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Mr. Frey. I thought-well, you wouldn't have it at all, you don't know how much as been paid out of public funds?

Mr. BARTLEY. We wouldn't have any idea.

Mr. Frey. Section 317 only goes into the announcement-who has paid for it?

Mr. BARTLEY. Identification of sponsor; that is all.

Mr. FREY. Do you have any guess at all to the amount of paid versus public service

Mr. BARTLEY. No. The only one I know of that is current is the Department of the Army. I don't know what is going on in the State and local governments.

Mr. Frey. I am speaking specifically, I guess, on the two on the Federal level. Do you think it would be important for the Commission to have any records of this kind?

Mr. BARTLEY. I think it might be important for the committee in considering the bill, but I don't know what we would do with it.

Mr. FREY. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. MACDONALD. Thank you very much, Mr. Bartley.
Mr. BARTLEY. Thank you.

Mr. MACDONALD. The next witness is Mr. Paul Wollstadt, Assist-
ant Secretary for Manpower, Research, and Utilization, Defense
Department.
STATEMENT OF PAUL WOLLSTADT, DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRE-

TARY (MANPOWER, RESEARCH AND UTILIZATION), DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; ACCOMPANIED BY MAJ. GEN. JOHN B. KIDD, DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL PLANNING, DCS PERSONNEL, HEADQUARTERS, USAF; JOHN G. KESTER, DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY (MANPOWER AND RESERVE AFFAIRS), DEPARTMENT OF ARMY; BRIG. GEN. HERBERT E. BECKINGTON, USMC, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL, HEADQUARTERS, USMC; REAR ADM. W. M. A. GREENE, COMMANDER, NAVY RECRUITING COMMAND; AND GUS LEE, DIRECTOR OF PROCUREMENT, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DOD

Mr. WOLLSTADT. It has been suggested, Mr. Chairman, that I should introduce those from the services who are here with me and may be called upon to help answer questions.

Mr. MACDONALD. Do you intend to call them to answer questions or are they just-did they just give you a ride up here?

Mr. WOLLSTADT. To answer any questions I can't handle.
Mr. MACDONALD. Why don't you call to the table , whoever will

Mr. "WOLLSTADT. This is Mr. John Kester, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Army in Manpower and Reserve Affairs; and Rear Adm. William Greene, who is head of recruiting for the Navy; and Brig. Gen. Herbert Beckington from the Marine Corps; and Maj. Gen. John B. Kidd of the Air Force.

Mr. MACDONALD. Welcome, gentlemen. You may proceed.

Mr. WOLLSTADT. Mr. Chairman, I am pleased to appear here today as the Department of Defense representative at your hearings on

assist you.

House Concurrent Resolution 215. The Department of Defense was asked to provide a witness because of the 3-month experimental program being conducted by the Army on the use of paid radio and TV time to attract volunteers for military service.

I believe it would be appropriate first to provide some background on the effort to achieve an all-volunteer armed force. It was this effort toward increased volunteerism which led to the decision to conduct the paid radio and TV experiment.

Shortly after taking office, President Nixon established a Presidential commission on an all-volunteer armed force. At the same time, he directed the Secretary of Defense to assign a high priority to the study of means for reducing reliance on the draft and eventually ending it.

A project volunteer committee was appointed by Secretary Laird in April of 1969. The Chairman is Roger T. Kelley, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower and Reserve Affairs. The Committee, which continues to function, is composed of military and civilian representatives of the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Military Services.

The President's Commission on an All-Volunteer Force made its report in February 1970. The Commission members concluded unanimously that the interests of the Nation would be better served by an all-volunteer force than by a mixed force of volunteers and draftees, and recommended that steps be taken in that direction.

The administration agreed with the basic conclusion of the Commission's report and on April 23, 1970, the President declared that: "From now on, the objective of this administration is to reduce draft calls to zero subject to the overriding considerations of national security.”

On October 12, 1970, after reviewing reports of the Project Volunteer Committee, Secretary Laird sent a memorandum to the Secretaries of the Military Departments and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. This memorandum established the goal of zero draft calls by the end of fiscal year 1973. I should like to quote for you a portion of the Secretary's letter:

This time table for reaching zero draft calls assumes that Congress will recognize the need to extend the Selective Service induction authority for at least two years beyond its expiration date of July 1, 1971, and that there will be favorable action during the interim period on the longer range recommendations of the Project Volunteer Report. Such action is required if we are to sustain zero draft calls for an indefinite period and thus be assured of ending reliance on the draft. It also assume that, as we move away from reliance on the draft, provision must be made to establish a standby draft system that can be used in case of emergency.

Secretary Kelley has presented the administration's plan to end reliance on the draft to the Senate and House Armed Services Committees and to the Defense Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee.

In making these presentations, Secretary Kelley has urged that our recommendations should be accepted, or rejected on the basis of whether they meet the test of national security and what's right for

military people—not according to how one feels about the all-volunteer force concept.

He has said: If an All-Volunteer Force results from taking a series of actions that are right for military people and serve the best interests of our national security, then there should be an All-Volunteer Force. But if taking the right actions does not produce an All-Volunteer Force, then there will not be one. We should not recommend, nor would Congress approve, the wrong means even if the end is good. We ask, therefore, that our legislative and other recommendations be judged on their own merits, and in terms of how they will serve our Nation's security and military people.

The program which has been presented to the committees of the Congress proposes a Project. Volunteer budget of $1.52 billion for fiscal year 1972. More than a billion dollars of this budget is in the compensation area. The remainders

Provides for improving Army and Marine Corps barracks. We would partition 50-man open bays into two- and three-man rooms and provide a modest amount of furniture.

Increases the number of scholarships for ROTC and increases subsistence for ROTC and other college level programs.

Increases the number of medical scholarships.

Makes available funds to enable military commanders to launch appropriate programs to improve the conditions of service life.

And, finally, greatly increases the recruiting effort. Our special Project Volunteer allocation for recruiting in fiscal year 1972 is $110 million. This will be used to open recruiting stations in locations where none exist; to add nearly 6,000 people to the recruiting force; to provide proficiency. pay for recruiters; to increase training; to refurbish recruiting offices; and increase advertising in support of recruiting requirements.

Of the $110 million to be added to the recruiting budgets for fiscal year 1972, a total of $10 million is allocated for additional recruiting advertising. Some $10 million of this advertising would be for paid radio and TV advertising in fiscal year 1972, subject to evaluation of the test now being conducted.

A keystone of the Department of Defense program to end the draft must be an improvement in the effectiveness of armed services recruiting.

Too many people measure the importance of the draft to the armed services in terms of the number of young men who are drafted. The fact is that, in addition to those actually drafted, about one-half of all who enlist do so because they expect to be drafted. This means that if we are to have an all-volunteer force we must replace the total accession power of the draft-those who are actually drafted and those who enlist because they believe they otherwise would be drafted.

Everyone must realize that in order to replace the total accession power of the draft we must greatly increase the effectiveness of recruiting. It is particularly important that we do a better job of reaching the young men in the high schools so that those not planning to attend college will not automatically rule out the armed services as an occupational choice.

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We decided to carefully evaluate the effectiveness of paid prime TV and radio as a possible element of the recruiting program. We are making the service way of life better and young men and women must know about that if they are to make meaningful, volunteer choices.

We have the most comprehensive training and educational system in the country, and young men and women must know about the opportunities we offer for advancing their education. The challenging work, pay, and benefits available to young men and women who may be in the job market must be understood.

Our paid TV/radio test is an experiment in using an important communication medium to improve our communications with young men and their families so that young men are better able to consider the armed services as an occupational choice.

I should like to firmly emphasize at this point that the Department of Defense has not made any decisions whatsoever about the future use of paid TV and radio advertising for recruiting. As I just mentioned, in the Project Volunteer budget for fiscal year 197 allocated $10 million for such advertising by the Army. Whether the Department of Defense would support an increase in the amount for the Army or would decrease or eliminate it, or whether it would support any money for paid advertising for the other services cannot and will not be determined until the evaluation of the Army's test is completed.

The Army's test started on March 2 and will run for 13 weeks. It involves expenditure of $4 million for television time, $5.1 million for radio, a total of $9.1 million. Production costs will run $1.2 million, a telephone answering service to handle calls generated by the ads, $200,000, and research, $100,000. The specific purposes of the test are

To test and determine what messages and media will increase inquiries at the recruiting stations and subsequently increase the number of enlistments.

To provide current data to assist in designing the most effective advertising plan.

To test and determine what broadcast medium or combination thereof will most effectively reach the primary target audience of 17- to 21-year-olds and the secondary audience of parents, counselors, teachers, and other adult advisers.

To increase the awareness and knowledge of the primary audience of those opportunities available in the Army. Attached is a fact sheet on the test which was submitted to the committee last week. (See p. 31.)

The idea for paid radio and TV advertising, to supplement public service advertising, to increase the number of recruits for the military services was first mentioned to me in July of 1969. There have been many discussions of it in meetings of the Project Volunteer Committee, in other meetings with the Army and with the other services since that time. There has never been any suggestion or any thought, to my knowledge, that the campaign would have any purpose other than to recruit volunteers for the Armed Forces. And it does not; nor will it.

The military services have received a large amount of public service time from television and radio stations. We deeply hope that the stations will continue to make time available without charge to each of the services to help in their recruiting, which is so vital to our national defense. The problem was and remains that less than 10 percent of the TV public service time comes in prime time—those hours when young men who are prospects for recruitment are most likely to be watching. A further problem is that the service with the greatest need to increase volunteers—the Army-is faring relatively less well than the other services in getting public service time. We estimate that in 1970 the Army benefited from only $6 million worth of public service time on TV and radio, compared with $11.8 million for the Air Force, $9.5 million for the Navy, and $5.0 million for the Marine Corps.

This committee will understand that achievement of an all-volunteer force will depend, in large part, on our ability to inform the youth of the Nation and their parents of the facts and opportunities of military service. We hope to continue to receive a substantial amount of public service time on the air and public service space in the printed media for recruiting. But if the results of the Army's test of paid TV and radio time show that it is effective in helping us toward volunteerism and a zero draft, we believe the military departments should have the opportunity to use paid time to supplement the public service time as part of the total national effort to reduce and ultimately to end reliance on the draft.

(The fact sheet referred to follows:)

TEST OF PAID TV/Radio RECRUITING ADVERTISING FACT SHEET The Army is conducting a 3-month paid recruiting advertising campaign during the period March through May 1971 to test the effectiveness of prime time paid TV/Radio advertising as a means of increasing enlistments in the Army and assisting the Armed Forces in achieving their goal of a zero draft call by June 30, 1973.

The Office of the Secretary of Defense will closely monitor and will make an independent evaluation of the Army's 13-week test. A decision will then be made by the Office of the Secretary of Defense as to the future use of paid TV/Radio advertising for recruiting. Further new obligations for paid TV/Radio advertising by the services are not authorized.

The advertising agency handling the campaign is N. W. Ayer and Son of Philadelphia. The cost of the advertising campaign is $10.6 million, which includes:

Millions Purchase of TV/radio time.

$9.1 Production...

1, 2 LISTFAXI

. 2 Research

.1

10. 6

1 Telephone answering service.

The funds for the Army's advertising test were made available by reprograming funds within the Army's FY 1971 Operation and Maintenance Appropriation. There were two separate reprograming actions.

(a) In November 1970 $5 million was provided to the U.S. Army Recruiting Command for increased advertising. It was an adjustment of funds between sub-programs of Program 8 (Training, Medical and Other General Personnel Activities) within the Operation and Maintenance, Army appropriation.

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