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and the Gladstonian Mr Ourrie up a customs barrier between the join in recommending that the two countries,-a proposal Sir Irish people should levy their own David Barbour emphatically contaxes and control their own ex demns. The only change or remedy penditure. This is perfectly right suggested in the report is that and natural for Home Rulers to wasteful and extravagant expendido. They are further extolled as ture should be reduced in Ireland, experts in finance and affairs. and that that country should be This is just, and the more just it allowed, as a sort of illogical conis, the more damnatory to the con- cession, the exclusive advantage of clusions of the majority of their any savings that could be effected brethren is their conviction as in the cost of internal government. business men that no other efficient The benefit would be applied “in remedy can be found.

such form as might be approved," a The next report bears the signa- suggestion which does not seem to tures of Mr Sexton, Mr Edward put things much further forward. Blake, and Mr Henry Slattery. In The last separate report is by theiropinion there is but one remedy Sir Thomas Sutherland. He tra—that of “casting upon Ireland the verses the conclusions of his duty of conducting and providing colleagues, and supports the prefor her own administration,” with sent financial system of individual for a period "exemption from any taxation as just and necessary so burden in connection with Im- long as this country acknowledges perial expenditure.” This is sepa- only one Government and one rate Parliament, separate Ex- Exchequer. chequer, Home Rule in the widest The draft report by Mr Childers, sense, except that Great Britain is the chairman, left by him at his left to pay the whole cost for Ire- death for the consideration of his land as well as herself of army and colleagues, enters more fully into navy, diplomacy and debt. Mr the remedies to the alleged inEdward Blake only signs this equality by which Ireland pays report under reserve, publishing at one-thirteenth of the revenue of the same time an individual draft the United Kingdom, her “taxreport of his own. He has, how- able capacity” being one - twenever, no separate remedy to pro- tieth. He says three courses prepose.

sent themselves — Sir David Barbour, who reports 1. A change in the general fisalone, holds that if an estimate is cal policy of the United formed of taxable capacity, that Kingdom. Less might be of Ireland being taken at one received from the Irish and twentieth of the United King more from the British taxdom, then she contributes more payer if part of the duty on than her share from indirect taxes. tea and tobacco were transThe reason of this is, that she con ferred to meat, live stock, sumes an excessive proportion of and dairy produce imported spirits as compared with beer. from abroad. To meet this, there are only The same end might be attwo remedies possible : either to tained if taxation on tea, relieve the spirit - drinker at the beer, tobacco, and spiritsexpense of the beer-drinker, or to especially spirits—were greatreduce the duties on excisable ly reduced, and the gap filled articles in Ireland, thus setting by increased taxation on in

annum.

tribute in round figures £7,500,000 Treasury official, and the old nature to the Imperial revenue, or one is too strong upon him to relinquish thirteenth. The Commissioners without a struggle 2 millions per estimate the taxable capacity of

He therefore advances Ireland, as a whole, at various another proposal. Before apparproportions not exceeding one- ently the Irish people have framed twentieth, and argue

that the Irish for themselves a new scheme of taxpayers are consequently paying taxation, a separate account of the difference between these pro- Irish revenue and expenditure is portions, or rather more than to be kept, and a first charge placed £2,500,000 per annum too much. on the former by way of “reason. What follows? How is this in- able contribution” to Imperial serequality to be remedied !

vices. This charge Lord Welby The chairman and four col- fixes at £2,700,000, a materially leagues with great prudence de- higher figure than the existing cline to make any suggestion at balance. The second charge on all. " What remedies should be Irish revenue would be the cost applied must rest with other of civil administration in Ireland, authorities.” Lord Farrer, Lord and any surplus saved out of this Welby, and Mr Bertram Currie would go to “relief of Irish buradopt the following remarkable dens, or to useful public purposes paragraph : “One sure method of in Ireland.” redressing the inequality which Lord Welby cites the Isle of has been shown to exist between Man as an instance in point. By Great Britain and Ireland would an Act of Parliament passed in be to put upon the Irish people 1866, the customs duties were to the duty of levying their own be first employed in defraying the taxes and of providing for their expenses of Government in the own expenditure, leaving to the island, and then were to be charged wisdom of Parliament to decide with £10,000 for Imperial uses, the question of contribution out the balance being applied locally. of Irish taxes to the Imperial If the Isle of Man possessed, like Exchequer.” This involves two Ireland, 103 members in the Imconsequences. The "Irish people" perial Parliament, it may be doubtcannot levy their own taxes with ful how long the tribute would out a Parliament, to grant which have continued. is Home Rule; further, if they The three Commissioners having did levy their own taxes, which parted company in the manner demust necessarily, in order to attain scribed, join again to declare that the object in view, be different they “can find no efficient remedy from and lower than the taxes other than that above suggested paid in Great Britain, a fiscal for lightening the burden of taxabarrier is raised between the two tion which now presses with such islands.

heavy weight on the Irish people.” The recommendation is accom- They undoubtedly carry more panied by the suggestion that for weight in public estimation than an indefinite period the Irish

period the Irish any other trio of their colleagues. people should make no contribu- It is therefore satisfactory that tion whatever to Imperial expen- their language is so decisive as to diture ; but Lord Welby having the only possible remedy. signed this report, appears sud- Gladstonian Peer, Lord Farrer, denly to recollect that he was a the Gladstonian Peer, Lord Welby,

and the Gladstonian Mr Ourrie up a customs barrier between the join in recommending that the two countries,—a proposal Sir Irish people should levy their own David Barbour emphatically contaxes and control their own ex demns. The only change or remedy penditure. This is perfectly right suggested in the report is that and natural for Home Rulers to wasteful and extravagant expendido. They are further extolled as ture should be reduced in Ireland, experts in finance and affairs. and that that country should be This is just, and the more just it allowed, as a sort of illogical conis, the more damnatory to the con- cession, the exclusive advantage of clusions of the majority of their any savings that could be effected brethren is their conviction as in the cost of internal government. business men that no other efficient The benefit would be applied “in remedy can be found.

such form as might be approved," a The next report bears the signa suggestion which does no seem to tures of Mr Sexton, Mr Edward put things much further forward. Blake, and Mr Henry Slattery. In The last separate report is by their opinion there is but one remedy Sir Thomas Sutherland. He tra—that of “casting upon Ireland the verses the conclusions of his duty of conducting and providing colleagues, and supports the prefor her own administration,” with sent financial system of individual for a period "exemption from any taxation as just and necessary so burden in connection with Im- long as this country acknowledges perial expenditure." This is sepa- only one Government and one rate Parliament, separate Ex Exchequer. chequer, Home Rule in the widest The draft report by Mr Childers, sense, except that Great Britain is the chairman, left by him at his left to pay the whole cost for Ire death for the consideration of his land as well as herself of army and colleagues, enters more fully into navy, diplomacy and debt. Mr the remedies to the alleged inEdward Blake only signs this equality by which Ireland pays report under reserve, publishing at one-thirteenth of the revenue of the same time an individual draft the United Kingdom, her “taxreport of his own. He has, how able capacity” being one - twenever, no separate remedy to pro tieth. He says three courses prepose.

sent themselvesSir David Barbour, who reports 1. A change in the general fisalone, holds that if an estimate is cal policy of the United formed of taxable capacity, that Kingdom. Less might be of Ireland being taken at one received from the Irish and twentieth of the United King more from the British taxdom, then she contributes more payer if part of the duty on than her share from indirect taxes. tea and tobacco were transThe reason of this is, that she con ferred to meat, live stock, sumes an excessive proportion of and dairy produce imported spirits as compared with beer. from abroad. To meet this, there are only The same end might be attwo remedies possible : either to tained if taxation on tea, relieve the spirit - drinker at the beer, tobacco, and spiritsexpense of the beer-drinker, or to especially spirits—were greatreduce the duties on excisable ly reduced, and the gap filled articles in Ireland, thus setting by increased taxation on in

arguments buried deep in a thou. details from later Parliamentary sand folio pages, we shall collect papers have also been included, from all the reports and papers Once again let it be stated that presented with sufficient author. the thing to be ascertained is, ity to the Commission such facts whether the Irish C D is unas are necessary for him to form duly taxed as compared with the an independent judgment. Similar British A B.

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Great Britain. Per cent

Ireland.

Per eitt
Population.

33,469,000 87.83 4,683,000) 12:17
Estimated expenditure on-
Tea

£16,810,000 86 £2,736,000 14
Tobacco
21,125,000 86.29 3,382,000

13:50)
Spirits

48,571,000 88.78 6,144,000 11 Beer

88,627,000 93:38 6,291,000) 662 All four articles

175,133,000 90:42 18,533,000) Indirect taxes, 1892-93

40,442,000 88.48 5,264,000 11:32
Direct taxes, 1892-93.

34,306,000 95.90 1,467,000 4:10
Excise revenue, 1895-96 23,805,000 88.78 3,012,000 11
General customs revenue, 1895-96 18,487,000 89-04 2,275,000 10-96
Estate duty and stamps, 1895-96. 18,009,000 95:77

805,000 4.23
Land-tax and house duty, 1895-96 2,507,000 100-
Income-tax, 1895-96

15,042,000 95.51 718,000 4:19
Value of property assessed to pro-

bate and succession duty 211,528,000 94:33 Net assessment to income tax

12,713,000 3:07

567,233,000 93:40 27,332,000 Total revenue contributed, 1893-94 89,287,000 92:19 7,569,000

7.81 1894-95 92,401,000 92-32 7,690,000) 76

1895-96 99,738,000 92.54
Local expenditure, 1893-94

8,034,000 7.46
30,618,000 84.53
1894-95

3,602,000 13:47
31,179,000) 84:74
1895-96

5,616,000) 15:26

32,306,000 84:47 5,935,000 15:53 purposes, 1893-94

58,668,000 96.76 1,966,000 purposes, 1894-95

328 purposes, 1895-96

2,095,000

Nil

come, property, and commer- people of Ireland are now taxed cial transactions, because these with undue comparative severity, fall more heavily on Great one of the following methods of

Britain and less on Ireland. redress must be adopted :This Mr Childers only cites to Either the erection of a separate dismiss as bearing its own con Parliament and Exchequer in Iredemnation.

land, unfettered as to financial ex2. The reduction of customs and pedients ;

excise duties in Ireland, so Or the reduction on rates of
that all commodities consumed duty levied in Ireland, with its
there should be free except necessary concomitant
in the case of whisky and toms barrier between the two
beer, which might still be islands;
lightly taxed.

Or the payment

out of the This also Mr Childers condemns, Imperial Exchequer of 2 milholding-unlike his colleagues the lions or more, to be dispensed by O'Connor Don and others — that some Irish board for the benefit the revival of custom-house bar of Irish railways. riers between the two islands is The first has been condemned utterly inadmissible.

by the people of the United King3. The payment, by way of dom by the return of a Unionist

"compensation,” to Ireland for majority of 150 votes.
—to begin with--a period of The second is contrary to the
fifteen years of 24 millions whole policy of the present cen-
per annum, being the ad- tury. Mr Gladstone in his Home
justed amount which he con Rule Bill of 1886, while leaving
siders Ireland is now provid- to the Irish Parliament the right
ing in excess of what she to levy other taxes, expressly re-
ought to provide under the served all power over customs and

theory of "taxable capacity.” excise to the Imperial Parliament, Strange as it may appear—as it so as to avoid the very evil Lord has appeared to his colleagues, Farrer and others are ready to Mr Childers emphatically recom accept. Again, in the Home Rule mends this last alternative. Some Bill of 1893 the same policy was authority must be found to ad- followed because he was “not preminister this gigantic dole, some pared to face a very inexpedient objects on which it is to be spent. and very inconvenient system of On the former point no indication different sets of trade laws.” is given; but as to the latter, the The third is supported by Mr leading suggestion is that the Childers alone, and will surely money should be applied in com be rejected by public opinion as pensation to the railway com dangerous and grotesque. panies for reducing very largely Having now laid side by side --by not less than one-half-the the remedies that the members of rates for passengers and goods this Commission have discovered over the Irish railways. Irish for an alleged wrong, it is time men, rich or poor, are to travel to on what grounds it is half-price at the cost of English- asserted that this wrong has any men and Scotchmen, poor or rich! real existence. Bearing continuThe position, therefore, at which ally in mind that the object of we have arrived under the guidance this paper is to place in briefest of the Commission is, that if the form before the reader facts and

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Balance available for Imperial Balance available for Imperial Balance available for Imperial

61,222,000 9672

324

2,074,000

67,432,000 96.99

3:01

as British.

1

The four salient facts to be de It must further be noted if the
duced from these statistics are : recommendation of the majority of
1. Irish people indulge in the the Commission were accepted, and

consumption of such modest the revenue collected in Ireland
luxuries as tea, &c., as freely reduced to one-twentieth, or from

7·81 per cent to 5:00 per cent, the
2. The value of Irish property, result would be for 1893-94–
and, in consequence, the

Revenue collected in Ire-
revenue derived from it, is

land
of very inferior magnitude. Loxal expenditure in Ire-

£4,542,000
3. The expenditure on services land

5,602,000
localised within Ireland is
out of all proportion to that leaving the taxpayer of Great

in Great Britain. Britain to bear the whole cost of
4. The balance available as Irish the Imperial services, to maintain

contribution to Imperial as at present the Irish Constabu-
charges is infinitesimal. lary, and to pay over £760,000

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arguments buried deep in a thou- details from later Parliamentary sand folio pages, we shall collect papers have also been included. from all the reports and papers Once again let it be stated that presented with sufficient author- the thing to be ascertained is, ity to the Commission such facts whether the Irish O D is unas are necessary for him to form duly taxed as compared with the an independent judgment. Similar British A B.

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Great Britain. Per cent. Population.

33,469,000 87.83 Estimated expenditure on Tea

£16,810,000 86 Tobacco

21,125,000 86.29 Spirits

48,571,000 88.78 Beer

88,627,000 93.38 All four articles

175,133,000 90.42 Indirect taxes, 1892-93

40,442,000 88.48 Direct taxes, 1892-93 .

34,306,000 95.90 Excise revenue, 1895-96

23,805,000 88.78 General customs revenue, 1895-96 18,487,000 89.04 Estate duty and stamps, 1895-96. 18,009,000 95.77 Land-tax and house duty, 1895-96 2,507,000 100. Income-tax, 1895-96.

15,042,000 95.51 Value of property assessed to pro

bate and succession duty 211,528,000 94.33 Net assessment to income-tax 567,233,000 95.40 Total revenue contributed, 1893-94 89,287,000 92-19

1894-95 92,401,000 92.32

1895-96 99,738,000 92.54 Local expenditure, 1893-94 30,618,000 84.53

1894-95

31,179,000 84.74 1895-96

32,306,000 84:47 Balance available for Imperial

58,668,000 96.76

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4:49

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Balance available for Imperiai

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purposes, 1894-95 Balance available for Imperial

purposes, 1895-96

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The four salient facts to be de It must further be noted if the duced from these statistics are : recommendation of the majority of 1. Irish people indulge in the the Commission were accepted, and

consumption of such modest the revenue collected in Ireland luxuries as tea, &c., as freely reduced to one-twentieth, or from as British.

7.81 per cent to 5.00 per cent, the 2. The value of Irish property, result would be for 1893-94—

and, in consequence, the
revenue derived from it, is

Revenue collected in Ire-
of very inferior magnitude. Local expenditure in Ire-

land

£4,842,000 3. The expenditure on services

land

5,602,000 localised within Ireland is out of all proportion to that leaving the taxpayer of Great in Great Britain.

Britain to bear the whole cost of 4. The balance available as Irish the Imperial services, to maintain

contribution to Imperial as at present the Irish Constabucharges is infinitesimal. lary, and to pay over £760,000

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