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Egmont prisoner at the capture of Ninové ; but was him. self taken prisoner in 1580, and not exchanged for the count till 1585. La Noue continued to serve with great glory under king Henry IV. but was mortally wounded in the head, by a musket-ball, at the siege of Lambale in 1591, and died a few days after. He left “ Discours Poli. tiques,” Geneva, 1587, 4to. His son, Odet de la Noue, who died between 1611 and 1620, was author of some « Poesies Chretieones," Geneva, 1504, 8vo.'

NOURRY (NICHOLAS LE), a learned Benedictine of the congregation of St. Maur, was born at Dieppe in 1647, and devoted his early years to the study of ecclesiastical antiquities, in which he was allowed to have attained very great knowledge. His first literary employment was on an edition of the works of Cassiodorus, which he prepared for the press in conjunction with father Garet, contributing the life, prefaces, and tables. He was next engaged on the works of St. Ambrose, published in 1686-1691. His most important work was his “ Apparatus ad Bibliothecam max. veterum Patrum,” Paris, 1715, 2 vols. folio, intended as a supplement to Despont's “ Bibl. Patrum," 27 vols. folio, but which is not always found with it. It contains a number of curious and learned dissertations on the lives, writings, and sentiments, of the fathers, with illustrations of many obscure passages. In 1710, Nourry published “ Lucius Cæcilius de mortibus persecutorum," 8vo, which he contended was not the production of Lactantius (see LACTANTIUS); but although he has supplied many useful notes and comments on this work, he failed in making converts to this last opinion. Nourry died at Paris, March 24, 1724, aged seventy-seven.”

NOVARINI (Lewis), a learned Italian monk, was born at Verona, io 1594. He entered among the Theatins when he was about eighteen years of age, and after passing his noviciate at Venice, took the vows in 1614. He afterwards studied philosophy and divinity, was ordained priest in 1621, and exercised the various functions of his office and order, applying at his leisure hours to study, and writing the many works enumerated by his biographers. The principal of these are, “ Comment. in quatuor Evangel. et Acta Apostol.” in 4 vols. folio; “ Adagia Sanctorum Patrum,” in 2 vols. folio; “ Electra Sacra, in quibus quà ex 1 Moreri.

* Niceron, vol. I. and X.-Dupin.-Moreri.

Latino, Græco, Hebraico, et Chaldaico fonte, quà ex an. tiquis Hebræorum, Persarum, Græcorum, Romanorum, aliarumque Gentium ritibus, quædam divinæ Scripturæ loca poriter explicantur et illustrantur," in 3 vols. folio. He died at Verona Jan. 14, 1650, aged fifty-six."

NOVAT, or NOVATUS, a priest of the church of Carthage, flourished in the third century, and was the author of a remarkable scbism called after his name, or rather after the name of his associate Novatian, who, however, is also called Novatus by many ancient writers. He is represented by the orthodox as a person scandalous and infamous for perfidy, adulation, arrogance, and so sore didly covetous, that he even suffered his own father to perish with hunger, and spared not to pillage the goods of the church, the poor, and the orpbans. It was in or der to escape the punishment due to these crimes, and to support himself by raising disturbances, that he resolved to form a schism ; and to that end entered into a cabal with Felicissimus, an African priest, who opposed St. Cyprian Novatus was summoned to appear before the prelate in the year 249; but the persecution, begun by Decius the following year, obliging that saint to retire for his own safety, Novatus was delivered from the danger of that process; and, not long after associating himself with Felicissimus, then a deacon, with him maintained the doctrine, that the lapsed ought to be received into the communion of the church without any form of penitence. In the year 251, he went to Rome, about the time of the election of pope Cornelius. There he met with Novatian, a priest, who had acquired a reputation for eloquence, and presently formed an alliance with him; and, although their sentiments with regard to the lapsed were diametrically opposite, they agreed to publish the most atrocious calumnies against the Roman clergy, which they coloured over so artfully, that many were deceived and joined their party. This done, they procured a congregation consisting of three obscure, simple, and ignorant bisbops; and, plying abem well with wine, prevailed upon them to elect Nova. vian bishop of Rome. After this irregular election, Novatian addressed letters to St. Cyprian of Carthage, to Fa: bius of Antioch, and to Dionysius of Alexandria ; but St. Cyprian refused to open his letter, and excommunicated

, Niceron, vol. XL.

his deputies : he bad likewise sent to Rome before, in order to procure the abolition of the schism. Fabius made himself pleasant at Novatian's expence; and Dionysius declared to him, that the best way of convincing the world, that his election was made against his consent, would be to quit the see, for the sake of peace. On the contrary, Novatian now maintained his principal doctrine, that such as had fallen into any sin after baptism ought not to be received into the church by penance; and he was joined in the same by Novatus, although he had originally maintained the contrary while in Africa. Novatian had been a Pagan philosopher before his conversion to Christianity, and it does not appear that he and his party separated from the church, on any grounds of doctrine, but of discipline, and it is certain, from some writings of Novatian still extant, that he was sound in the doctrine of the Trinity. He lived to the time of Valerian, when he suffered martyrdom. He composed treatises upon the “ Paschal Festival, or Easter,” of the “ Sabbath,” of “ Circumcision,” of the “ Supreme Pontiff,” of “ Prayer,” of the “Jewish Meats," and of “the Trinity.” It is highly probable, that the treatise upon the - Trinity," and the book upon the “ Jewish Meats,” inserted into the works of Tertullian, were written by Novatian, and they are well written. There is an edition of his works by Whiston, 1709; one by Welchman; and a third, of 1728, with notes, by Jackson. With respect to the followers of Novatian, at the first separation, they only refused communion with those who had fallen into idolatry : afterwards they went farther, and excluded, for ever, from their communion, all such as had committed crimes for whicb penance was required; and at last they took away from the church the power of the keys, of binding and loosing offenders, and rebaptised those who had been baptised by the church. This sect subsisted a long time both in the east and west ; but chiefly became considerable in the east, where they had bishops, both in the great sees and the small ones, parish-churches, and a great number of followers. There were also Novatians in Africa in the time of St. Leo, and in the east some remains continued till the eighth century.'


NOWELL (ALEXANDER), an eminent English divine, and the last surviving father of the English Reformation,

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descended from an ancient family of Norman origin, was the son of John Nowell, esq. of Read, in the parish of Whalley, and county of Lancaster. This gentleman, who was twice married, had, by his first wife, Dowsabel, daughter of Robert Hesketh, esq. of Rufford, in Lancashire, an only son, Roger Nowell, whose issue male, in a direct line, enjoyed the family estates for more than two centuries. By his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Kay of Rachdale, he had four sons, Alexander, the subject of this article, Laurence, Robert, and Nicholas; and several daughters. Alexander was born in 1507 or 1508, at Readhall, anciently Rivehead or Riverhead, a mansion on the Calder, a tributary branch of the Ribble. A view of this his birth-place, as it stood in 1750, is given in Mr. archdeacon Churton's “ Life of Alexander Nowell,” a work which has furnished the substance of this sketch. · He was educated at Middleton, about six miles from Manchester; but who was his preceptor there we have not learnt. That his elementary progress was rapid, we may reasonably presume, as he was deemed ripe for the university, where, however, early entrances were then more frequent, at the age of thirteen. Respecting this number a singular coincidence is mentioned, whether it were the result of choice, or of accident. He became a member of Brasen-nose college at the age of thirteen : he resided there thirteen years; and he afterwards bestowed on the society thirteen scholarships. He is said to have been chamber-fellow with Fox, the martyrologist, and bad perhaps the same tutor, Mr. John Hawarden, or Harding, who was afterwards principal of the college. We are assured that he was a public reader of logic in the university, and taught the famous book of Rodolphus Agricola, when he was in the twentieth year of his age. He was then (and there seem to be examples of the same delay at that time), only an undergraduate, and was not admitted B. A. until May 29, 1536, when he was of ten or twelve years standing. He was elected fellow of the college shortly afterwards, and proceeded M. A. June 10, 1540.

He had directed his intent to the church ever since he was sixteen years old ; but it is not known when or by whom he was admitted into holy orders. When he left the university he came to London, and obtained the office of second master of Westminster-school, on the new foundation, appointed in 1543. While he filled this important post, he is said to have been diligent in teaching his pupils pure language and true religion : using for the former purpose Terence, and for the latter St. Luke's Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles, in the original Greek. . He appears to bave been licensed as a preacher in 1550, but where he exercised his talent we are not particularly informed : except that be preached, during this reign, “in some of the potablest places and auditories of the realm.” The first production of his pen that we have met with was some lines in honour of the memory of Bucer, who died at Cambridge in 1551, which shew that he was of congenial sentiments on the subject of religion with that celebrated reformer; and the same year he held an interesting conference with Redmayne, master of Trinity college, Cambridge, then on his death-bed, respecting the principal articles which separated the English from the Romish church. In that year also he succeeded Redmayne as one of the prebendaries of Westminster.

In the first parliament of queen Mary, in 1553, Nowell was returned one of the burgesses for Loo, in Cornwall; but a committee being appointed to inquire into the validity of the return, they reported that “ Alexander Nowell being a prebendary of Westminster, and thereby having a voice in the convocation-house, cannot be a njember of this house," and a new writ was directed to be issued accordingly. Nowell quietly submitted to this decision, although it was not correct as to the law; for none below the digvity of dean or archdeacon were bound to personal appearance in the convocation ; but these were not times for men desirous of retaining peace and a good conscience, to insist rigidly on their right, against the prevailing party; and he soon afterwards found it necessary to join his countrymen who were exiles in Germany, from the persecuting spirit of popery. Of this event we are only told, that Bonner, having intended him as one of bis victims, he was assisted in bis escape by Francis Bowyer, at that time a merchant, and afterwards sheriff of London. In 1554, we find him at Strasburgh, with Jewell, Poinet, Grindal, Sandys, and other men of future eminence in the Reformed Church. In the unfortunate disputes which afterwards took place among these exiles, respecting church discipline, Nowell took a moderate part, sometimes, for the sake of peace, conceding to the presbyterian party : but at last, with equal wisdom and firmness, pressing unity

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