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In a progress. as they went, and to eat,

rubbing them in their hands.

Mark ii. 23.

Matt. xii. 1.

Luke vi. 1.

But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto Matt. xii. 2. him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath day.

Why do they on the sabbath day that which is not Mark ii. 24. lawful?

And certain of the Pharisees said unto them, Luke vi. 2. Why do ye that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath days?

And Jesus, answering them,

said unto them, Have ye never read

k 1 Sam xxi. so much as this, what David did,


Luke vi. 3.

Mark ii. 25.

Luke vi. 3.

when he had need, and was an hungred, he, and Mark ii. 25. they that were with him?

How he went into the house of God in the days Mark ii. 26. of Abiathar the high-priest, and did

Though loaves made of new bread were presented at Pentecost, this will not prove that the harvest was entirely gathered in. The wheat plucked by the disciples might have been among the last ripe corn of that season (a).

38 Michaelis remarks on these words, "in the days of Abiathar the highpriest," that the mode of quoting the books of the Old Testament is sometimes so rabbinical, that a critic, acquainted only with the Greek, cannot understand it as the fact here related of David did not take place in the priesthood of Abiathar, but in that of his father Ahimelech. To account for this apparent inaccuracy, Michaelis (b) considers the words "in the days of Abiathar the highpriest," as a mere rabbinism. The rabbies were accustomed to select some principal word out of each section, and apply that name to the section itself.

Rashi, for instance, in his remarks on Hosea ix. 9, says, some are of opinion that the town here mentioned is Gibeon of Benjamin, "in the concubine," or, as it is in our version, Judges xix. 14, wɔbba roa (Michaelis ought to have said

זה גבען (נבעה

כמו שנאמר ברבנר כה אמר יהוה,7 .The same Rabbi observes on Psalm ii

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WIN 77 72, “as is said in Abner, the Lord spake, through David I will deliver Israel." Abenezra on Hosea iv. 8, says, by indiɔ, as is said near Eli. In this manner quotations are sometimes made in the New Testament. Mark xii. 26, ἐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλω Μωσέως ἐπὶ της του Βατs, Rom. xi. 2, ἤ ἐκ οἴδατε, ἐν Ηλία τί λέγει ἡ γραφή; and the above mentioned passage in St. Mark, which has been thought to contain a contradiction, may be explained in the chapter of Abiathar,' or in that part of the book of Samuel where the history of Abiathar is related.

The remark of Rosenmüller, in his note on this passage, is by no means con

(a) For other opinions, see Wotton's Misna, vol. i. p. 268-9; Pilkington's Evang. Hist. notes, p. 19; Hewlett's Commen. in loc. &c. Many others have been given, but these seem to be most worthy of attention. (b) Marsh's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 133; Rosenmüller; Dr. A. Clarke, &c. in loc.

Luke vi. 4.

Matt. xii. 4.

Matt. xii. 5.

Matt. xii. 6.

Matt. xii. 7.

Mark ii. 27.

Mark ii. 28.

take, and eat the shew-bread, and gave also to In a progress.
them that were with him, which

was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them that
were with him,' but only for the priests?


1 Exod. xxix 32, 33. Lev.

xxiv. 9.

Or have ye not read in the law, how that, on vii. 31. & the sabbath-days, the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless?

But I say unto you, that in this place is one greater than the temple.

m Num.

xxviii. 9.

Matt. ix. 13.

But if ye had known what this meaneth, " I will n Hos. vi. 6. have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless.

And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath :

Therefore the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.

MATT. xii. part of ver. 1. ver. 2, 3. part of ver. 4. and ver. 8.

1 At that time Jesus went on the sabbath-day through the corn

2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples

do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day.

3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did when he was an hungred, and they that were with him;

4 How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shew-bread, which— 8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath-day.

MARK iii. ver. 23. and part of ver. 24, 25, and 26.

23 And it came to pass, that he went through the corn-fields on the sabbath day; and his disciples began-to pluck the ears of corn.

24 And the Pharisees said unto him, Behold

25 And he-what David did

26-eat the shew-bread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to them which were with him?

LUKE vi. part of ver. 1, 3, 4. and ver. 5.

1 —and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat—

3 said, Have ye not read-when himself was an hungred, and they which were with him;

clusive against the opinion of Michaelis. Preferenda esset sine dubio hæc explicatio si Marcus addidisset verbum γεγραπται, vel λεγει ή γραφή, ut Rom. xi. 2.—Bishop Marsh seems to incline to this opinion: but though the Evangelists generally adopt this mode of expressing themselves, it is not uniformly done. The contradiction is again variously reconciled by other commentators. Some suppose that Abiathar was the priest, and Ahimelech the high-priest, and that Ahimelech was called Ahimelech Abiathar, 8, father understood; and Abiathar was called Abiathar Ahimelech, 13, son understood; and others reconcile the histories by supposing that they both officiated in the high priesthood, and the name of the office was indiscriminately applied to either.

In a progress.

4 How he went into the house of God, and did—it is not lawful to eat, but for the priests alone?

5 And he said unto them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.


Christ heals the withered Hand 39.

MATT. xii. 9-15. MARK iii. 1-7. LUKE vi. 6—12.

And when he was departed thence,

it came to pass also on another sabbath, that

he entered again

he went into their synagogue,

and taught.

And, behold, there was a man

whose right hand was withered.

Matt. xii. 9.

Luke vi. 6.

Mark iii. 1.

Matt. xii. 9.

Luke vi. 6.

Matt. xii. 10.

Luke vi. 6.

And the Scribes and Pharisees watched him, Luke vi. 7. whether

he would heal him on the sabbath day: that they

find an accusation against him.

Mark iii. 2.

Luke vi. 7.

But he knew their thoughts, and said to the Luke vi. 8. man which had the withered hand, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. And he arose, and stood forth.

And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to Matt. xii. 10.
heal on the sabbath days? that they might ac-
cuse him.

Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask
you one
thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do
good or to do evil? to save life or to destroy it?
But they held their peace.

Luke vi. 9.

Mark iii. 4.

And he said unto them, What man shall there Matt. xii. 11. be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out?

-39 This section is inserted here on the authority of all the harmonizers. It is placed next to the plucking the ears of corn by each of the Evangelists. Our Lord, by action and miracle, here enforced what he had already urged, the superiority of the spirit of the law to the tradition of the elders. It is lawful to do good on the sabbath-day, appears to be in direct opposition to the very extraordinary decision of the school of Schammai. Let no one console the sick, or visit the mourning on the sabbath day. It was principally against the decisions of this school that our Lord spake; for the school of Hillel had in some respects decided otherwise. By some canons of the Jewish law, it was permitted to the people to prepare medicine, and to perform any service which was required for the actual preservation of life.

Matt. xii. 12.

Mark iii. 5.
Luke vi. 10.
Mark iii. 5.

How much then is a man better than a sheep? In a progress.
Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath

And when he had looked round about on them
them all


with anger; being grieved for the

their hearts; he saith unto the man,

thine hand.

hardness of Or, blindStretch forth ness.

Matt. xii. 13. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the other.

Matt. xii. 14.

Luke vi. 11.
Mark iii. 6.

Matt. xii. 14.

Luke vi. 11.

Matt. xii. 14.


Then the Pharisees

were filled with madness, and (they)

went forth with the Herodians, and straightway
+ held a council against him;

and communed one with another, what they
might do to Jesus, (and)

how they might destroy him.

MATT. xii. part of ver. 10. 13, 14.

which had his hand withered

13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand.

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MARK iii. part of ver. 1, 2. ver. 3. and part of ver. 4, 5, 6.

1 And-into the synagogue; and there was a man there which had a withered hand.

2 And they watched him, whether he would heal—accuse him.

3 And he saith unto the man which had the withered hand, Stand forth.

4 And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill?—


And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other.

6 And the Pharisees went forth-took counsel-against him, how they might destroy him.

LUKE vi. part of ver. 6, 7. ver. 8, 9. and part of ver. 10

6 he entered into the synagogue-and there was a man

7 -on the sabbath day, that they might

8 But he knew their thoughts, and said to the man which had the withered hand, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. And he arose and stood forth.

9 Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it?

10 And looking round about-he said unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he did so: and his hand was restored whole as the other.

+ Or, took counsel.

In a progress.


Christ is followed by great Multitudes, whose Diseases he heals o.

MATT. xii. 15-22. MARK iii. 7-13.

But when Jesus knew it, he withdrew himself Matt. xil 15. from thence,

with his disciples to the sea:

and great multitudes followed him,

Mark iil. 7.

Matt. xii. 15.

from Galilee, and from Judæa, and from Jerusa- Mark iii. 7. lem, and from Idumea, and from beyond Jordan:

And they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multi- Mark III. 8. tude, when they heard what great things he did, came unto him.

And he spake to his disciples, that a small ship Mark II, 9. should wait on him, because of the multitude, lest they should throng him.

For he had healed many; insomuch that they Mark iii. 10. *Or, rushed. * pressed upon him to touch him, as many as had plagues.

and he healed them all.

Matt.xii. 15.

And unclean spirits, when they sew him, fell Mark ii. 11. down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God.

40 This section is placed here on the concurrent testimony of all the harmonizers. The scriptural authority is to be found in Matt. xii. 15. Christ withdrew himself for a time in consequence of the enmity of the Pharisees and Herodians, which had been excited by his instructions concerning the observance of the sabbath.

In this section we read, Mark iii. 11.-Unclean spirits when they saw him fell down before him, &c. &c. Is it probable that if these were madmen only, they would be charged by our Lord not to make him known? The exclamations and ravings of the insane are ever disregarded. There would be no meaning in this command, if we consider it as addressed to those only who were deprived of reason. It must have been addressed to those who were capable of comprehending it, that is, to evil spirits, which were visible to Christ, though invisible to mere men. It is easy on this interpretation, the only one indeed which is supported by the express language of Scripture, to understand on what account the evil spirits trembled at his appearance. They had seen and known our Lord in his pre-existent state-they knew the effect of his humiliation— they shrank back from the rays of his glory, though it was shrouded under the veil of his humanity. He refused to receive the testimony of evil spirits. His kingdom was to be established by the quiet submission of the human understanding to the silent, but resistless evidence of miracle, prophecy, and his own blameless submission to the will of his heavenly Father.

This view of the subject is confirmed by Luke iv. 41. as translated by Dr. Owen, οὐκ εἴα αὐτὰ λαλεῖν ὅτι ἥδεισαν, “ and would not suffer them to say that they knew him to be the Christ."-Dr. Owen ap. Bowyer's Conjectures.

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