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no other procedure is likely to young have to be educated through secure it.

the heart as well as through the head;

the subtle influence of the teacher's Our criticism is made in no carping spirit. Much has been Much has been character, his love of truth, his dis

interestedness, his zeal for knowledge, done, and is being done, to improve should act imperceptibly upon them. both the quality and the status of He who is capable of taking an teachers in this country. But it interest in each of his pupils indiis useful to look at a matter from vidually; who by a sympathetic all sides, and that of practical com power can reach what is working in mon - sense is not the least im their hearts or perplexing their unportant. In a sermon preached for them that he has acquired the

derstanding; who has such a feeling to the undergraduates of Balliol right to say anything to them-has in College, Dr Jowett declared the him the elements of a great teacher.” relation of the teacher to be "a personal one.” He said that some

Those qualities in a teacher are persons did not understand that not ensured by the possession of teaching had anything to do with a university degree or a training sympathy.

certificate. We are aware that

Education Departments would re“The gifts they look for in the gard Dr Jowett's words as a coun. teacher are knowledge of the sub sel of perfection. Nevertheless in ject, clearness in the arrangement of these days, when “doubts, disputes, materials, power of illustration, ac

distractions, fears are almost syncuracy, diligence--nor can any one be a good teacher in whom these qual- onyms for the term education, it ities are wanting. And yet much

is well to keep in view the ideal more than this is required. For the of the great Oxford teacher.

TIIE BISHOP'S PLOT.

a

did not use equivocation (a point stantly forbidden by Prince Charles i to which we shall return), and (1746.1749).

Now, the plot in which Atter.
that the Gunpowder Plot was of
the worst Anarchist or Fenian bury was deeply implicated was,
type, while Atterbury was en originally, one for a landing of
gaged in the Cause rendered illas- Irish and Scotch exiles under
trious by the chivalrous names of the Duke of Ormond, for the
Derwentwater, Kenmure, Wogan, seizure of the Tower and the
Canranald, Pitsligo, and Lochiel. Bank, and the Royal Fatry,
These gentlemen, indeed, rose coupled with a mob rising in Lon-
openly in arms for their king; don, and a Scottish insurrection.
bat Jacobite conspiracies were not But, as notice was duly received
all of this type, least of all was by the English Government, and
the nefarious set of plots in which as camps were formed in Hyde
Atterbury is implicated. Between Park and elsewhere, while Or-
1689 and 1760 every species of mond and bis allies were stopped
plot was attempted. There were by Spain and France, the plot
open Risings, as in 1715 and 1745, developed into " The Scheme for
with or without promise of for: corrupting the Guards, seizir.g
eign aid. Help was sought from, Tower, Mint, and Bank, securing
and occasionally doled out or the Royal Family, kidnapping the
promised by, France, Spain, Rus- Ministers, and arming the mob.
sia

, Prussia, and Sweden. In George I. and the Prince of Wales
1718

, the very ship in which were not likely to escape alive ; as
Charles XII. was to have sailed much may be said for the chances
for a rising in Scotland was built, of Walpole, Carteret, Townshend,
and decorated with the Royal and Cadogan (Marlborough's suc-
arms of Sweden and the name as General); the Bank
of Carolus. But death, as in would have been robbed, and
the cases of Louis XIV, and London filled with fire and blood.
Charles XII., or a change in This pleasing scheme, it will be
European politics, -as in the case admitted, falls but little short of
of Spain in 1722, of Peter the the Gunpowder Plot in atrocity.
Great

, of the Treaty of Aix-la- True, the scheme never had the Chapelle (1748), and of Frederick faintest chance of succeeding. It the Great in 1754,—or defeat, as was, we shall show, on a practical in Hawke's triumph over Conflans level with the intrigues of Senti. in 1759, always interfered. The mental Tommy. Atterbury, in his Jacobites were then thrown on defence, said that the conspirators their own resources, which might should be pitied as madmen, not take the form of a Rising of the punished as traitors. But much Clans, or of tampering with the the same may be said against the army, or of an invasion by broken practical plausibility of the Gunmen, –Irish and other exiles and powder Plot, over which Cecil, no disbanded soldiers,—or of an as- doubt, was watching with a susault on the Palace by a mob, or perior smile. Again, Atterbury by a gang of Highlanders and denies, probably with truth, that officers in French service, for the he had ever heard of Christopher purpose of kidnapping or killing Layer, the Catesby of The Scheme. the Royal Family; or, finally, But Atterbury was in close and simple assassination by shot, steel, undeniable connection with the or poison was proposed, and in- conspirators ; " it is necessary to

Among the standing controver Atterbury, as all the world knows, sies of history is the question of was condemned for a treasonable the guilt or innocence of the Jesuits conspiracy, and was exiled in 1723. implicated in the Gunpowder Plot. The Bishop was tried before the The most favourable, and perhaps House of Lords on a Bill of Pains the most probable, view is that and Penalties. The legal procedFathers Greenway and Garnet ure was most undesirable; but the knew what they did know through contemporary evidence leaves in the confessional, therefore could a candid mind no room for moral not reveal the facts even indirectly, doubt of Atterbury's guilt. His and had to content themselves character, however, his learning, with trying to restrain their peni. his friends the wits, and his harsh tents from their murderous de treatment in prison, combined with sign. But even the most lenient Jacobite prejudice, obscured the Protestant writers add to this ver- question till he more or less openly dict a rider on the crying sins of joined the Jacobites. Finally, in the Jesuits-namely, dissimulation 1847, the publication of Atterand equivocation - so justly de- bury's Letters, from the Stuart tested by the English people. Papers at Windsor Castle, de

If Catholic apologists for the monstrated beyond cavil that he Jesuits in the Gunpowder Plot bad long been engaged in care to use against Anglicans the conspiracy, and a very ugly one. argument of Tu quoque, they have Unlike the Jesuits of the Gunthe serviceable example ready to powder Plot, Atterbury was hand in the case of Atterbury, deep in oaths to George I. as Bishop of Rochester. A Tu quoque Bruce's ally, Lamberton, Bishop is not a very noble weapon ; and of St Andrews, was engaged to we learned from these early Edward I. and Edward II. Like casuists, our nurses, that “two other partisans, he was "skilled blacks do not make a white.” in the oath,” as Homer observes Still, the analogies and points of of Sisyphus. Atterbury, unlike the difference in the cases of Atterbury Jesuits, was not fighting for but in 1722, and of the Jesuits in against his religion when he strove 1605, are curious and interesting to bring in "a Popish Pretender." These lines, therefore, are not In fact his case is, prima facie, written for the purpose of proving much blacker than that of Fathers that all Jesuits have George Garnet and Greenway, especially Washington's regard for truth, or as, unlike the Jesuits, he was not that the Church of England incul- caput lupinum, not a kind of procates dissimulation, while her pre- scribed vermin, but protected by lates cultivate a taste for flat per- the popular reverence for a bishop jury. It will be apparent, how- of the Church of England. He ever, that a peculiarly Protestant risked less, since, far from running Bishop was capable, in a political peril of torture, he was a man whom cause, of conduct, and of a defence, no Government would have dared compared with which the conduct to condemn to capital punishment. and defence of Fathers Garnet and Some readers may admit all Greenway are mere venial errors. this, but reply that Atterbury

as

cessor

en

or

did not use equivocation (a point stantly forbidden by Prince Charles to which we shall return), and (1746-1749). that the Gunpowder Plot was of

Now, the plot in which Atterthe worst Anarchist or Fenian bury was deeply implicated was, type, while Atterbury was

originally, one for å landing of gaged in the Cause rendered illus- Irish and Scotch exiles under trious by the chivalrous names of the Duke of Ormond, for the Derwentwater, Kenmure, Wogan, seizure of the Tower and the Clanranald, Pitsligo, and Lochiel. Bank, and the Royal Family, These gentlemen, indeed, rose coupled with a mob rising in Lonopenly in arms for their' king; don, and a Scottish insurrection, but Jacobite conspiracies were not But, as notice was duly received all of this type, least of all was by the English Government, and the nefarious set of plots in which

as camps were formed in Hyde Atterbury is implicated. Between Park and elsewhere, while Or1689 and 1760 every species of mond and his allies were stopped plot was attempted. There were by Spain and France, the plot open Risings, as in 1715 and 1745, developed into “ The Scheme" for with or without promise of for: corrupting the Guards, seizing eign aid. Help was sought from, Tower, Mint, and Bank, securing and occasionally doled out

the Royal Family, kidnapping the promised by, France, Spain, Rus- Ministers, and arming the mob. sia, Prussia, and Sweden. 1718, the very ship in which

In George I. and the Prince of Wales

were not likely to escape alive; as Charles XII. was to have sailed much may be said for the chances for a rising in Scotland was built, of Walpole, Carteret, Townshend, and decorated with the Royal and Cadogan (Marlborough's sucarms of Sweden and the name

as General); the Bank of CAROLUS.

But death, as in would have been robbed, and the cases of Louis XIV. and

London filled with fire and blood. Charles XII., or a change in This pleasing scheme, it will be European politics, -as in the case

admitted, falls but little short of of Spain in 1722, of Peter the

the Gunpowder Plot in atrocity. Great, of the Treaty of Aix-la

True, the scheme never had the Chapelle (1748), and of Frederick

faintest chance of succeeding. It the Great in 1754,-or defeat, as

was, we shall show, on a practical in Hawke's triumph over Conflang level with the intrigues of Sentiin 1759, always interfered. The mental Tommy. Atterbury, in his Jacobites were then thrown on

defence, said that the conspirators their own resources, which might should be pitied as madmen, not take the form of a Rising of the punished as traitors.

But much Clans

, or of tampering with the the same may be said against the army, or of an invasion by broken practical plausibility of the Gunmen,- Irish and other exiles and powder Plot, over which Cecil

, no disbanded soldiers,—or of an as

doubt, was watching with a susault on the Palace by a mob, or perior smile.

Again, Atterbury by a gang of Highlanders and denies, probably with truth, that officers in French service, for the he had ever heard of Christopher purpose of kidnapping or killing Layer, the Catesby of The Scheme, the Royal Family; or, finally, But Atterbury was in close and simple assassination by shot, steel, undeniable connection with the or poison was proposed, and in conspirators; “it is necessary to

cessor

• For many

year of

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make the most of them," was his bank's Plot of 1752 is a crude opinion, according to his amanu revival of The Scheme of 1722. ensis, Kelly. Again, this secre Identical jealousies and mistrusts tary, Kelly, was in correspondence in the Jacobite party always prewith Dillon, the French manager vail, the Traitor is never wanting, of the Chevalier's affairs, and with and, generally speaking, the foreign Plunket, a veteran plotter allied agents of England know all that with Christopher Layer, while there is to be known. Atterbury himself was in a league The first of Atterbury's pubwith Lord North and Grey, who lished letters to the Chevalier is held the Chevalier's commission of August 15, 1717. as General in the plot, and who years,” Atterbury says, he has been himself was in constant communi- "promoting the service.” At that cation with Christopher Layer. moment he is corresponding with Thus there was a perfect hier- Mar, and using the pseudonym “Mr archy, beginning with the Chev- Young.” He is also on bad terms alier in Rome, and Atterbury with Lord Oxford, “Clair,” who in Westminster, and ending in becomes Hacket in the year of the a disreputable barrister, Layer, a Plot. As a rule, the Jacobites broken Canary merchant, Lynch, simplified matters for the English an invalided sergeant, Matthew Government, by giving to pseuPlunket, and Mrs Hughes, Prince donyms the same initials as the Charlie's nurse ! Such are the real names. Already, in 1717, consequences when learned Bish “Rochester” is “Rig” in some ops stoop to treason. The friend ciphers. “Money” is “muslins," of Pope, Swift, and Orrery (him- and "a small quantity of the comself a conspirator) is in touch with modity is procured with difficulty.” beery old Matthew Plunket. It was as hard to get “muslins" out

The story of the conspiracy may of Menzies as, forty years after, it now be told, for it is precisely was to extract them from Cluny. typical of the bubbles of intrigue From 1717 to 1718, the Bishop's which perpetually rose and burst, correspondence concerns la haute during eighty years of English politique, the English Ministry, history. One curious feature is, Foreign Affairs, the Chevalier's the persistence of certain families marriage, a futile attempt to win in these stereotyped attempts. At over Lord Cadogan, and so forth. an interval of thirty years, There is a break till 1720; we do whole generation, from 1722, - not know what Atterbury thought we find, in 1752, Kellys, Gorings, of the feeble Rising crushed in Waterses, Dawkinses, Wogans, as Glenshiel, In 1720, hopes were busily and as vainly engaged as entertained from the Regent in their fathers had been. Ciphers France, who habitually sold change, of course, but the contents "gave away” the Jacobites. On of ciphered letters never vary. In April 22, 1721, the Bishop recom1752 we have the same obvious mends Sir Henry Goring, a Sussex allegories of “stocks," "goods," Baronet who was deep in the plot and lawsuits," and the same of 1722, and had an original kinds of transparent nicknames scheme for using “ The Waltham and clear allusions. Lord Eli. Blacks,” a gang of smugglers. He

was the father of Prince Charles's tenderly? They are, manifestly,
equerry, Henry Goring; and his the agents in the various plots
admired smugglers

, about 1747, tending to the seizure of King
were again approached by Lally George's person and Ministers, the
Tollendal

. As early as October Bank, the Tower, and so forth. 25, 1720, Dillon mooted to Atter- Atterbury (April 20, 172%) will bury the scheme of bringing over treat them tenderly, “though nothOrmond, as

the darling of the ing shall engage me to enter deeply
soldiers," Dillon bimself coming with them for the future.” This
also with 200 officers. Atterbury he dictates to Kelly, who was in
thought that foreign aid was in league with all of these conspira-
dispensable.

tors in various degrees.
The year 1722 was the We possess no more of the
the Plot

. None of Atterbury's Bishop's letters till after his trial
correspondence is found, except and exile in 1723, except those
three letters of April 20 to Mar, written for him, after the arrest of
Dillon, and James, intercepted Kelly, in May, by Thomas Carte,
and copied by the English Govern- the historian. These show Atter
ment. At this moment Mar was bury still conspiring, up to July
anxious that Atterbury should join 30, 1722, and especially engaged
hands with Oxford, for Atterbury with a Jacobite envoy from France
"has had some communication with in the "arrack” affair, which pro-

young merchants, and sees, I bably means the procuring of doubt not

, their folly, and the money for the cause. Now these danger there is of that trade's months, April - July 1722, were being ever ruined by their mis- occupied by the Jacobites in varimanagement." 1 Atterbury de- ous forms of The Scheme for raiscided to join with Oxford, and ing the mob, and seizing George I. (April 20) dictated to Kelly the with his Ministers. letters intercepted, and used against We next turn to the affairs of him at his trial. In these letters "the young merchants," and very the Bishop alludes to his own bad curious they are. health and the illness and death In January 1722, James sent over of his wife. He speaks of "dis- Commissions for various nobles tracting measures by persons no who were to bold command in "an ways equal to the work ;" he re- Insurrection.” He told Atterbury fers to letters from Ormond and that he was sorry he had to defer "Captain Will Morgan " which he making him Archbishop of Canterhas seen ; be insists on the danger bury! On March 31, 1722, a letter of using the post ; he withdraws was left at Lord Townshend's from schemes with persons who house, purporting to be a translashall always, by me, be treated tion of a letter in French, dated tenderly."

Feb. 12,1722, and giving a disbeart Who are these “persons," these ening account of the hopelessness "young merchants," these incap- of a proposed scheme for deliverable authors of " distracting meas- ing ourselves by our own interest.” ures," whom Atterbury will use The writer hopes only in foreign

the

a

or

1 Atterbury's remarks as to his ignorance of Goring, in his defence, are pleasing examples of equivocation.

? This is a curious remark of Mar's, as James himself was entirely in the schemes of “the young merchants.”

2 Carte was in the Elibank Plot of 1752-53. He died in 1754. He was a good Jacobite, and not a bad historian.

of

was the father of Prince Charles's tenderly? They are, manifestly, equerry, Henry Goring; and his the agents in the various plots admired smugglers, about 1747, tending to the seizure of King were again approached by Lally George's person and Ministers, the Tollendal. As early as October Bank, the Tower, and so forth. 25, 1720, Dillon mooted to Atter- Atterbury (April 20, 1722) will bury the scheme of bringing over treat them tenderly, “though nothOrmond, as “the darling of the ing shall engage me to enter deeply soldiers," Dillon himself coming with them for the future." This also with 200 officers. Atterbury he dictates to Kelly, who was in thought that foreign aid was in- league with all of these conspiradispensable.

tors in various degrees. The year 1722 was the year We possess no

more of the the Plot. None of Atterbury's Bishop's letters till after his trial correspondence is found, except and exile in 1723, except those three letters of April 20 to Mar, written for him, after the arrest of Dillon, and James, intercepted Kelly, in May, by Thomas Carte, and copied by the English Govern- the historian. These show Atterment. At this moment Mar was bury still conspiring, up to July anxious that Atterbury should join 30, 1722, and especially engaged hands with Oxford, for Atterbury with a Jacobite envoy from France has had some communication with in the “arrack" affair, which prothe young merchants, and sees, I bably means the procuring of doubt not, their folly, and the money for the cause. Now these danger there is of that trade's months, April - July 1722, were being ever ruined by their mis- occupied by the Jacobites in varimanagement.” 1 Atterbury de ous forms of The Scheme for raiscided to join with Oxford, and ing the mob, and seizing George I. (April 20) dictated to Kelly the with his Ministers. letters intercepted, and used against We next turn to the affairs of him at his trial. In these letters “the young merchants,” and very the Bishop alludes to his own bad curious they are. health and the illness and death In January 1722, James sent over of his wife. He speaks of "dis- Coinmissions for various nobles tracting measures by persons no who were to hold command in “an ways equal to the work ;" he re Insurrection.” He told Atterbury fers to letters from Ormond and that he was sorry he had to defer “Captain Will Morgan ” which he making him Archbishop of Canterhas seen; he insists on the danger bury! On March 31, 1722, a letter of using the post; he withdraws was left at Lord Townshend's from schemes with persons “who house, purporting to be a translashall always, by me, be treated tion of a letter in French, dated tenderly."

Feb. 12, 1722, and giving a disheartWho are these "persons,” these ening account of the hopelessness "young merchants,” these incap- of a proposed scheme for deliverable authors of " distracting meas- ing ourselves by our own interest.” ures," whom Atterbury will use The writer hopes only in foreign

1 This is a curious remark of Mar's, as James himself was entirely in the schemes of “the young merchants.”

2 Carte was in the Elibank Plot of 1752-53. He died in 1754. He was a good Jacobite, and not a bad historian.

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