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tember. The sun, being now on the equinoctial, if its vertical rays could leave a line of golden light, they would mark on the earth the circle of the equator. It is autumn in the north temperate zone and spring in the south temperate zone. The days and nights are equal over the whole earth, the sun rising at 6 A. M. and setting at 6 P.M., exactly in the east and west where the equinoctial intersects the horizon.
X. The earth at the Winter Solstice.—The sun after passing the equinoctial—“crossing the line,” as it is called—sinks lower toward the southern horizon each day. We reach the winter solstice the 21st of December. The sun is now directly overhead 23'" south of the equator, and if its rays could leave a line of golden light they would mark on the earth's surface the Tropic of Capricorn. It is at its furthest southern declination, and rises and sets 233° south of the east and west points. It is our winter, and the 21st of December is the shortest day of the year. In the south temperate zone it is summer, and the longest day of the year. The circle that separates day from night extends 23#" beyond the south pole, and if the sun's rays in like manner could leave a line of golden light they would mark the Antarctic Circle. It is there the noon of the long six months polar day. At the Arctic Circle the reverse is true; the rays fall 23#" short of the north pole, and it is there the midnight of the long six months polar night. Here again the sun appears to us to stand still a day or two before retracing its course, and it is therefore called the Winter Solstice. XI. The earth at the Vernal Equinox.—The earth reaches its perihelion about the 31st of December. It is then nearest the sun, which is therefore said to be in perigee. The sun rises and sets each day further and further north, and climbs up higher in the heavens at midday. Our days gradually increase in length, and our nights shorten in the same proportion. On the 21st of March” the sun reaches the equinoctial, at the vernal equinox. He is overhead at the equator, and the days and nights are again equal. It is our spring, but in the south temperate zone it is autumn. XII. The yearly path finished.—The earth moves on in its orbit through the spring and summer months. The sun continues its northerly course, ascending each day higher in the heavens, and its rays becoming less and less oblique. On the 21st of June it again reaches its furthest northern declination, and the earth is at the summer solstice. We have thus traced the yearly path, and noticed the course of the changing seasons, with the length of the days and nights. The same series has been repeated through all the ages of the past, and will be till time shall be no more. XIII. Distance of the earth from the sun varies.— We notice, from what we have just seen, that we are nearer the sun by 3,000,000 miles in winter than in summer. The obliqueness with which the rays strike the north temperate zone at that time prevents our receiving any special benefit from this favorable position of the earth. ź. XIV. Southern summer.—The inhabitants of the south temperate zone have their summer while the earth is in perihelion, and the sun's rays are about 3', warmer than when in aphelion, our summer-time. This will perhaps partly account for the extreme heat of their season. Herschel tells us that he has found the temperature of the surface soil of South Africa 159°F. Captain Sturt, in speaking of the extreme heat of Australia, says that matches accidentally dropped on the ground were immediately ignited. The southern winters, for a similar reason, are colder; and this makes the average yearly temperature about the same as ours. XV. Extremes of heat and cold not at the solstices.— We notice that we do not have our greatest heat at the time of the summer solstice, nor our greatest cold at the winter solstice. After the 21st of June, the earth, already warmed by the genial spring days, continues to receive more heat from the sun by day than it radiates by night: thus its temperature still increases. On the other hand, after the 21st of December the earth continues to become colder, because it loses more heat during the night than it receives during the day.
XVI. Summer longer than winter.—As the sun is not in the centre of the earth's orbit, but at one of its foci, that portion of the orbit which the earth passes through in going from the vernal to the autumnal equinox comprises more than one-half the entire ecliptic. On this account the summer is longer than the winter. The difference is still further enhanced by the variation in the earth's velocity at aphelion and perihelion. The annexed table gives the mean duration of the seasons:
Seasons. Days. Seasons. Days. Spring. . . . . . . . . . 92.9 Autumn . . . . . . . . 89.7 Summer. . . . . . . . . 93.6 Winter . . . . . . . . . 89.0
The difference of time in the earth's stay in the two portions of the ecliptic, as will be seen from the above, is 7.8 days.
XVII. Varying velocity of the earth.—We can see, by looking at the plate, that the velocity of the earth must vary in different portions of its orbit. When passing from the vernal equinox to aphelion, the attraction of the sun tends to check its speed; from that point to the autumnal equinox, the attraction is partly in the direction of its motion, and so increases its velocity. The same principle applies when going to and from perihelion.
XVIII. Curious appearance of the sun at the north pole.—“To a person standing at the north pole, the sun appears to sweep horizontally around the sky every twenty-four hours, without any perceptible variation in its distance from the horizon. It is, however, slowly rising, until, on the 21st of June, it is twenty-three degrees and twenty-eight minutes above the horizon, a little more than one-fourth of the distance to the zenith. This is the highest point it ever reaches. From this altitude it slowly descends, its track being represented by a spiral or screw with a very fine thread; and in the course of three months it worms its way down to the horizon, which it reaches on the 22d of September. On this day it slowly sweeps around the sky, with its face half hidden below the icy sea. It still continues to descend, and after it has entirely disappeared it is still so near the horizon that it carries a bright twilight around the heavens in its daily circuit. As the sun sinks lower and lower, this twilight grows gradually fainter, till it fades away. December 21st, the sun is 23°28' below the horizon, and this is the midnight of the dark polar winter. From this date the sun begins to ascend, and after a time it is heralded by a faint dawn, which circles slowly around the horizon, completing its circuit every twenty-four hours. This dawn grows gradually brighter, and on the 22d of March the peaks of ice are gilded with the first level rays of the six months day. The bringer of this long day continues to wind his spiral way upward, till he reaches his highest place on the 21st of June, and his annual course is completed.” XIX. Results, if the axis of the earth were perpendicular to the ecliptic.—The sun would then always