.C. 20405. Since Federal Standard No. Engineers, Inc., 485 Lexington Aevnue, New 615 was originally prescribed (30 PR. 8319, York, N.Y. 10017. June 30, 1965). A number of detalled standards therein bave been revised and new

"(Federal Standard No. 815/la] standards have been added. Where a stand

"ANCHORAGES OR SEAT BELT ASSEMBLIES TOR ard has been revised the letter "a" appears in the number of the standard, e.g., 618/la. Tho

AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES new detalled standards which have been

"81. Purpose and scope. This standard . added include Standards Nos. 618/18 through

tablishes the requirements and test pro815/26. In the introduction entitled stand. cedures for anchorages for seat belt assemand Barety Devices for Automotivo Vehicles. blies for automotive vehicles. This standard paragraphe 53 bay been revised. As mendod does not cover seat belt assemblies. Federal Standard No. 616 is composed of do. "82. Application. This standard applies to talled standards which include:

sedans, station wagons, carryalls, buses (des"(1) No. 618/10Anchorages for Beat Belt ignated as school buses), and to light trucks Assemblies for Automotive Vehicles.

up to 10.000 pounds G.V.W. Excluded are "(2) No. 815/28-Forward compartment stand-up, walk-in package delivery vehicles Energy Absorption for Automotive Vehicles with tllt type drivers' seats. Excluded are

"(8) No. 615/3a-Rocessed instrument folding jump seats that are folded directly Panel Instruments and Control Devices for

behind tho front seat. Automotive Vehicles.

"S3. Standard characteristics. "(4) No. 616/48-Energy Absorbing Steer

"S3.1 Definitions. ing Control System for Automotive Vehicles.

"83.1.1 Anchorages. A seat belt anchor(5) No. 616/5Safety Door Latches and

age shall consist of a threaded hole, an eyeHinges for Automotive Vehicles.

bolt, or other suitable means of attachment "(6) No. 618/88- Anchorage of Beats for

and shall be situated in a suitable structure Automotive Vehicles.

to receive the seat belt attachments Attings. "(7) No. 515/7-Four Way Flasher for "S3.1.2 Attachment Attings. Attachment Automotive Vehicles.

ittings are the parts necessary to attach the "(8) No. 616/8 Salety Glazing Materials

seat belt assembly to the vehicle structure. for Automotive Vehicles.

"S3.1.3 Seat belt assembly. A seat belt as"(9) No. 515/9a--Hydraulic Bervice Brate sembly is any strap, webbing, or similar deSystems for Automotive Vehicles.

vice designed to secure a person in an au"(10) No. 515/10 Btandard Bumper

tomotive vehicle with the intention of mitiHeights for Automotive Vehicles.

gating the results of a trac accident, in"W NO. 815/11-Standard Gen Quadrant cluding all buckles or other lasteners, and (PRNDL) for Automotive Vehicles Equipped

all hardware designed for installing the aswith Automatic Transmissions.

sembly in an automotive vehicle. The seat "(12) No. 616/12a--Windshield Wipen and belt assemblies intended for installation in Washers for Automotive Vehicles.

the anchorages specibed hereinafter are de"(13) No. 515/138—Qlare Reduction Sur.

scribed in Fed. Spec. JJ-B-185 and Standfaces for Automotive Vehicles.

ards for Seat Belts for use in Motor Vehicles, "(14) No. 515/148-Control of Air Pollu

30 F.R. 8432 (July 1, 1965); 15 CFR. tion from Automotive Vehicles.

"S3.1.3.1 Type 1 seat belt assembly. A "(15) No. 616/15—Tires and Safety Rims type 1 seat belt assembly is a lap belt for for Automotive Vehicles.

pelvic restraint. "(16) No. 616/16_Backup Lights for Auto

"S3.1.3.2 Type 2 seat belt assembly. A motive Vehicles.

type 2 seat belt assembly is a combination "(17) No. 615/178-Rearview Mirror(0) 1

of pelvic and upper torso restraints. Automotive Vehicles.

"S3.1.3.3 Type 2a seat belt assembly. A “(18) No. 815/18/Window and Door Con

type 2a seat belt assembly is a shoulder belt trols for Automotive Vehicles.

for upper torso restraint for use only in "(19) No. 515/19-Ash Trays and Lighters

conjunction with a type 1 lap belt. for Automotive Vehicles.

"S3.2 Anchorages. The SAE Recommend"(20) No. 616/20Arm Rosts for Automo

ed Practice for Motor Vehicle Seat Belt Antive Vehicles.

chorage, J787, forms & basis, in part, for this "(21) No. 618/21-Padding for Automotivo

Federal Standard.
Seat Backs.

"83.2.1 General. When eyebolt anchor“(22) No. 616/22—Beadrests for Automo

ages are furnished, they shall conform to the tive Vehicles.

applicable requirements of Fed. Spec. JJ-A"(23) No. 615/23-81de Marker Devices for

530. All threads shall be in accordance with Automotivo Vehicles.

the applicable requirements of the National "(24) No. 515/24Rear Window Defogger

Bureau of Standards Handbook H28. The for Automotive Vehicles.

location of the anchorages shall be deter"(25) No. 618/25—Roll Bars for Automo

mined with the seat in its rearmost limit of tive Vehicles.

travel. “(26) No. 516/26 Fuel Tanks and Tank

"83.2.1.1 Anchorages for type 1 seat belt Filler Pipes for Automotive Vehicles.

assemblies and lap portion of types 2 and 20 (b) The Standard reads as follows:

seat belt assemblies. Anchorages for type 1

seat belt assemblies or the lap belt portion "(Federal Standard No. 616)

of types 2 and 28 seat belt assemblies shall "STANDARD SAVETY DEVICES POR AUTOMOTIVE be provided for three sets of seat belts for VEHICLES

all bench type beats designed to accommo

date three persons. The location of anchor"S3. Safety devices. Safety devices shall ages for type 1 seat belt assemblies or the be as specified in the detalled standards (see lap portion of type 2 seat belt assemblies 84). Publications referenced in the detailed shall be such that a line from the anchorage standards form a part of this standard, as to the passengers' 'hip' point will make an applicable. The publications referred to are engle from the horizontal as near as practhe issues in efect on the date of the publi- ticable to 45 degrees, as shown in agures 1, cation of this standard in the FEDERAL REG. 2, and 8. (Not shown in RECORD.) The hip ISTER; in the case of changes in Federal point is the point on the manikin defined as Standard No. 515, reference to publications the 'H' point in SAE Standard, Manikins for therein are to the 1ssues in effect on the date Use in Defining Vehicle Seating Accommodaof the publication of the respective changes tions, J826. The location of the bip point in the FEDERAL REGISTER.

shall be determined by following the proce"NOTE: Coples of ASTM Standards may be dures in SAE J826. Anchorages for belts that obtained from the American Society for Test will be installed over the seat bottom framo ing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Phila- rear bar shall be rearward of a vertical Uno delphia, Pa. 19103.

through the point where the belt will entor

Shou shall Busta common anchoseat belt

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the laboa chorage. con puu os 1.500 2 or za

the seat, as shown in Agure 4. (Not shown in RECORD.) All anchorages shall be spaced laterally so that the lap portion of the belt essentially forms & U-shaped loop when in use. The same anchorage shall not be used for both ends of a single type 1 seat belt assembly or the lap portion of a single type ? seat belt assembly. Type 1 seat belt assemblies used in school buses shall utilize the seat for the anchorage attachment points and shall comply with the above, where applicable. Common anchorages may te used for one end of each of two assemblies provided strength requirements are in accord. ance with S3.2.2.

"S3.2.1.2 Anchorages for types 2 and 2a seat belt assemblies. Except for buses and vinyl or canvas top or bolted-on metal enclosure vehicles and utility vehicles of the three-wheel type, automotive vehicles covered by this standard shall be provided with anchorages for & type 2 or 2a seat belt assembly for at least each outboard front seat occupant of carryalls and light trucks. Front and rear seat anchorages shall be provided for each outboard occupant of sedans and station wagons (forward facing seats only) for which the vehicle is designed. For buses, only the drivers' seat Deed be provided with anchorages for types 2 and 28 seat belt assemblies. At least three anchorages shall be provided for each type 2 or 2a seat belt assembly: two anchorages for the lap portion of a type 2 seat belt assembly and at least one anchorage for the upper torso or shoulder portion of a type 2 or 28 seat belt assembly. The upper end of the upper torso or shoulder portion of the type 2 or 2a seat belt assembly may be fastened to elther the seat, sido anchorage, rear anchorage, roof or door provided that the seat or other structure over which the belt passes or to which it is tastened has been designed or reinforced to withstand the resulting load. The lower end may be fastened either to the lap portion of the belt or to the exsting inboard anchorage for the lap portion of the seat belt assembly.

"S3.2.1.3 Anchorages for the upper torso OT shoulder portion of seat belt assemblies. Anchorages for the upper torso Or shoulder portion of a type 2 or 2a seat belt assembly shall be provided for at least each outboard Iront seat occupant of carryalls and light trucks, and both front and rear outboard occupants of sedans and station wagons (front facing seats only) for which the vebicle is designed. With the seat in the rearmost Umit of travel and the seat back in the nominal design position, these anchorages Bhall be longitudinally in line with or rear ward of the torso line of the SAE 3-dimensional manikin described in the SAE Standard 'Manikins for Use in Deining Vehicle Seating Accommodations,' SAE J826. I there is a downward angle of the belt passing from the point of tangency on the shoulder of the SAE manikin to an anchorage or over suitable structure to an anchorage, this angle shall not be more than 40 degrees from the horizontal.

"S3.2.2 Strength. The vehicle structure (excluding school buses) shall sustain the simultaneous pull on each seat of seat belt assemblies for each passenger for which the seat is designed. Permanent deformation of any anchorage or surrounding area 18 acceptable provided there is no rupture or breakage and the anchorage does not pull loose. Each school bus seat may be tested independently, but must sustain established forces for all attached anchorages. The upper end anchorage for upper torso types 2 and 2a belts may be tested independently provided the anchorages are located in structural members in which no lap belt anchorages are located.

"S3.2.2.1 Anchorages for types 2 and 2a seat belt assemblies. The outboard anchorage for the lap belt portion of a type 2 seat belt assembly shall sustain a pull of 2,500 pounds Outboard Anchorages for the upper torso or

home restraint portion of type ? or 28 wat balts shall sustain a pull of 1,500 pounds for each anchorage. Common anchorages for tho inboard ends of types 1 and 2a seat belt combination or the inboard anchorage of a type 2 seat belt assembly shall sustaln a pull of 3,000 pounds. Common anchorages for one end of a center lap belt and either the inboard end of a type 1 seat belt or the lap belt portion of a type ? seat belt and the Inboard end of an upper torso or shoulder restraint shall sustain & pull of 5,500 pounds. A common anchorage for the inboard ends of two outboard lap belts and inboard ends of the upper torso or shoulder restraint portion of the types 2 and 2a seat belt assemblies shall sustain a pull of 6.000 pounds.

"S3.2.2.2 Anchorages for type 1 seat belt assemblies. Anchorages for type 1 seat belt assemblies shall sustain & pull of 2,500 pounds for each lap belt end attached.

"S3.2.2.2.1 Anchorages for type 1 seat belt assemblies jor school buses. Anchorages for typo 1 seat belt assemblies shall sustain a pull of 2,500 pounds for each lap belt end attached.

"83.2.2.3 Anchorages for seat belt assemblies attached to the seat frame. The seat structure, the seat adjusters, 1 applicable, and the attachments, shall sustain the load speciiled in 83.2.2.1, S3 2.2.2, and 832.2.2.1, As applicable, for each seat belt end attached to the seat plus the seat inertia force. Tho Eeat inertla force shall be 20 times the seat weight. Floor and seat deformation is acceptable provided there is no structural fall. ure or release of the seat adjuster mechanism.

"S3.2.3 Test procedure. The strength test shall be conducted either with the connection from the body block to the anchoraga made in a manner in which the belts are installed or a suitable equivalent method. Tho load shall be applied to the body block at an angle of 10 degrees plus or minum 6 degrees from the horizontal. As applicablo, the doors of the vehicle may be closed during the test.

"83.2.3.1 Test for types 2 and 2a seat belt anchorages. The loads specided in $3.2.2.1 shall be applied using either a body block set up similar to that shown in figure 6 (not shown in RECORD) or & sultable equivalent method. The strength test shall be conducted with the seat in place in the vehiclo.

"S3.2.3.2 Test for type 1 seat belt anchor-
ages. The load specined in S3.2.22 or
S3.2.3.2.1, as applicable, shall be applied
using either a body block slmlar to that
shown in agure 6 (not shown in the RECORD)
or & sultablo equivalent method. The
strength test shall be conducted either with
the seat in place in the vebicle or with the
seat installed on an applicable vebice door
pan.

"(Federal Standard No. 515/2a)
"TORWARD COMPARTMENT ENERGY ABSORPTION

POR AUTOMOBILE VEHICLES
"81. Purpose and scope. This standard es-
tablishes requirements and test procedures
for forward compartment energy absorption
for automotive vehicles. The forward com-
partment includes the areas of the instru-
ment panel, sun visors, header, corner A
pillars, and under the instrument panel with
construction designed to afford & reasonable
degree of protection for the front seat occu-
pants wearing type 1 seat belt assemblies.

"S2. Application. This standard applies to
sedans, carryalls, station wagons, and to light
trucks up to 10.000 pounds G.V.W.

"S3. Requirements. Injury potential shall be minimized by constructing or locating forward compartment structures to ellminate impact or to reduce the forces generated by front seat occupants wearing type 1 seat belt assemblies when Impacting these structures.

"S3.1 Impact areas. The head impact areas shall be established through the use of type 1 seat belt assembly restrained manikins or other test devices based upon the

the there

Each

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