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cess to Fort York, through Hudson's Bay is only about two months open during the year. But the most commodious and most frequented road to the Red River over St. Paul and Crow Wing leads entirely through United States territory. In the English possessions the best connection between Lake Superior and the Red River would be established by country roads, the one from Lake Superior to Rainy Lake, the other from Lake of the Woods to the Red River. In regard to the first, however, nothing has as yet been done, and only in the latter district explorations have been made with this view. When Gladman had arrived at Fort Garry (September, 1857,) he sent out engineers Napier and Dawson, to reconnoitre this hitherto entirely unknown district, which explorations were continued by Gaudet and Wells during the winter 1857–1858. The whole country between the Red River and Lake of the Woods appeared perfectly level, although it actually descends toward the east nearly 400 feet. Dry prairies change alternately with wooded districts and extensive swamps, the latter being particularly frequent toward north. The establishment of a road through this district seemed to them an utter impossibility. Hind went up the Assiniboine River, explored the Great and Little Rat river, examined the valley of the Red river up to Pembina, and followed the Reed Grass or Roseau river up to a great Swamp, which separated this stream from a lake of the same name. Unfortunately Hind could not survey this river up to its sources, but all the Indians who lived there agreed that a swamp of 9 miles in extent existed between Roseau lake and Lake of the Woods. This swamp sends the Reed river, 30 miles long, to the latter lake, and another little rapid river, about 40 or 50 miles long, to lake Roseau. From the Great Muskeg morass goes a little river westward into an extensive swamp, from which the Rat river issues. Gladman was relieved from his post as chief in April, 1858, and Napier also recalled about this time. But Hind went the same spring again with Dickinson, Fleming and Hine on another expedition known as the “Assiniboine and Saskatchewan expedition.” Their object was to explore the regions west of the Bed River and Lake Winnipeg up to the Saskatchewan river. Before they arrived at Fort Garry, Dawson, Wells and Gaudet had already made some new surveys, around the Red river, Lake Winnipeg, and the lower Assiniboine, and had just left for the lake district. This latter party went by way of Lake Manitobah and Lake Winnipego-sis, over Mossy Portage toward Cedar or Bourbon lake to the grand rapids of the Saskatchewan river. At Mossy Portage they separated; Wells went over Lake Winnipego-sis, Lake Dauphin, Lake Manitobah, the Little Saskatchewan river, which he found to be 8 to 12 feet deep, 250 yards wide,
free from rapids and throughout adapted for steam navigation, thence over Lake Winnipeg to the Red river. The rest of the party followed Swan river to Fort Pelly, and thence went down the Assiniboine river. Dawson considers the whole alluvial plain east of the Pasquia and Porcupine hills and Dauphin mountains, where the large lakes are situated, well adapted for settlements. It is partly prairie land, for the most part, however, thickly wooded. North of Lake Dauphin wood predominates; south of it the country becomes more open, and toward the Assiniboine an apparently endless prairie commences. Wheat gives abundant harvests near Lake Manitobah and the Little Saskatchewan river, and near the latter even Indian corn may be cultivated. The valley of the Swan river is particularly fertile and its climate equals that of the Red river district. The Red Deer river district has also a good soil and fine climate, as its maple tree forests plainly show. Coal is said to be found in the Porcupine hills and the Duck mountain; Dawson himself found samples of lignite near Snow river. The great alluvial valley of the Assiniboine and its branches will, in his opinion, hereafter become one of the finest wheat growing districts upon earth. Near Moss or Dauphin river, a fine navigable stream, the Indians grow maize, melons and potatoes. Wines, hops, and vetches grow naturally in abundance. - - . Hind and his companions went (June 14, 1858) from Fort Garry in a westerly direction over Fort Ellis toward the missionary station near Qu'Appelle lake (July 18), where he divided his corps into three parties: Dickinson traveled on the Qu'Appelle river up to its mouth, thence on horseback to Fort Pelly; Hine surveyed Long lake northwest of the Qu'Appelle mission, then went over land to Fort Pelly to meet Dickinson, and to explore with him the Dauphin mountains; Hind and Fleming followed the Qu'Appelle river up to its source, went over to the elbow of the southern arm of the Saskatchewan or Bow river, on which they travelled down until they reached Fort à la Corne (Aug. 9). The Qu'Appelle and Bow rivers have no connection as Dr. Hector believes. The latter (southern arm of the Saskatchewan) has down from its elbow for a distance of about 100 miles, a width of 300 yards to half a mile, then it becomes narrower and straighter in its course, its sand and mud banks disappear and finally it hurries through a narrow and deep valley, with a strong current toward the northern arm of the Saskatchewan, with which it unites forming one river (Saskatchewan), which now goes toward Fort à la Corne through Bine and Cedar lakes into Lake Winnipeg. Fleming followed this course from Fort à la Corne into Lake Winnipeg, along its western coast, until he reached the Red River. Hind made a land voyage along Long creek, then turning Southeast went over Touch Wood hills to Fort Ellis, where he met Dickinson with whom he returned over White Mud river to Fort Garry (September 4). But Hind and Fleming soon started on another excursion (September 18). They went in boats, along the western shores of Lake Winnipeg, up to the mouth of the Little Saskatchewan, hence (September 29) into Lake Manitobah, and by means of Water Hen river and a lake of the same name reached Lake Winnipego-sis, where they examined the salt springs, which had been imprudently exhausted by the Indians. From here they started for Lake Dauphin, ascended the Dauphin mountains (1700 feet high), and navigated Lake Manitobah in different directions. Hind stayed four days on a little island there, which was much revered by the Indians as the seat of the “Manitou,” or fairies. On its northern side were limestone cliffs about fifteen feet high, which by the beating of the waves emitted sounds very similar to chimes from a number of church bells, ringing at a distance. From Oak Point, at the Southern extremity of the lake, the party went over land toward Fort Garry, where they arrived the 31st of October, 1858. Hine, while sojourning on the Red river during the fall months, took photographic views of landscapes, churches, Indians, etc. Dickinson made excursions in the district east of the lower Ted River, and in the regions between the Assiniboine and the U. S. boundary, but particularly along Rivière Sal through the Pembina mountains and Blue hills. Some Canadian journals have blamed this Expedition for not having made any determination of points and for giving generally but little positive information, although $50,000 to $60,000 had been expended for the purpose. They said that the whole country had been much better explored by the late astronomer Thompson. This, however, is an unjust imputation. Astronomical observations of points, although very valuable, cannot be the main object of explorers, who have to run through a great number of districts in a comparatively very short time, and who must give us the general features of the country; moreover, as here a great number of such fixed points already exist, a careful survey of routes by dead reckoning is perfectly sufficient. The reproach that the country had been much better explored by Thompson is most unjust. Thompson's reports were undoubtedly as little accessible to the members of the Canadian expedition as they were to the rest of the world; besides, if we compare Thompson's chart with that of the expedition of 1858, we perceive that our knowledge of the country between Lake Winnipeg and Bow river is more accurate and more complete than Thompson's.
The expedition has achieved much. They made very comprehensive levellings, effected numerous measurements of width, depth and rapidity of rivers and lakes, made geological observa. tions, inquired into the climate, forests, quality of soil, etc., made surveys and discoveries between Lake of the Woods and the Red river, between the Assiniboine river and the U. S. boundary, along the upper Assiniboine and Qu'Appelle rivers, in the district of the great lakes, etc. A comparison of their charts with the older ones of these districts will at once show that the money was not thrown away. -
This expedition has moreover excited the curiosity of the people
more than that under Capt. Palliser. Thus a society was formed at St. Paul in Minnesota, who, under the direction of Col. Nobles, left this city in June, 1859, with the object to explore the valleys and sources of the Saskatchewan and Columbia rivers. Their plan was, to start from the elbow of Bow river toward the Rocky Mountains, to explore carefully the region of their eastern foot up to Edmonton House, thence to go over Athalaska Portage between Mount Hooker and Mount Brown toward the sources of Thompson's river and here to disperse in different directions. Col. Nobles intended to start for the sources of Columbia river, and to return over Lewis and Clarke's Passage, the Missouri Falls, the valley of the Milk river, Fort Mandan, Big Stone Lake, and Fort Ridgley to St. Paul. Dr. Goodrich accompanies them as physician, and the Smithsonian Institution sent Dr. C. L. Anderson, of Minneapolis, to make scientific observations and collections.
The “Board of Trade” in St. Paul offered a reward of $1000 for the first steamer that should ply on or before the first of June on the Red river, and the “Anson Northup" really commenced her voyages in June. She carries, besides passengers, 100 to 150 tons of cargo, and is intended to do the post service between the mouth of the Shagerme river and Fort Garry, and thus to connect St. Paul, (which sustains a post wagon up to the Shagerme river.) directly with the Red river.
Another company in Canada intend to put four steamers on Rainy lake, Red river and Lake Winnipeg. Even the settlers on the Red river themselves show an active spirit of progress.
AM, JOUR. SCI.-SECOND SERIES, Vol. XXX, No. 88–SEPT., 1860. 29
ART. XXII.-Discussion between two Readers of Darwin's Treatise on the Origin of Species, wipon its Natural Theology.
FIRST READER.—Is Darwin's theory atheistic or pantheistic 2 or, does it tend to atheism or pantheism 7 Before attempting any solution of this question, permit me to say a few words tending to obtain a definite conception of necessity, and design, as the sources from which events may originate, each independent of the other; and we shall, perhaps, best attain a clear understanding of each, by the illustration of an example in which simple human designers act upon the physical powers of common matter.
Suppose, then, a square billiard table to be placed with its corners directed to the four cardinal points. Suppose a player standing at the north corner, to strike a red ball ão, to the south; his design being to lodge the ball in the south pocket; which design, if not interfered with, must, of course be accomplished. Then suppose another player, standing at the east corner, to direct a white ball to the west corner. This design also, if not interfered with, must be accomplished. Next suppose both players to strike their balls at the same instant, with like forces, in the directions before given. In this case the balls would not pass as before, namely, the red ball to the south, and the white ball to the west, but they must both meet and strike each other in the centre of the table, and, being perfectly elastic, the red ball must pass to the west pocket, and the white ball to the south pocket. We may suppose that the players acted wholly without concert with each other, indeed they may be igmorant of each other's design, or even of each other's existence; still we know that the events must happen as herein described. Now the first half of the course of these two balls is from an impulse, or proceeds from a power, acting from design. Each player has the design of driving his ball across the table in a diagonal line to accomplish its lodgment at the opposite corner of the table. Neither designed that his ball should be deflected from that course and pass to another corner of the table. The direction of this second part of the motion, must be referred entirely to necessity, which directly interferes with the purpose of him who designed the rectilinear direction. We are not in this case, to go back to find design in the Greation of the powers or laws of inertia, and elasticity, after the order of which the deflection, at the instant of collision, necessarily takes place. We know that these powers were inherent in the balls, and were not created to answer this special deflexion. We are required, by the hypothesis, to confine attention in point of time, from the instant preceding the impact of the balls, to the time of their