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page he pretends to solve the difficulty ; and then in the next page pretends, that if the case be as I say, “ That we cannot form a rational judgment that a thing is, which at the same time, and under that degree of light we then stand in, it is more probable is a mistaken one, than not,” yet it can argue nothing to the case ; seeing the judgment we do form, is directed by a rule which is appointed for us. But still, as if not satisfied with these answers and remarks, he seems afterwards to suggest that Mr. Stoddard did not express this as his own sentiment, but as Mr. Cotton's, as a gentleman of the same principles with Mr. Mather, using it as argumentum ad hominem. See p. 33.

In p. 34, he expressly says, “ Mr. Stoddard does not say, that when the rule which God has given for admissions is carefully attended, it leaves reason to believe, that the greater part of those who are admitted, are enemies to God, &c." [True, he does not say this in terms ; but he says, “ More unconverted persons will be admitted than converted ;" which is equivalent.] And in p. 133, Mr. Williams presumes confidently to affirm, that “ Mr. Stoddard says this [the thing forementioned] not with peculiar relation to his own scheme, but only as an application of a saying of Mr. Cotton's, who was of a different opinion, and said upon a different scheme ; to shew that

upon their own principles, the matter will not be mended.” But this is contrary to the most plain fact. For Mr. Stoddard having said « The apostles admitted many unconverted," he immediately adds the passage in dispute, “ Indeed by the rule,” &c. plainly expressing his own sentiment; though he back's it with a saying of Mr. Cotton. So Mr. Cotton's words come in as a confirmation of Mr. Stoddard's ; and not Mr. Stoddard's as an application of Mr. Cotton's. However, Mr. Williams delivers the same sentiment as his own, once and again in his book : He delivers it as his own sentiment, p. 34, “ That probably many more hypocrites, than real saints, do make such a profession, as that which must be accepted.” He delivers it as his own sentiment, p. 61, That " The apostles judged it likely that of the Christians taken into the church under their direction, as many were hypocrites

in proportion to their number, as of those that were taken into the Jewish church.” And as to the latter, he delivers it as his sentiment, p. 24, that “ The body of the people were not regenerate.” So that, according to his own sentiments, when the Apostolic rule of taking in is observed, the body of those who are admitted will be hypocrites.

Now therefore, I desire that this matter may be examined to the very bottom. And here let it be considered, whether the truth of the following things are not incontestable.

1. If indeed by the rule God has given for admissions, when it is carefully attended, more unconverted persons will be admitted than converted ; then it will follow, that just such a visibility, or visible appearance of saintship as the rule requires, is more frequently without real saintship than with it.

2. If Mr. Stoddard and Mr. Williams had just reason from the holy scripture, and divine Providence to think thus, and to publish such a sentiment, and the Christian church has good reason to believe them ; then God has given the Christian church in its present state (dark and imperfect as it is) good reason to think 80 too.

3. If Christ, by the rule he has given for admissions, requires his churches to receive such a visibility or appearance, which he has given the same churches, at the same time, reason to judge to be an appearance, that for the most part is without godliness, or more frequently connected with ungodliness ; then he requires them to receive such an appearance, as he at the same time has given them reason to think does not imply a probability of godliness, but is attended rather with a probability of ungodliness. For that is the notion of probability : An appearance, which, 80 far as we have means to judge, is for the most part connected with the thing. Therefore the sign or appearance, let it be what it will, implies a probability

* Mr. Locke thus defines probability ( Hum. Und. 7th edit 8vo. vol 2, p. 273.) “ Probability is nothing but the appearance of such an agreement or disagreement, by the intervention of proofs, whose connexion is not constant and immutable, or at least is not perceived to be so ; but is, or appears FOR THE MOST PART to be so ; and is enough to induce the mind to judge the proposition to be true, or false, rather than the contrary,"

of that, which we have reason to think it is for the most part connected or attended with. Where there is only probability without certainty, there is a peradventure in the case on both sides ; or in vulgar language, the supposition on each side stands a chance to be true : But that side which most commonly proves true in such a case, stands the best chance ; and therefore properly on that side lies the probability.

4. That cannot be a credible visibility or appearance, which is not a probable appearance. To say a thing is credible and not probable, is a contradiction. And it is impossible rational, ly to judge a thing true, and at the same time rationally to judge a thing most probably not true. Therefore it is absurd (not to say worse) to talk of any divine institution thus to judge. It would be to suppose, that God by his institution has made that judgment rational, which he at the same time makes improbable, and therefore irrational.

This notion of admitting members into the church of Christ without and against probability of true piety, is not only very inconsistent with itself, but very inconsistent with what the common light of mankind teaches in their dealings one with another. Common Sense teaches all mankind, in admission of members into societies, at least societies formed for very great and important purposes, to admit none but those, concerning whom there is an apparent probability, that they are the hearty friends of the society, and of the main designs and interests of it ; and especially not to admit such, concerning whom there is a greater probability of their being habitual, fixed enemies. But thus it is according to Mr. Stoddard's and Mr. Williams's doctrine, as well as the doctrine of the scripture, with all unsanctified men in regard to the church of Christ : They are enemies to the head of the society, enemies to his honor and authority, and the work of salvation in the way of the gospel; the upholding

And Mr. Williams himself, p. 139, says, “.'Tis moral cvidence of gospel sincerity, which God's word makes the church's rule, &c. Now, does such an appearance, as we have reason a the same time to think is more frequently without gospel holiness than with it, amount to moral evidence of gospel sincerity ?

and promoting of which is the main design of the society. The church is represented in scripture as the houschold of God, that are in a peculiar manner intrusted with the care of his name and honor in the world, the interests of his kingdom, the care of his jewels and most precious things : And would not common sense teach an earthly prince not to admit into his household such, as he had no reason to look upon so much as probable friends and loyal subjects in their hearts; but rather friends and slaves in their hearts to his enemies, and competitors for his crown and dignity? The visible church of Christ is often represented as his city and his army, Now would not common sense teach the inhabitants of a besiego ęd city to open the gates to none, but those concerning whom there is at least an apparent probability of their not being enemies? And would any imagine, that in a militant state of things, it is a likely way to promote the interest of the war, to fill up

the army with such as are more likely to be on the enemy's side in their hear's, than on the side of their lawful and rightful prince, and his faithful soldiers and subjects?


Concerning the Lord's Supper's being a converting


THOUGH Mr. Williams holds, that none are to be admitted to the Lord's supper, but such as make a credible pretence or profession of real godliness, and are to be admitted under that notion, and with respect to such a character appear. ing on them; yet he holds at the same time, that the Lord's supper is a converting ordinance, an ordinance designed for the bringing of some men that have not such a character, to be of such a character. P. 14, 15, 35, 83, 100, 101, 126, 127. It is evident that the meaning of those divines who speak of the Lord's supper as a converting ordinance, is not merely that

God in his sovereign Providence will use it as an occasion of the conversion of some ; but that it is a converting means by his institution given to men, appointing them to use it for this purpose. Thus Mr. Stoddard expressly declares, “ That the Lord's supper is INSTITUTED to be a means of regeneration, (Doc. of inst. Churches, p. 22.) INSTITUTED for the conversion of sinners, as well as the confirmation of saints ; Anpeal, p. 70, 71. That the direct end of it is conversion, when, the subject that it is administered unto stands in need of conversion." Ibid. p. 73, 74. And thus Mr. Williams, after Mr. Stoddard, speaks of the Lord's supper “ as by Christ's APPOINTMENT a proper means of the conversion" of some that are unconverted; p. 100, 101. So he speaks of it as instituted for the conversion of sinners, through p. 126 and 127.

Now if so, what need of men's being to rational charity converted already, in order to their coming to the Lord's supper ? Is it reasonable to suppose God would institute this ordinance directly for that end, that sinners might be converted by it ; and then charge his ministers and churches not to admit any that they had not reasonable ground to think were convert. ed already ?....Mr. Williams, in p. 83, supposes two ends of Christ's appointing the communion of the Christian church ; " that such as have grace already should be under proper

ad vantages to gain more, and that those who have none, should be under proper advantages to attain grace.” But this ill consists with other parts of his scheme. If a king should erect a hospital for the help of the poor, and therein has two ends ; one, the nourishing of such as are in health, and the other, the healing of the sick; and furnishes the hospital accordingly, with proper food for the healthy, and proper remedies for the sick : But at the same time charges the officers, to whom he commits the care of the hospital, by no means to admit any, unless it be under a notion of their being in health, and from respect to such a qualification in them, and unless they have reasonable ground, and moral evidence, to induce them to believe that they are well : And if this pretence should be made to justify such a conduct, that the hospital was indeed designed for the healing of the sick, yet it was designed to confer this

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