The Emergence of Norms
Clarendon Press, 1977 - Philosophy - 206 pages
Edna Ullmann-Margalit provides an original account of the emergence of norms. Her main thesis is that certain types of norms are possible solutions to problems posed by certain types of social interaction situations. The problems are such that they inhere in the structure (in the
game-theoretical sense of structure) of the situations concerned. Three types of paradigmatic situations are dealt with. They are referred to as Prisoners' Dilemma-type situations; co-ordination situations; and inequality (or partiality) situations. Each of them, it is claimed, poses a basic
difficulty, to some or all of the individuals involved in them. Three types of norms, respectively, are offered as solutions to these situational problems. It is shown how, and in what sense, the adoption of these norms of social behaviour can indeed resolve the specified problems.
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absolute position according achieved action advantage affairs agents agreement alternative answer argument assumed authority behaviour cell certain choice choose clear co-operation co-ordination equilibrium co-ordination norms co-ordination problem Column-Chooser common concept concerned condition conformity connection consideration considered course covenant decision desired deviate dilemma discussion dominant effectiveness equilibrium example existence expectations explained explicit fact favoured force function further given hand hence improve individual inequality interests involved least less matrix matter means moral move mutual nature Note once one's original outcome participants particular party pay-off PD norms PD-structured persons position possible preference present Prisoners question rational reason regard regularity relation relative represented requires result rule sanctions seems sense served situation social society solution solving specific stability stands status quo strategic structure supposed taken theory threat tion turn