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(Federal Standard No. 515/8a]

a horizontal static load equal to a minimum

of 20 times the weight of the fully trimmed ANCHORAGE OF SEATS FOR AUTOMOTIVE

seat back frame, and with sumcient strength VEHICLES

to sustain a moment about the attachment 81. Purpose and scope. This standard

of the seat back Irame to the seat frame

of 4.250 inch-pounds in a rearward direction. establishes strength requirements for anchorage and construction of automotive vehicle

The load required to attain this moment seat assemblies.

Bhall be applied at the seat back frame upper

crossbar location normal to the seat with $2. Application. This standard applies to

the seat back frame in a locked position. sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and

Excluded are tilt type drivers' seats installed light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W.

in special purpose, stand-up, walk-in pack83. Standard characteristics. The SAE

age dellvery vehicles. Recommended Practice for Passenger Car

S3.2.4 Pedestal seats. Pedestal mounted Front Seat and Front Seat Adjuster, J879,

drivers' seats designed to pivot forward, informs a basis for that part of this standard

stalled in special purpose, stand-up, walk-in which applies to front seats.

type delivery vehicles shall be equipped with $3.1 Definitions.

releasable, sell-locking. pedestal restraining S3.1.1 Automotive vehicle seat. A struc

devices. The restraining device or devices ture provided to seat the driver and/or one

shall be constructed with suficient strength or more passengers.

to prevent the seat assembly from tilting forS3.12 Seat frame. The structural por

ward under a horizontal static load equal tion of a seat assembly.

to & minimum of 20 times the weight of the 83.1.3 Seat back frame uppet Crossbar.

fully trimmed keat components. The load The uppermost horizontal member of a seat

shall be applied with the seat pedestal in back frame.

a locked position and at the level of the 83.1.4 Seat adjuster. A device suitably

center of gravity of the seat assembly. anchored to the vehicle structure which sup

83.3 Requirements, rear seats. ports the seat frame assembly and provides

83.3.1 Rear seat backs and seat cushions. for seat adjustments. This includes any

Each rear seat back and seat cushion detrack, link, or power actuating assemblies

algned to provide rear passenger seating in necessary to adjust the position of the seat.

Bedans shall be constructed and anchored 83.2 Requirements, front seats.

to the vehicle structure which supports It in 83.2.1 Seat adjusters and seat frame com

such a manner as to sustain a horizontal binations. Each combination of seat ad

forward static load equal to a minimum of Juster and seat frame, together with its

20 times the weight of the fully trimmed attachments, shall be constructed and an.

component. chored to the vehicle structure which sup

83.4 Requirements, other seats. ports it in such a manner as to sustain a

83.41.1 Seat frames. Seat frames designed horizontal forward and rearward static load

to be fastened to the vehicle door without equal to a minimum of 20 times the weight

adjustment in sedans, buses, carryalls, and of the fully trimmed seat.

station wagons shall be constructed and 83.2.2 Seat cushion and back frame com

anchored to the vehicle structure which bination. Each seat cushion and back frame

supports them, either permanently or by decombination, together with its attachments,

tachable attings, in such a manner as to shall be constructed and anchored to the

sustain a forward and rearward static load vehicle structure which supports It in such

equal to 20 times the weight of the fully a manner as to sustain & rearward moment

trimmed seat. about the rear attachment of the seat frame

S3.4.2 Seat back frames. to the seat adjuster of 4,250 inch-pounds for

S3.4.2.1 Forward facing seat back frames each passenger for which tho seat back 18

designed to provide backs for intermediate designed. The load required to obtain this

seating in sedans and buses and intermedimoment shall be applied to the seat back

ate and rear seating in carryalls and station upper crossbar location normal to the boat

wagons shall be constructed and anchored, back.

either permanently or by detachable fittings NOTE: Some energy absorption under im

as specified, to the seat frame in such a manpact can be obtained through deflection of

ner as to sustain a rearward (in relation to the seat back. Therefore, some deflection

the seat) moment, about the rear attachand permanent set of the seat back consiste

ments of the seat frame to the vehicle strucent with rigidity requirements and normal

ture which supports it, equal to a minimum occupant accommodations 1s permissible. of 4.250 inch-pounds for each passenger for 83.2.3 Folding seat back frames. Each

which the seat is designed. The load reseat back frame designed to fold over the soat

quired to obtain this moment shall be applied shall be equlpped with & releasable, sell to the seat back upper crossbar, location locking, restraining device or devices. The

• The normal to the seat back (see note in S3.2.2). lock release shall be located so as to be 94.22 Rearward facing seat back frames readily accessible to the occupant of the designed to provide backs for rear seating seat and, 11 applicable, to permit egress to in station wagons shall be constructed and rear seat passengers.

anchored, either permanently or by detachThe release shall be so designed and/or able Attings as specified, to the seat frame in located as to minimize accidental release

release such a manner as to sustain a rearward (in in collision situations. The restraining de relation to the seat) load equal to a minivice or devices shall be constructed with mum of 4.250 inch-pounds for each passenrumclent strength to prevent the seat back ger for which the seat is designed. The load frame assembly from folding forward under required to obtain this moment shall be

applied to the seat back upper crossbar lo- forward load equal to a minimum of 2,500 cation normal to the seat back (see note in pounds for each lap belt end attached, or 83.2.2).

3,000 pounds for each combination lap and 83.4.2.3. Longitudinally mounted seats in shoulder belt end attached. station wagons, and when specided for in- 83.5.2.2 Passenger seats. Passenger seat stallation in trucks, shall be constructed and frames and seat back frames designed to anchored, either permanently or by detach- provide anchorages for seat belts shall be able attings to the vehicle structure which constructed and anchored to the vehicle supports them in such a manner as to sus- structure which supports them in such a tain & forward and rearward (in relation to manner as to sustain an additional forward the vehicle) static load equal to 20 times the static load equal to a minimum of 2,500 welght of the fully trimmed seat.

pounds for each type 1 or la lap belt end 83.4.3 Folding seats. Seats designed to attached. pivot forward on their forward attachment S3.6 Test procedure. Testing of front to the vehicle structure shall be equipped seats shall be in accordance with the prowith & releasable, sell-locking. restraining cedures set forth in SAE Recommended device. The lock release shall be located 80 Practice J879. Testing of intermediate and as to be readily accessible to the occupant rear seats shall be accomplished by applying of the seat or, 11 applicable, to permit egress similar procedures. Testing of seats designed to a passenger seated to the rear. The re- to provide seat belt anchorage shall be in lease shall be so designed and/or located as accordance with applicable procedures set

forth in S3.2.3 of Fed. Std. No. 515/18. situations. The restraining device shall be

(Federal Standard No. 516/9a) constructed with sumcient strength to prevent the seat assembly from folding forward HYDRAULIC SERVICE BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR under a horizontal static load equal to a

AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES minimum of 20 times the weight of the

81. Purpose and scope. This standard fully trimmed seat assembly.

establishes requirements for hydraulic serv83.4.4 Folding seat back frames. For

Ice brake systems installed on automotive ward facing seat back frames designed to

vehicles. provide backs for intermediate seating in

S2. Application. This standard applies to carryalls and station wagons and further de

sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and signed to fold over the seat shall be equipped

to light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W. with releasable, self-locking, restraining de

83. Standard characteristics. The N&vices. The lock release shall be located so as

tional Committee on Uniform Trafic Laws to be readily accessible to the occupant of

and Ordinances, Uniform Vehicle Code; Tho the seat or, i applicable, to permit egress to

Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Brake a passenger seated to the rear. The release

System Road Test Code Passenger Car, SAE shall be so located and/or designed as to

J843a and Service Brake System Performance minimize accidental release in collision situ

Requirements Passenger Car, SAE J937, ations. The restraining device sball be con

form the bases for this standard. structed with sumcient strength to prevent

S3.1 Service brake system per formance. the seat back frame assembly from folding

The performance ability of the fully operaforward under a horizontal static load equal tional service brake system for sedans and to a minimum of 20 times the weight of the star

station wagons, shall be not less than deTully trimmed seat back frame, and with scribed in section D of SAS J937, tested in sumcient strength to sustain . rearward

accordance with the requirements of SAS moment about the attachment of the seat Je3a. The performance ability of the fully back frame to the seat frame of 4,250 inch

operational service brake system for carrypounds for each passenger for which the seat allo, buses and light trucks up to 10,000 back is designed. The load required to at- pounds G.V.W. shall be not less than detain this moment shall be applied to the seat

scribed in section 12-302 of the Uniform

cribed in antion 2202 back Irame upper crossbar location normal to Vehicle Code. the seat with the seat back frame in & locked

83.1.1 Design. The service brake system position.

Bhall be of such design that rupture or fall83.6 Seats designed to provide seat belt anchorage.

ure of an actuating-pressure component in 83.5.1 Sedans, carryalls, station wagons, the system bhall not result in complete loss and light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W. of function of the service brake system. Seat frames and seat back frames designed to Actuating-pressure components are defined provide anchorages for seat belts shall be as, the brake master cylinder or master conconstructed and anchored to the vehicle trol unit, wheel brake cylinder, brake line, structure which supports them in such a brake hose or equivalent, as applicable. The manner as to sustain an additional forward hydraulic fuid system shall be sealed in static load equal to a minimum of 2,500 such a manner so as to provide protection of pounds for each lap belt end attached or the brake fluid from outside contamination. 3.000 pounds for each combination lap and S3.1.2 Partial system performance. In the

83.1.2 shoulder belt end attached.

event of rupture or fallure to an actuating83.5.2 Buses.

pressure component to any single brake, the 93.5.2.1 Driver's seat. Driver's seat components of the unaffected portion of the frames and seat back frames designed to system shall continue to function. Mechaniprovide anchorages for seat belts shall be cal linkage or other means of brake applicaconstructed and anchored to the vehicle tion may be utilized to meet this requirestructure which supports them in such & ment provided that continuation of the manner as to sustain an additional static same motion on the same brake pedal used to

actuate the normal system applies or actu- 93.8 Tests. All tests shall be in accord. ates the braking force.

ance with SAŁ Recommended Practice J903. 53.2 System efectiveness indication. System effectiveness shall be indicated by means of an electrically operated red light mounted

(Federal Standard No. 515/132] on the instrument panel. The light shall

GLARE REDUCTION SURFACES FOR AUTOMOTIVE have an area of not less than 0.196 square

VEHICLES inch. It shall Illuminate before or upon application of the brakes when an actuating- Si. Purpose and scope. This standard espressure component of the system has sus- to

sus- tablishes glare limits for appearance finishes tained a loss of fluid or pressure. The indi

of vehicle components in and adjacent to cator light system shall include a means for the

means for the operator's Neld of view to achieve the the vehicle operator to perform a test to

most practical reduction of distracting reassure the light bulb is operable.

Rectance for automotive vehicles. (Federal Standard No. 5:5/12a)

S2. Application. This standard applies to

sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and WINDSHIELD WIPERS AND WASHERS FOR light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W. AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES

S3. Standard characteristics. Standard

methods, tentative methods, and tentative Si. Purpose and scope. This standard es

recommended practices and the American tablishes minimum requirements for auto

Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM motive vehicle windshield wiping and wash

D 307, D 523, D 791, D 1635, E 97, and the SAE ing systems.

Standard 1828, form the basis for this Federal 82. Application. This standard applies to

Standard sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and

S3.1 Definitions. light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W., with

S3.1.1 Field of view. With the operator's windshields of one piece construction of the

seat in its rearmost position, the operator's fixed type. Excluded are utility vehicles of

feld of view is defined as that area forward the three-wheel type.

of a line extending to the sides of the vehicle 83. Requirements. The windshield wiper

Irom the point at which the back pan of the system shall be driven by a motor actuated

SAE J826 three-dimensional manikin makes by a conveniently located control by which

contact with the operator's seat back. the operator of the vehicle may vary the fre

83.1.2 Glare. The visual efect of any quency speed of wipers. The windshield

dilutes or competes with the central attenwiper system shall be designed to provide two

tion signal on which attention is being or more frequency speeds and each frequency

focused. speed shall be substantially constant regard. S3.1.3 Specular gloss. The luminous fracless of engine load. Windshield wiper sys

tional reflectance of a specimen at the specutems designed to interrupt at the end of each lard frequency cycle by means of a timing device

uiming device 83.1.4 Luminous directional reflectance will be acceptable 11 the timing device can (Munsell value). Ratio of aux reflected to be varied to provide continuous operation that from a perfect diffuse refector similarly and two or more frequencies of interrupted Uluminated and viewed. operation. All requirements other than

S3.1.5 Saturation (Munsell chroma). those specined herein shall be in accordance

The attribute of color perception that exwith SAE J903, Recommended Practice for

or presses the degree of departure from gray of Passenger Car Windshield Wiper Systems

the same lightness. All grays have zero S3.1 Wiped area. The minimum wiped

saturation. area of the windshield shall include the area 53.2 Instrument panels. The specular of the windshield established by a horizontal

gloss of the surface of the material used for dimension, projected as a line from the ver

instrument panel top surfaces and appurtical center line of the eye level of the 95th

tenances thereon which can produce glare percentile male with seat in midseat position

seat in midseat position in the windshield shall not exceed 30 units and extending to within one and one-half maximum. measured by the 85-degree inches of each corner post and including the

method of ASTM D 523, or equivalent. center portion of the windshield. The min

83.3 Luminous directional reflectance imum wiped area shall also include that por

that por- (Munsell value). The luminous directional tion of the windshield measured from the

reflectance of the surface of the material horizontal eye level line in a vertical direc- used for Instrument panel top surfaces shall tion 10 degrees above and 10 degrees below

not exceed 30 percent (which is equivalent the horizontal eye level line at a point in

to a Munsell value less than 6.0/-), when Iront of the operator and & point in front of

measured as described by ASTM D 307. D 791. right seat occupant.

D 1535, E 97, or equivalent. 83.2 Windshield washers. The windshield

83.4 Saturation (Munsell chroma). The washer system shall be provided with & con- Munsell chroms of instrument panel top surtainer with the capacity of at least 48 ounces faces shall be no more than 76. of fuld.

Toe container shall be made of
The container shall be made of

'83.5 Windshield wiper arms and blades. such material that it will not crack or break The specular gloss of the surface of the main the event the Auid freezes. The fluid terial used for windshield wiper arms and shall be applied to the outside of the wind wiper blades in the operator's feld of view shield by Vacuum pump or other method. shall not exceed 40 units maximum, measThe washer shall be actuated either man ured by the 20-degree method of ASTM D ually or automatically.

523, or equivalent.

83. The specular gloss of the surfaco of alls, and station wagons or loaded to gross the materlal used for instrument bezols, ve

vehicle weight in the case of buses and light windshield molding. control devices, born

trucks where inside mirrors may be ap

plicable. ring. rearview mirror mounting hardware,

83.1.2 Location. The rearview mirror trim hardware, etc., in the operator's Deld

shall be designed and constructed to be of view shall not exceed 40 units maximum.

not exceed to units maximum, mounted on the inside of the vehicle in such measured by the 20-degree method of ASTM a manner as to provide the driver with a D 523, or equivalant.

stable, readily distinguishable image under 83.7 Instruments, control devices, etc., normal road conditions. The mirror shall shall be so located so as to present a min. be located as far forward along the longitudiimal reflection into the windshield in the nal axis of the vehicle as the windshield, operator's Beld of view under dayught and mount, and adjusting device will permit

(buses excepted). The mirror and its supnight driving conditions.

porting brackets shall be located above the (Federal Standard No. 515/14A)

forward horizontal line of sight, 11 possible,

of a manikin which measures 33 inches from CONTROL OF AR POLLUTION Fom

tho "H" point to the top of the head and ocAUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES

cupying the driver's seat set in the mid posl81. Purpose and scope. This standard a. tion, with due rogard being given to tho tablishes requirements for the control of requirements of the vertical Neld of view emissions from new motor vehicles and now to the rear (seo 83.1.1). Betra largo buo motor vehicle engines which are likely to mirrors designed to serve an additional pur. cause or contribute to air pollution.

pose of passenger surveillanco shall be loS2. This standard applies to dedans, cated with duo consideration of the precarryalls, station wagons, and light trucks up ceding requirements. to and including Y-ton pickup or equivalent. S3.1.3 Nounting. The mirror sball be equipped with engines of 50 cubic inch dis

mounted in the vehiclo by monds of a suitplacement or over.

ablo supporting assembly of sumclent 83. Standard characteristics. The pro

strength to provide a stable support for the posed regulations of the Department of

mirror and shall be Qt & design which will Health, Education, and Wellare, Control of

minimize injury potential to occupants. Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and

The mount, 18 in the impact area, shall be New Motor Vehicle Enginoo, published in the

designed to break away or collapse upon the FEDERAL RECISTER on December 31, 1965 (30

application of a force in excess of 90 pounds, F.R. 17192), form the basis for this standard.

in the direction applied' by the head of a S3.1 All automotive vehicles and engines

belted occupant. The head impact area shall covered by this standard shall be equipped

be established through the use of type 1 with integral or ancillary control systems to

seat belt assembly restrained manikins or provide control of emissions in accordance

other test devices having "H" point to topwith the requirements set forth in the reg

ol-head dimensions of 33 inches and 29 ulations cited in 83.

inches. Adjustable seats shall be in the (Federal Standard No. 515/17a)

extreme forward position for the indicated

33 inch device and in the extreme rearward REARVIEW MIRROR (8) FOR AUTOMOTIVE position for the indicated 29 inch device. VEHICLES

The impact area shall be that included be.

tween the arcs formed by the top-of-head si. Purpose and scope. This standard es

point when each device is swung forward tablishes requirements for rearview mirror (8)

and also 45 degrees to each side of the longifor automotive vehicles to provide reason. tudinal Axle through mach normal seatine ably unobstructed driver vision to the rear.

position. Rigid mounts shall break in such 82. Application. This standard applies to

& manner as to leave no protruding residuals. sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and

The rim of the mirror or its supporting bezel

the rim of the mirror or to light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W.

shall have an edge radius of not less than Vehicles with bodies designed without rear

0.125 inch. The mount shall provide for windows and vehicles that require more than

universal adjustment of the mirror to acone outside mirror and truck-type vehicles

commodate any size driver in any available with small rear windows are excepted from

seat position. the requirement for an inside rearview mirror.

S3.2 Outside mirrors. S3. Requirements. The rearview mirrors

83.2.1 Size. The outside mirror reflecting shall provide the driver with a clear, un

surface shall have & minimum nominal didistorted view of unit magnication under

ameter of 5 inches 11 of circular design. day and night operating conditions.

Rectangular mirrors shall have a minimum 83.1 Inside rearview mirrors.

nominal horizontal dimension of 5 inches 83.1.1 Size. The rearview mirror shall

and a vertical dimension sufficient to provide have a horizontal dimension which will pro

the driver a view of the road surface from vide the driver & view to the rear of the

& distance of not more than 35 feet to the vehicle with a horizontal angle of no less

rear from the eye of the driver of the vehicle than 20 degrees. The vertical angle shall be

and to the horizon on & level road under at least sumcient to provide & view of the

normal load conditions. The 35 feet shall road surface from a point not greater than

be measured from the position of the eye 200 feet to the rear of the vehicle, to the

of the driver to the reflecting surface, then to horizon under conditions of a level road and

the sootway to the rear of the vehicle. with the vehicle occupied by the driver and

83.2.2 Mounting. The outside rearview four passengers in the case of sedans, carry mirror shall be designed and constructed to areas adjacent u

onditions. Proin Door handio cou

that they hav

be mounted on the left outside of the vehicle as to reduce tho likelihood of injury to the in such a manner as to provide the driver head, torso and legs of lap belted occupants with a stable, readily distinguishable 1m- of rear and front seats. The occupant proage under normal road conditions and shall tection area shall be established through the be so located as to require not more than use of type 1 Beat belt assembly restrained 60 degrees combined head and eye move- manikins or other test devices based upon ment with driver's seat in forward position. the equivalent to

the equivalent to "H" point to top-of-head

"pe The outside mirror shall provide the op. dimensions of 33 inches and 29 inches. The erator, with seat in full forward position, & occupant protection area shall be that inview of the side of the vehicle on which cluded between the arce formed by the topmounted. The mirror shall not be ob- of-head polnt and torso when each device scured by the unwiped portion of the wind is swung forward and also 90 degrees to each shield or by the corner pillar. The mirror side of the longitudinal axis through each shall be readily adjustable to accommodate normal seating position and the forward aiderent size drivers. seat positions, and movement of the knees and legs 01 outside load conditions. The mirror and mount shall Occupants. be designed, constructed, locatedand

83.1 The controls shall be located within mounted so as to minimize pedestrian injury reach

reach of the seat belted occupant nearest potential.

the door. Controls located away from or 83.2.3 Additional outside rearview mirror.

shielded from the impact area or recessed

within the panel or armrest in such a manner shall be provided with an additional outside to reasonably minimize the likelihood of conrearview mirror to provide driver vision to tact by lap belted occupants shall be conthe right rear areas adjacent to the vehicle sidered to provide an acceptable degree of obscured by vehicle design or load conditions. protection The visual characteristics of the right out.

83.2 Door handlo controls not meeting side mirror shall conform to the require

m. 93.1 shall be constructed so that they have

83.1 ments of the left outside mirror except that a contact area of not less than 2 square Inches tho restriction on combined head and eye substantially vertical, with minimum radli movement may be relaxed to the extent of 0.125 inch. Window control knobs not dictated by vehicle design. Design, con- M

meeting 53.1 shall have & minimum contact

AMBO struction, location, and mounting of the right d

area of not less than 1 square inch, with

. 0 40. outside mirror shall be symmetrical to the

minimum edges radll of 0.125 inch. All conleft outside mirror except that where neces

trols shall have a maximum extension from bary, consideration may be given to location the panel of inca. and mounting problems dictated by venido

83.3 Controls not meeting 83.1 or 53.2

shall be constructed of material which will design.

defect within 0.375 inch of the panel or 83.2.4 Wide angle mirror. When speci.

detach by a force of 90 pounds leaving no ded, an auxiliary wide angle (convex) mirror

residual protrusions beyond the panel sur. may be incorporated in the same mount as face on which mounted. tbo standard mirror to provide an additional close-in Neld of vision required under certain

(Federal Standard No. 515/19) operating conditions. The auxiliary mirror Ash TRATS AND LIGHTERS POR AUTOMOTIVE shall be incorporated in such a manner as

VEHICLES not to interfere with the visual Deld of the standard mirror,

31. Purpose and scope. This standard es83.3 Mirror construction. The reflectivo tablishes the location and construction of medium shall be of a material which will ash trays and lighters when installed in resist abrasion and erosion incident to ac automotive vehicles to afford a reasonablo cepted cleaning practices. The surfaces of degree of protection for front and rear seated the material shall be so inished as to pro

occupants wearing typo 1 seat belt assemblies. vide and maintain a distortion free reflected

82. Application. This standard applies to image. Front or second surface renectance

sedans, carryalls, and station wagons. may be used. The reflectance value of the

83. Requirements. Injury potential shall redective Alm employed shall be not less

be minimized by locating, constructing. or than 50 percent. Inside mirrors may be of

mounting ash trays and lighters in such a the selective position prismatic type, in which

manner as to minimize the likelihood of case the relectance value in the night driv

injury to an occupant's head, torso, or leg Ing. high-glare position shall be not less

upon impact. The impact area for both front than 4 percent.

and rear seats shall be established through

the use of type 1 seat belt assembly re(Federal Standard No. 515/18]

strained manikins or other test devices hav. WINDOW AND DOOR CONTROLS FOR AUTOMOTIVE

ing the equivalent to "H" point to top-ofVEHICLES

head dimensions of 33 inches and 29 inches.

The impact area shall be that included beSi. Purpose and Scope. This standard tween the arcs formed by the top-of-head establishes the requirements for the location point and torso when each device is swung and construction of the controls for windows

forward and also 90 degrees to each side of and doors.

the longitudinal axis through each normal 82. Application. This standard applies to seating position and the forward movement sedans, carryalls, station wagons, and light of the knees and legs of outside occupants. trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W.

This area to be determined with front seat 83. Requirements. Injury potential shall in all normal positions. be minimized by constructing, locating or $3.1 Ash trays and lighters located away mounting of the controls in such a manner from or shielded from the impact area or

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