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(Federal Standard No. 515/8a]
a horizontal static load equal to a minimum
of 20 times the weight of the fully trimmed ANCHORAGE OF SEATS FOR AUTOMOTIVE
seat back frame, and with sumcient strength VEHICLES
to sustain a moment about the attachment 81. Purpose and scope. This standard
of the seat back Irame to the seat frame
of 4.250 inch-pounds in a rearward direction. establishes strength requirements for anchorage and construction of automotive vehicle
The load required to attain this moment seat assemblies.
Bhall be applied at the seat back frame upper
crossbar location normal to the seat with $2. Application. This standard applies to
the seat back frame in a locked position. sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and
Excluded are tilt type drivers' seats installed light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W.
in special purpose, stand-up, walk-in pack83. Standard characteristics. The SAE
age dellvery vehicles. Recommended Practice for Passenger Car
S3.2.4 Pedestal seats. Pedestal mounted Front Seat and Front Seat Adjuster, J879,
drivers' seats designed to pivot forward, informs a basis for that part of this standard
stalled in special purpose, stand-up, walk-in which applies to front seats.
type delivery vehicles shall be equipped with $3.1 Definitions.
releasable, sell-locking. pedestal restraining S3.1.1 Automotive vehicle seat. A struc
devices. The restraining device or devices ture provided to seat the driver and/or one
shall be constructed with suficient strength or more passengers.
to prevent the seat assembly from tilting forS3.12 Seat frame. The structural por
ward under a horizontal static load equal tion of a seat assembly.
to & minimum of 20 times the weight of the 83.1.3 Seat back frame uppet Crossbar.
fully trimmed keat components. The load The uppermost horizontal member of a seat
shall be applied with the seat pedestal in back frame.
a locked position and at the level of the 83.1.4 Seat adjuster. A device suitably
center of gravity of the seat assembly. anchored to the vehicle structure which sup
83.3 Requirements, rear seats. ports the seat frame assembly and provides
83.3.1 Rear seat backs and seat cushions. for seat adjustments. This includes any
Each rear seat back and seat cushion detrack, link, or power actuating assemblies
algned to provide rear passenger seating in necessary to adjust the position of the seat.
Bedans shall be constructed and anchored 83.2 Requirements, front seats.
to the vehicle structure which supports It in 83.2.1 Seat adjusters and seat frame com
such a manner as to sustain a horizontal binations. Each combination of seat ad
forward static load equal to a minimum of Juster and seat frame, together with its
20 times the weight of the fully trimmed attachments, shall be constructed and an.
component. chored to the vehicle structure which sup
83.4 Requirements, other seats. ports it in such a manner as to sustain a
83.41.1 Seat frames. Seat frames designed horizontal forward and rearward static load
to be fastened to the vehicle door without equal to a minimum of 20 times the weight
adjustment in sedans, buses, carryalls, and of the fully trimmed seat.
station wagons shall be constructed and 83.2.2 Seat cushion and back frame com
anchored to the vehicle structure which bination. Each seat cushion and back frame
supports them, either permanently or by decombination, together with its attachments,
tachable attings, in such a manner as to shall be constructed and anchored to the
sustain a forward and rearward static load vehicle structure which supports It in such
equal to 20 times the weight of the fully a manner as to sustain & rearward moment
trimmed seat. about the rear attachment of the seat frame
S3.4.2 Seat back frames. to the seat adjuster of 4,250 inch-pounds for
S220.127.116.11 Forward facing seat back frames each passenger for which tho seat back 18
designed to provide backs for intermediate designed. The load required to obtain this
seating in sedans and buses and intermedimoment shall be applied to the seat back
ate and rear seating in carryalls and station upper crossbar location normal to the boat
wagons shall be constructed and anchored, back.
either permanently or by detachable fittings NOTE: Some energy absorption under im
as specified, to the seat frame in such a manpact can be obtained through deflection of
ner as to sustain a rearward (in relation to the seat back. Therefore, some deflection
the seat) moment, about the rear attachand permanent set of the seat back consiste
ments of the seat frame to the vehicle strucent with rigidity requirements and normal
ture which supports it, equal to a minimum occupant accommodations 1s permissible. of 4.250 inch-pounds for each passenger for 83.2.3 Folding seat back frames. Each
which the seat is designed. The load reseat back frame designed to fold over the soat
quired to obtain this moment shall be applied shall be equlpped with & releasable, sell to the seat back upper crossbar, location locking, restraining device or devices. The
• The normal to the seat back (see note in S3.2.2). lock release shall be located so as to be 94.22 Rearward facing seat back frames readily accessible to the occupant of the designed to provide backs for rear seating seat and, 11 applicable, to permit egress to in station wagons shall be constructed and rear seat passengers.
anchored, either permanently or by detachThe release shall be so designed and/or able Attings as specified, to the seat frame in located as to minimize accidental release
release such a manner as to sustain a rearward (in in collision situations. The restraining de relation to the seat) load equal to a minivice or devices shall be constructed with mum of 4.250 inch-pounds for each passenrumclent strength to prevent the seat back ger for which the seat is designed. The load frame assembly from folding forward under required to obtain this moment shall be
applied to the seat back upper crossbar lo- forward load equal to a minimum of 2,500 cation normal to the seat back (see note in pounds for each lap belt end attached, or 83.2.2).
3,000 pounds for each combination lap and 18.104.22.168. Longitudinally mounted seats in shoulder belt end attached. station wagons, and when specided for in- 22.214.171.124 Passenger seats. Passenger seat stallation in trucks, shall be constructed and frames and seat back frames designed to anchored, either permanently or by detach- provide anchorages for seat belts shall be able attings to the vehicle structure which constructed and anchored to the vehicle supports them in such a manner as to sus- structure which supports them in such a tain & forward and rearward (in relation to manner as to sustain an additional forward the vehicle) static load equal to 20 times the static load equal to a minimum of 2,500 welght of the fully trimmed seat.
pounds for each type 1 or la lap belt end 83.4.3 Folding seats. Seats designed to attached. pivot forward on their forward attachment S3.6 Test procedure. Testing of front to the vehicle structure shall be equipped seats shall be in accordance with the prowith & releasable, sell-locking. restraining cedures set forth in SAE Recommended device. The lock release shall be located 80 Practice J879. Testing of intermediate and as to be readily accessible to the occupant rear seats shall be accomplished by applying of the seat or, 11 applicable, to permit egress similar procedures. Testing of seats designed to a passenger seated to the rear. The re- to provide seat belt anchorage shall be in lease shall be so designed and/or located as accordance with applicable procedures set
forth in S3.2.3 of Fed. Std. No. 515/18. situations. The restraining device shall be
(Federal Standard No. 516/9a) constructed with sumcient strength to prevent the seat assembly from folding forward HYDRAULIC SERVICE BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR under a horizontal static load equal to a
AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES minimum of 20 times the weight of the
81. Purpose and scope. This standard fully trimmed seat assembly.
establishes requirements for hydraulic serv83.4.4 Folding seat back frames. For
Ice brake systems installed on automotive ward facing seat back frames designed to
vehicles. provide backs for intermediate seating in
S2. Application. This standard applies to carryalls and station wagons and further de
sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and signed to fold over the seat shall be equipped
to light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W. with releasable, self-locking, restraining de
83. Standard characteristics. The N&vices. The lock release shall be located so as
tional Committee on Uniform Trafic Laws to be readily accessible to the occupant of
and Ordinances, Uniform Vehicle Code; Tho the seat or, i applicable, to permit egress to
Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Brake a passenger seated to the rear. The release
System Road Test Code Passenger Car, SAE shall be so located and/or designed as to
J843a and Service Brake System Performance minimize accidental release in collision situ
Requirements Passenger Car, SAE J937, ations. The restraining device sball be con
form the bases for this standard. structed with sumcient strength to prevent
S3.1 Service brake system per formance. the seat back frame assembly from folding
The performance ability of the fully operaforward under a horizontal static load equal tional service brake system for sedans and to a minimum of 20 times the weight of the star
station wagons, shall be not less than deTully trimmed seat back frame, and with scribed in section D of SAS J937, tested in sumcient strength to sustain . rearward
accordance with the requirements of SAS moment about the attachment of the seat Je3a. The performance ability of the fully back frame to the seat frame of 4,250 inch
operational service brake system for carrypounds for each passenger for which the seat allo, buses and light trucks up to 10,000 back is designed. The load required to at- pounds G.V.W. shall be not less than detain this moment shall be applied to the seat
scribed in section 12-302 of the Uniform
cribed in antion 2202 back Irame upper crossbar location normal to Vehicle Code. the seat with the seat back frame in & locked
83.1.1 Design. The service brake system position.
Bhall be of such design that rupture or fall83.6 Seats designed to provide seat belt anchorage.
ure of an actuating-pressure component in 83.5.1 Sedans, carryalls, station wagons, the system bhall not result in complete loss and light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W. of function of the service brake system. Seat frames and seat back frames designed to Actuating-pressure components are defined provide anchorages for seat belts shall be as, the brake master cylinder or master conconstructed and anchored to the vehicle trol unit, wheel brake cylinder, brake line, structure which supports them in such a brake hose or equivalent, as applicable. The manner as to sustain an additional forward hydraulic fuid system shall be sealed in static load equal to a minimum of 2,500 such a manner so as to provide protection of pounds for each lap belt end attached or the brake fluid from outside contamination. 3.000 pounds for each combination lap and S3.1.2 Partial system performance. In the
83.1.2 shoulder belt end attached.
event of rupture or fallure to an actuating83.5.2 Buses.
pressure component to any single brake, the 126.96.36.199 Driver's seat. Driver's seat components of the unaffected portion of the frames and seat back frames designed to system shall continue to function. Mechaniprovide anchorages for seat belts shall be cal linkage or other means of brake applicaconstructed and anchored to the vehicle tion may be utilized to meet this requirestructure which supports them in such & ment provided that continuation of the manner as to sustain an additional static same motion on the same brake pedal used to
actuate the normal system applies or actu- 93.8 Tests. All tests shall be in accord. ates the braking force.
ance with SAŁ Recommended Practice J903. 53.2 System efectiveness indication. System effectiveness shall be indicated by means of an electrically operated red light mounted
(Federal Standard No. 515/132] on the instrument panel. The light shall
GLARE REDUCTION SURFACES FOR AUTOMOTIVE have an area of not less than 0.196 square
VEHICLES inch. It shall Illuminate before or upon application of the brakes when an actuating- Si. Purpose and scope. This standard espressure component of the system has sus- to
sus- tablishes glare limits for appearance finishes tained a loss of fluid or pressure. The indi
of vehicle components in and adjacent to cator light system shall include a means for the
means for the operator's Neld of view to achieve the the vehicle operator to perform a test to
most practical reduction of distracting reassure the light bulb is operable.
Rectance for automotive vehicles. (Federal Standard No. 5:5/12a)
S2. Application. This standard applies to
sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and WINDSHIELD WIPERS AND WASHERS FOR light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W. AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES
S3. Standard characteristics. Standard
methods, tentative methods, and tentative Si. Purpose and scope. This standard es
recommended practices and the American tablishes minimum requirements for auto
Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM motive vehicle windshield wiping and wash
D 307, D 523, D 791, D 1635, E 97, and the SAE ing systems.
Standard 1828, form the basis for this Federal 82. Application. This standard applies to
Standard sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and
S3.1 Definitions. light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W., with
S3.1.1 Field of view. With the operator's windshields of one piece construction of the
seat in its rearmost position, the operator's fixed type. Excluded are utility vehicles of
feld of view is defined as that area forward the three-wheel type.
of a line extending to the sides of the vehicle 83. Requirements. The windshield wiper
Irom the point at which the back pan of the system shall be driven by a motor actuated
SAE J826 three-dimensional manikin makes by a conveniently located control by which
contact with the operator's seat back. the operator of the vehicle may vary the fre
83.1.2 Glare. The visual efect of any quency speed of wipers. The windshield
dilutes or competes with the central attenwiper system shall be designed to provide two
tion signal on which attention is being or more frequency speeds and each frequency
focused. speed shall be substantially constant regard. S3.1.3 Specular gloss. The luminous fracless of engine load. Windshield wiper sys
tional reflectance of a specimen at the specutems designed to interrupt at the end of each lard frequency cycle by means of a timing device
uiming device 83.1.4 Luminous directional reflectance will be acceptable 11 the timing device can (Munsell value). Ratio of aux reflected to be varied to provide continuous operation that from a perfect diffuse refector similarly and two or more frequencies of interrupted Uluminated and viewed. operation. All requirements other than
S3.1.5 Saturation (Munsell chroma). those specined herein shall be in accordance
The attribute of color perception that exwith SAE J903, Recommended Practice for
or presses the degree of departure from gray of Passenger Car Windshield Wiper Systems
the same lightness. All grays have zero S3.1 Wiped area. The minimum wiped
saturation. area of the windshield shall include the area 53.2 Instrument panels. The specular of the windshield established by a horizontal
gloss of the surface of the material used for dimension, projected as a line from the ver
instrument panel top surfaces and appurtical center line of the eye level of the 95th
tenances thereon which can produce glare percentile male with seat in midseat position
seat in midseat position in the windshield shall not exceed 30 units and extending to within one and one-half maximum. measured by the 85-degree inches of each corner post and including the
method of ASTM D 523, or equivalent. center portion of the windshield. The min
83.3 Luminous directional reflectance imum wiped area shall also include that por
that por- (Munsell value). The luminous directional tion of the windshield measured from the
reflectance of the surface of the material horizontal eye level line in a vertical direc- used for Instrument panel top surfaces shall tion 10 degrees above and 10 degrees below
not exceed 30 percent (which is equivalent the horizontal eye level line at a point in
to a Munsell value less than 6.0/-), when Iront of the operator and & point in front of
measured as described by ASTM D 307. D 791. right seat occupant.
D 1535, E 97, or equivalent. 83.2 Windshield washers. The windshield
83.4 Saturation (Munsell chroma). The washer system shall be provided with & con- Munsell chroms of instrument panel top surtainer with the capacity of at least 48 ounces faces shall be no more than 76. of fuld.
Toe container shall be made of
'83.5 Windshield wiper arms and blades. such material that it will not crack or break The specular gloss of the surface of the main the event the Auid freezes. The fluid terial used for windshield wiper arms and shall be applied to the outside of the wind wiper blades in the operator's feld of view shield by Vacuum pump or other method. shall not exceed 40 units maximum, measThe washer shall be actuated either man ured by the 20-degree method of ASTM D ually or automatically.
523, or equivalent.
83. The specular gloss of the surfaco of alls, and station wagons or loaded to gross the materlal used for instrument bezols, ve
vehicle weight in the case of buses and light windshield molding. control devices, born
trucks where inside mirrors may be ap
plicable. ring. rearview mirror mounting hardware,
83.1.2 Location. The rearview mirror trim hardware, etc., in the operator's Deld
shall be designed and constructed to be of view shall not exceed 40 units maximum.
not exceed to units maximum, mounted on the inside of the vehicle in such measured by the 20-degree method of ASTM a manner as to provide the driver with a D 523, or equivalant.
stable, readily distinguishable image under 83.7 Instruments, control devices, etc., normal road conditions. The mirror shall shall be so located so as to present a min. be located as far forward along the longitudiimal reflection into the windshield in the nal axis of the vehicle as the windshield, operator's Beld of view under dayught and mount, and adjusting device will permit
(buses excepted). The mirror and its supnight driving conditions.
porting brackets shall be located above the (Federal Standard No. 515/14A)
forward horizontal line of sight, 11 possible,
of a manikin which measures 33 inches from CONTROL OF AR POLLUTION Fom
tho "H" point to the top of the head and ocAUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES
cupying the driver's seat set in the mid posl81. Purpose and scope. This standard a. tion, with due rogard being given to tho tablishes requirements for the control of requirements of the vertical Neld of view emissions from new motor vehicles and now to the rear (seo 83.1.1). Betra largo buo motor vehicle engines which are likely to mirrors designed to serve an additional pur. cause or contribute to air pollution.
pose of passenger surveillanco shall be loS2. This standard applies to dedans, cated with duo consideration of the precarryalls, station wagons, and light trucks up ceding requirements. to and including Y-ton pickup or equivalent. S3.1.3 Nounting. The mirror sball be equipped with engines of 50 cubic inch dis
mounted in the vehiclo by monds of a suitplacement or over.
ablo supporting assembly of sumclent 83. Standard characteristics. The pro
strength to provide a stable support for the posed regulations of the Department of
mirror and shall be Qt & design which will Health, Education, and Wellare, Control of
minimize injury potential to occupants. Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and
The mount, 18 in the impact area, shall be New Motor Vehicle Enginoo, published in the
designed to break away or collapse upon the FEDERAL RECISTER on December 31, 1965 (30
application of a force in excess of 90 pounds, F.R. 17192), form the basis for this standard.
in the direction applied' by the head of a S3.1 All automotive vehicles and engines
belted occupant. The head impact area shall covered by this standard shall be equipped
be established through the use of type 1 with integral or ancillary control systems to
seat belt assembly restrained manikins or provide control of emissions in accordance
other test devices having "H" point to topwith the requirements set forth in the reg
ol-head dimensions of 33 inches and 29 ulations cited in 83.
inches. Adjustable seats shall be in the (Federal Standard No. 515/17a)
extreme forward position for the indicated
33 inch device and in the extreme rearward REARVIEW MIRROR (8) FOR AUTOMOTIVE position for the indicated 29 inch device. VEHICLES
The impact area shall be that included be.
tween the arcs formed by the top-of-head si. Purpose and scope. This standard es
point when each device is swung forward tablishes requirements for rearview mirror (8)
and also 45 degrees to each side of the longifor automotive vehicles to provide reason. tudinal Axle through mach normal seatine ably unobstructed driver vision to the rear.
position. Rigid mounts shall break in such 82. Application. This standard applies to
& manner as to leave no protruding residuals. sedans, buses, carryalls, station wagons, and
The rim of the mirror or its supporting bezel
the rim of the mirror or to light trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W.
shall have an edge radius of not less than Vehicles with bodies designed without rear
0.125 inch. The mount shall provide for windows and vehicles that require more than
universal adjustment of the mirror to acone outside mirror and truck-type vehicles
commodate any size driver in any available with small rear windows are excepted from
seat position. the requirement for an inside rearview mirror.
S3.2 Outside mirrors. S3. Requirements. The rearview mirrors
83.2.1 Size. The outside mirror reflecting shall provide the driver with a clear, un
surface shall have & minimum nominal didistorted view of unit magnication under
ameter of 5 inches 11 of circular design. day and night operating conditions.
Rectangular mirrors shall have a minimum 83.1 Inside rearview mirrors.
nominal horizontal dimension of 5 inches 83.1.1 Size. The rearview mirror shall
and a vertical dimension sufficient to provide have a horizontal dimension which will pro
the driver a view of the road surface from vide the driver & view to the rear of the
& distance of not more than 35 feet to the vehicle with a horizontal angle of no less
rear from the eye of the driver of the vehicle than 20 degrees. The vertical angle shall be
and to the horizon on & level road under at least sumcient to provide & view of the
normal load conditions. The 35 feet shall road surface from a point not greater than
be measured from the position of the eye 200 feet to the rear of the vehicle, to the
of the driver to the reflecting surface, then to horizon under conditions of a level road and
the sootway to the rear of the vehicle. with the vehicle occupied by the driver and
83.2.2 Mounting. The outside rearview four passengers in the case of sedans, carry mirror shall be designed and constructed to areas adjacent u
onditions. Proin Door handio cou
that they hav
be mounted on the left outside of the vehicle as to reduce tho likelihood of injury to the in such a manner as to provide the driver head, torso and legs of lap belted occupants with a stable, readily distinguishable 1m- of rear and front seats. The occupant proage under normal road conditions and shall tection area shall be established through the be so located as to require not more than use of type 1 Beat belt assembly restrained 60 degrees combined head and eye move- manikins or other test devices based upon ment with driver's seat in forward position. the equivalent to
the equivalent to "H" point to top-of-head
"pe The outside mirror shall provide the op. dimensions of 33 inches and 29 inches. The erator, with seat in full forward position, & occupant protection area shall be that inview of the side of the vehicle on which cluded between the arce formed by the topmounted. The mirror shall not be ob- of-head polnt and torso when each device scured by the unwiped portion of the wind is swung forward and also 90 degrees to each shield or by the corner pillar. The mirror side of the longitudinal axis through each shall be readily adjustable to accommodate normal seating position and the forward aiderent size drivers. seat positions, and movement of the knees and legs 01 outside load conditions. The mirror and mount shall Occupants. be designed, constructed, locatedand
83.1 The controls shall be located within mounted so as to minimize pedestrian injury reach
reach of the seat belted occupant nearest potential.
the door. Controls located away from or 83.2.3 Additional outside rearview mirror.
shielded from the impact area or recessed
within the panel or armrest in such a manner shall be provided with an additional outside to reasonably minimize the likelihood of conrearview mirror to provide driver vision to tact by lap belted occupants shall be conthe right rear areas adjacent to the vehicle sidered to provide an acceptable degree of obscured by vehicle design or load conditions. protection The visual characteristics of the right out.
83.2 Door handlo controls not meeting side mirror shall conform to the require
m. 93.1 shall be constructed so that they have
83.1 ments of the left outside mirror except that a contact area of not less than 2 square Inches tho restriction on combined head and eye substantially vertical, with minimum radli movement may be relaxed to the extent of 0.125 inch. Window control knobs not dictated by vehicle design. Design, con- M
meeting 53.1 shall have & minimum contact
AMBO struction, location, and mounting of the right d
area of not less than 1 square inch, with
. 0 40. outside mirror shall be symmetrical to the
minimum edges radll of 0.125 inch. All conleft outside mirror except that where neces
trols shall have a maximum extension from bary, consideration may be given to location the panel of inca. and mounting problems dictated by venido
83.3 Controls not meeting 83.1 or 53.2
shall be constructed of material which will design.
defect within 0.375 inch of the panel or 83.2.4 Wide angle mirror. When speci.
detach by a force of 90 pounds leaving no ded, an auxiliary wide angle (convex) mirror
residual protrusions beyond the panel sur. may be incorporated in the same mount as face on which mounted. tbo standard mirror to provide an additional close-in Neld of vision required under certain
(Federal Standard No. 515/19) operating conditions. The auxiliary mirror Ash TRATS AND LIGHTERS POR AUTOMOTIVE shall be incorporated in such a manner as
VEHICLES not to interfere with the visual Deld of the standard mirror,
31. Purpose and scope. This standard es83.3 Mirror construction. The reflectivo tablishes the location and construction of medium shall be of a material which will ash trays and lighters when installed in resist abrasion and erosion incident to ac automotive vehicles to afford a reasonablo cepted cleaning practices. The surfaces of degree of protection for front and rear seated the material shall be so inished as to pro
occupants wearing typo 1 seat belt assemblies. vide and maintain a distortion free reflected
82. Application. This standard applies to image. Front or second surface renectance
sedans, carryalls, and station wagons. may be used. The reflectance value of the
83. Requirements. Injury potential shall redective Alm employed shall be not less
be minimized by locating, constructing. or than 50 percent. Inside mirrors may be of
mounting ash trays and lighters in such a the selective position prismatic type, in which
manner as to minimize the likelihood of case the relectance value in the night driv
injury to an occupant's head, torso, or leg Ing. high-glare position shall be not less
upon impact. The impact area for both front than 4 percent.
and rear seats shall be established through
the use of type 1 seat belt assembly re(Federal Standard No. 515/18]
strained manikins or other test devices hav. WINDOW AND DOOR CONTROLS FOR AUTOMOTIVE
ing the equivalent to "H" point to top-ofVEHICLES
head dimensions of 33 inches and 29 inches.
The impact area shall be that included beSi. Purpose and Scope. This standard tween the arcs formed by the top-of-head establishes the requirements for the location point and torso when each device is swung and construction of the controls for windows
forward and also 90 degrees to each side of and doors.
the longitudinal axis through each normal 82. Application. This standard applies to seating position and the forward movement sedans, carryalls, station wagons, and light of the knees and legs of outside occupants. trucks up to 10,000 pounds G.V.W.
This area to be determined with front seat 83. Requirements. Injury potential shall in all normal positions. be minimized by constructing, locating or $3.1 Ash trays and lighters located away mounting of the controls in such a manner from or shielded from the impact area or