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(b) In February 1971, an additional $10 million was provided for recruiting advertising. The House and Senate Appropriations Committees were notified of this reprograming action by letters dated February 9, 1971. The $10 million item was includerl in a line item of $23.1 million for "expanded recruiting activities and special programs to enhance service attractiveness." The Committees were informed that the $10 million included funds for a paid TV/Radio advertisement test and for magazine, outdoor ads, films, brochures and direct mail campaigns.

Of the total $15 million granted to the U.S. Army Recruiting Command, $10.6 million will be used for the paid TV/Radio test and the remainder for other types of advertising.

The House Appropriations Committee held hearings on the reprograming action discussed in paragraph (b) above. The Senate has not scheduled hear. ings at this time.

Mr. MACDONALD. Thank you, Mr. Secretary.

You point out on page 6 the cost of $1 million for TV and $5.1 million for radio. How many hours or how much time can you buy on radio for $5 million?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. Mr. Kester, can you answer?
Mr. KESTER. Mr. Chairman, you mean the total number of minutes ?

Mr. KESTER. We can supply it for the record. There are 2,070 stations involved.

Mr. MACDONALD. Right. I will be happy to have it for the record, and request that it be supplied.

(The following information was received for the record :)


Before attempting an estimate of the actual number of hours and minutes $5 million has purchased for the U.S. Army campaign, it is necessary to point out certain facts about time buying.

Costs for radio times vary tremendously depending on what is being purchased. The most expensive radio time in the current Army campaign falls during morning drive time (6-10 a.m.) on radio station WOR New York where 1-minute spots are costing $250. On the other hand, the cost of 1-minute commercials on over 1,000 radio stations in markets below the rank of 200 is averaging $3.15. Obviously some 1-minute commercials in very small markets are costing $1 or less apiece. The costs also vary considerably depending on what day parts are being purchased; as an example, a morning drive time spot on radio station WJR, Detroit, can cost as much as $200 while the same amount of time during evening hours can cost less than $70.

With the above facts in mind we can make the following estimate of the amount of actual time being purchased for approximately $5 million during the current Army campaign: In the top 100 markets an average of 144 spots per week are being purchased.

In the second 100 markets an average of 36 spots per week are being purchased.

In approximately 1.070 markets below the rank of 200 an average of 24 spots per week are being purchased.

On 35 50.000-watt clear channel stations an average of 20 spots per week are being purchased.

Over a 13-week period the schedule described above delivers a total of 576,940 commercials on individual radio stations. Approximately 1/2 of the commercials are 60 seconds in length while the remaining 12 are 30 seconds in length. The above totals equate to 7,21134 hours of actual air time.

Mr. MACDONALD. Do you have any idea, and that is what you are up here testifying about.

Mr. KESTER. Sir, we have not added up the total number of minutes.

Mr. MACDONALD. It just seems to me you can get an awful lot of radio time for $5 million.

Mr. KESTER. Well, perhaps this would be responsive to your question. We have been running an average number of 72 spots per week on stations in the top 100 markets-in the second 200 markets, this number has been about 36 spots per week.

Mr. MACDONALD. Repeat that. You get 72

Mr. KESTER. Seventy-two spots per week in the top 100 radio markets. If you drop from the range of 100 to 200, we are running about 36 spots per week, in the markets smaller than the top 100 then it is about 24 per week. Then on clear channel radio stations, mostly in the evening hours, the number is about 20 per week.

Perhaps that is a meaningful way of looking at it. The concentration is on the age group 17 to 21 years old, and the stations and times at which they will be listening.

Mr. MacDonald. Mr. Secretary, what does the military think of the prime time to attract somebody in the age brackets that you are aiming at? What is your prime time?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. The early evening hours we look upon as prime time.

Mr. MACDONALD. In other words, your prime time idea is the same as the regular commercial advertisers' idea of prime time?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. Yes, it is.
Mr. MACDONALD. What age group are you after?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. We are looking really at the fellow who is a junior and senior in high school.

Mr. MACDONALD. You think he is watching TV early in the evening!

Mr. WOLLSTADT. I think he does, sir, yes. But we will know more when the test is completed.

Mr. MACDONALD. Did anybody take a survey before you went into this thing?

Mr. WOLLstadt. A survey of the listening habits of young people.

Mr. KESTER. Yes, indeed, Mr. Chairman. We have extensive survey evidence of this.

Mr. MACDONALD. Who did it?

Mr. KESTER. Broadcasting Advertising Research, Inc., which was one company, and this is information that is fairly well known in the industry, the viewing habits of the 18- to 24-year-old audience. The prime time for television they determined was in the evening from about 7:30 on to 11 o'clock. For radio prime time, it is quite different. People tend to listen to radio in their cars, the commuting hours these tend to be the prime time for radio. We have tried to focus the buying of time on this particular age group to run messages on the sources of programs that they are likely to watch at times they will be available to see them.

Mr. MACDONALD. You say this was a well thought out thing and surveyed and you stand by the allocation of money as you have just outlined; is that right, Mr. Secretary !

Mr. WOLLSTADT. That is correct.
Mr. MACDONALD. That brings me to the next thing.

Mr. WOLLSTADT. Subject, of course, to our making careful evaluation of it.

Mr. MACDONALD. Subject to change?
Mr. WOLLSTADT. After completion of the evaluation.

Mr. MACDONALD. That brings me to the next item I think speaks for itself. You say the production cost will run $1.2 million. Then you say: A telephone answering service to handle calls generated by the ads is $200,000. Whose idea was that?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. Would you care to answer that?
Mr. KESTER. The telephone answering service?
Mr. MACDONALD. Yes, and the $200,000 worth of answering service.
Mr. KESTER. We think it is money well spent.

Mr. MACDONALD. It would be well spent if anybody answers your ad.

Mr. KESTER. We have had 55,000 calls so far.
Mr. MACDONALD. In the country?
Mr. KESTER. Yes, in the country.

Mr. MACDONALD. That is in response to how many minutes of advertising?

Mr. KESTER. I would have to give you the figure.

Well, that is as of April 11 and how many minutes we ran up until that time we will have to add up and tell you.

Mr. MACDONALD. I am not going to pursue it, but I will give the subcommittee odds that there will be no overrun on that answering service money.

On page 8 you make reference to the other services, the Marines and the Air Force and Navy. How do they feel about this prime time buying of spots?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. The other services were not enthusiastic about the Army's going ahead with a test program of this magnitude, but they did accept it and they recognize that they are going to share in all of the results of the research so that they can determine whether use of paid radio and TV time might possibly help in their own recruiting,

But, very frankly, they were not enthusiastic about the idea and they are less likely to want to proceed with it than is the Army.

Mr. MACDONALD. They are less likely to do what?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. Less likely to want to proceed with paid TV and radio following the tests than is the Army.

Mr. MACDONALD. In other words, they don't believe in it as much as the Army does?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. That is correct, that is a simple way of stating it; yes, sir. We have the other services here and I think I have fairly stated their position.

Mr. MacDonald. I can undersand their position, too.

Just to refresh my recollection, how long a period does this cover, this so-called test?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. 13 weeks.
Mr. MACDONALD. How much is it going to cost, again?
Mr. WOLLSTADT. It is going to cost $10.6 million.

Mr. MACDONALD. Say it is a success or somebody determined it was a success, and if it is successful, I suppose you would like to continue it, right? And on the basis of my rather bad mathematics, you would be coming to the Congress, I take it, and asking for about $40 million for the next fiscal year for recruitment purposes on spot advertising? Mr. WOLLSTADT. I don't think that would be the case, because the best recruiting months are the current months—that is, the months when young men are getting out of high school, so I don't think we can multiply 3 months by 4, and say that that would be an annual expenditure.

Mr. MACDONALD. How much do you think it would be? I mean that is on an annual basis.

Mr. WOLLSTADT. Because you asked the question, I am responding with an answer that is a personal one. If the tests were a complete success and we really thought it did the job of moving us toward an all-volunteer Armed Force to a degree that we wouldn't otherwise move, I would say $20 or $25 million total.

Mr. MACDONALD. Do you really believe that this will generate other public spots given by people who have not shared in the largess of the money put out by this program? As Mr. Bartley indicated, he was a broadcaster and he indicated, I think very reasonably so, that if a station has made quite a bit of money from paid spots, what is the inducement for either themselves, when the contract runs out, or their competitors, to give free spots of the same nature ?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. That is one of the things.
Mr. MACDONALD. Has anybody thought about it?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. Yes, indeed, we have. One of the things we are going to look at carefully in our evaluation is whether the amount of public service time stayed the same, whether it went up, whether it went down, and how much each of the services was affected in that respect. We have a very careful program for monitoring public service time during this period.

Mr. MACDONALD. Well, would you explain a little bit? I can't follow it.

General Kidd. As Mr. Wollstadt said, one of the things is the impact of free time provided us.

Mr. MACDONALD. Would you mind taking a microphone?

General Kipp. We are tracking this during the tests, the free time provided before the test, during, and subsequent to the test, to see what impact this has had on us.

Mr. MACDONALD. I understand your interest. That is why I asked the question, but my real question is, How are you going to do it and how is it going to be monitored, so-called? What are the mechanics, what is the machinery?

General Kidd. The details for that I will have to supply for the record.

Mr. MACDONALD. I thought this was surveyed out. You say you gave a lot of time and attention to it.

Mr. WOLLSTADT. Can I introduce Mr. Gus Lee, Director of the Procurement in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and Mr. Lee says he can supply that information now.

Mr. LEE. We have, so far, information that a total of 16 stations, and I have to supply it for the record, the mix between radio and TV, but they are mostly radio, have discontinued free time. The ones that have come to our attention have discontinued free time. They are in the smaller areas and I will amplify the record on it, but it can give you a little bit of the feel for the impact so far. In general, it has not felt a large discontinuance of free time so far. The way the mechanics of how we will monitor this works, is that it is really through our local recruiting stations that most of the arrangements for free time are made, that is at the local level, and they will be able to keep up our local recruiting stations of which we have some several thousand over the country and they will be able to keep up and report back to us what is or is not free time.

Mr. MACDONALD. Why don't you pull up a chair?
Mr. LEE. Yes.

Mr. MACDONALD. Now, I know the military obviously has its outlets for recruiting, but I want to know how they are going to monitor the results of the program.

Mr. LEF. They are charged with responsibility of making arrangements to keep up with it through the stations. They have contacts with the stations.

Mr. MACDONALD. They have contacts with the stations?

Mr. LEE. Yes, with the local stations. They will, I think, and this I will have to amplify for the record, because I don't know enough about the details of the procedure

Mr. MACDONALD. Is there anybody over there that does ?

Mr. KESTER. We are having Broadcast Advertising Research run a test on this on a sample basis.

Mr. MACDONALD. What are the tests? What do you mean "run a test”?

Mr. KESTER. They are sampling particular stations having people listen to them throughout the day to see.

Mr. MACDONALD. I think we are talking about two different things. I am asking the question of what effect this purchase of paid public service programs is going to have on free public service programs.

Mr. KESTER. And I am saying we are measuring it by sampling stations to see how many free public service ads they run throughout the day.

Mr. MACDONALD. Before and after!
Mr. KESTER. Yes, during the test; yes, sir. .
Mr. MACDONALD. During the test, all right.

Who is going to do it, the recruitment agency or that service you keep talking about?

Mr. LEE. Both ways.

Thank you.

Mr. Van Deerlin?

Mr. VAN DEERLIN. This is not an evaluation session, by any means, Mr. Wollstadt, but I am wondering, if, in general, you are satisfied with the results thus far of the campaign?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. I think it is just too early to tell.

Mr. VAN DEERLIN. What is going to determine the value of this: campaign?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. The basic determinant will be the number of recruits that we believe resulted from this campaign, the young men that we believe would not have joined the Armed Forces, except for this campaign.

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