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since been inserted in the body of the “ Byzantine Historians," printed at the Louvre at Paris. This is considered as one of the most valuable pieces in that collection, but the style is not good. Father Morel of Tours, in the sixteenth century, translated the five first books of a piece entitled “ The treasure of the Orthodox Faith,” ascribed to Nicetas, printed in 1580, 8vo, and inserted since in the twelfth volume of the “ Bibliotheca Patrum” of Cologne. We have also a fragment of the twentieth book, concerning what ought to be observed upon the conversion of a Mahometan to Christianity. Michael Choniates, our author's brother, composed several “ Monodies upon his death," which are translated by Morel, and also composed some other discourses, particularly one upon the “ Cross," the manuscript of which is in the public library at Paris.'

NICETAS (David), a Greek historian, a native, as some relate, of Paphlagonia, flourished about the end of the ninth century. He wrote the “ Life of St. Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople,” translated into Latin by Frederic Mutius, bishop of Termoli, and made use of by cardival Baronius : but we have another version, by father Matthew Raderi, printed at Ingoldstadt, in 1604. This Nicetas composed also several panegyrics, in honour of the apostles and otber saints, which are inserted in the last continuation of the “ Bibliotheca Patrum," by Combesis. There are several authors of this name mentioned by Gesner and Leo Allatius.

NICETAS (surnamed SERRON), deacon of the church of Constantinople, and contemporary with Theophylact in the eleventh century, and afterwards bishop of Heraclea, composed several “ Funeral Orations upon the death of Gregory Nazianzen ;” as also a “ Commentary,” which is inserted in Latin among the works of that father. There is ascribed to him a “Catena upon the Book of Job,” compiled of passages taken from several of the fathers, which was printed by Junius at London, 1637, in folio. We have also, by the same author, several “ Catene upon the Psalms and Canticles," printed at Basil in 1552. There is likewise a “Commentary upon the Poems of Gregory Nazianzen,” printed at Venice, under the name of Nicetas of Paphlagonia, which is apparently the same author.: NICHOLAS V. pope, and the only pontiff of that name much deserving of notice, was originally named Thomas of Sarzana, and was born in 1398. He was the son of Barth. dei Parentucelli, a professor of arts and medicine in Pisa. His mother, Andreola, was a native of Sarzana, a small town on the borders of Tuscany, and the republic of Genoa, whence be derived his surname. In his seventh year his father died, and his mother marrying again, a man who had no affection for her offspring, his younger days were embittered by domestic neglect and harshness. He obtained a friend, however, in cardinal Nicholas Albergati, who took bim under his protection, and supplied him with whatever was necessary for pursuing bis studies at the university of Bologna. At the age of twenty-four he enrolled himself in the priesthood, but continued to live in the family of bis patron until the death of the latter, when his learning and virtues procured him another friend in the cardinal Gerard Andriani. By his means he was introduced to the court of Eugenius IV. and employed in all the disputes between the Latios and Greeks at the councils of Ferrara and Florence, for bis admirable management of which he was rewarded in 1445 by the bishopric of Bologna. In 1446 he was promoted to the purple, and in March 1447 he was elevated to the papal throne, on which occasion be assumed the name of Nicholas V. The temporalties of the holy see being in a lamentable state of disorder, he bad uncommon difficulties to struggle with, which, however, he encountered by a wise and temperate conduct. It was first his object to restore the finances, and to cultivate the arts of peace, which furnished him with the means of gratifying his passion for the encouragement of learning. Fostered by his patronage, the scholars of Italy no longer had reason to complain that they were doomed to obscurity and contempt. Nicholas invited to his court all those who were distinguished by their proficiency in ancient literature; and whilst he afforded them full scope for the exertion of their talents, he requited their labours by liberal remunerations. Poggio was one of those who experienced his kindest patronage.

1 Moreri.--Dict. Hist.-Saxii Onomast.-- Blouni's Censura. • Moreri.-Dict. Hist.-Vossius de Hist, Græc.-Saxii Onomast. Du Pio. Moreri.-Care, vol. II.--Saxii Onomast.

In 1453 Nicholas 'received intelligence of the capture of Constantinople by Mahomet II. which some historians mention as the greatest affliction that befel the pope; but Gibbon, speaking on the subject, says, “ Some states were too weak, and others too remote : by some the danger was considered as imaginary, by others as inevitable: the western princes were involved in their endless and domestic quarrels; and the Roman pontiff was exasperated by the falsehood or obstinacy of the Greeks. Instead of employing in their favour the arms and treasures of Italy, Nicholas V. had foretold their approaching ruin, and bis honour seemed engaged in the accomplishment of his prophecy. Perhaps he was softened by the last extremity of their distress, but his compassion was tardy : his efforts were faint and unavailing; and Constantinople had fallen before the squadrons of Genoa and Venice could sail from their harbours.” From this time he spent the remainder of his pontificate in endeavours to allay the civil wars and commotions which took place in Italy, to reconcile the Christian princes who were then at war with one another, and to unite them in one league against the enemies of the Christian church. But all his efforts being unsuccessful, the disappointment is said to have hastened his death, which happened March 24, 1455. “The fame of Nicholas V." says Gibbon, who seems to have formed a just estiinate of the character of this pontiff, “has not been adequate to his merits. From a plebeian origin, he raised himself by his virtue and learning; the character of the man prevaried over the interest of the pope; and he sharpened those weapons which were soon pointed against the Roman church. He had been the friend of the most eminent scholars of the age; he became their patron; and such was the humility of his manners, that the change was scarcely discernible either to them or to himself. If he préssed the acceptance of a liberal gift, it was not as the measure of desert, but as the proof of benevolence; and when modest merit declined his boynty, accept it,' he would say, with a consciousness of bis own worth, yoů will not always have a Nicholas among you.' The influence of the holy see pervaded Christendom; and he exerted that influence in the search, not of benefices, but of books. From the ruins of the Byzantine libraries, from the dark est monasteries of Germany and Britain, he collected the dusty manuscripts of the writers of antiquity; and wherever the original could not be removed, a faithful copy was 'transcribed, and transmitted for use. The Vatican, the old repository for bulls and legends, for superstition and forgery, was daily replenished with more precious furni, Läre ; and such was the industry of Nicholas, that in a reign of eight years he formed a library of 5000 volumes.

To bis munificence the Latin world was indebted for the versions of Xenophon, Diodorus, Polybius, Thucydides, Herodotus, and Appian; of Strabo's Geography; of the Iliad; of the most valuable works of Plato and Aristotle ; of Ptolemy and Theophrastus, and of the fathers of the Greek cburch.'

NICHOLAS DE CUSA. See CUSA.

NICHOLAS (EYMERICUS), a celebrated Dominican, was born at Gironna, in Catalonia, about 1320. He was made inquisitor general by Innocent VI. about 1356, and afterwards chaplain to Gregory XI. and judge of beretical causes. He died Jan. 4, 1399, leaving a precious monument of inquisitorial tyranny, entitled “ Directorium Inquisitorium,” or the Inquisitor's Directory, the best editions of which are those with corrections, particularly that

cum comment. Fran. Pegnæ,” printed at Rome, 1587, fol. This book, says L'Avocat, contains the most pernicious and horrible maxims, according to which, not only private persons, but princes and kings, may be condemned secretly by the inquisition, without being permitted to speak in their own defence, and afterwards put to death by poison, or other means. It is astonishing, adds this liberal ecclesiastic, that a work which inculcates such detestable principles should have been printed at Barcelona, afterwards at Rome, and at Venice. The commentary, he says, is as pernicious as the text. The French have an abridgment of the work, by the abbé Morellet, 1762, 12mo."

NICHOLS (FRANK), a physician and anatomist of eminence, was born in London in 1699, where his father was a barrister. After receiving the rudiments of his education at a private school in the country, where his docility and sweetness of temper endeared him to his master and school-fellows, he was in a few years removed to Westminster, and thence to Oxford, where he was admitted a commoner of Exeter college, under the tuition of Mr. John Haviland, in 1714. He applied himself to the usual academical exercises with great assiduity, and took his degrees in arts at the accustomed periods, that of M. A. in 1721. He paid his greatest attention to natural philosophy, and after reading a few books on anatomy, engaged in

1 Bower's Hist. of the Popes.— Tiraboschi.–Gibbon's Hist.-Shepherd's Life of Poggio, p. 381, 409, 462.-Life by Georgi, Rome, 1742, 410.

? Moreri.Dict. Hist. de L'Avocat.

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dissections, which he pursued with so much reputation as to be cbosen reader of anatomy in the university in 1726, about two years after taking his degree of B. M. In this office he used his utmost endeavours to introduce a zeal for this neglected study, and obtained a high and well merited reputation. His residence at Oxford, however, was only temporary; for at the close of his course he, returned to London, where he had determined to settle, after having made a short trial of practice in Cornwall, and a subsequent visit to the principal schools of France and Italy. At Paris, by conversing freely with the learned, he soon recommended himself to their notice and esteem. Winslow's was the only good system of physiology at that time known in France, and Morgagni's and Santorini's, of Venice, in Italy. On his return to England he resumed his anatomical and physiological lectures in London, and they were frequented, not only by students from both the universities, but by many surgeons, apothecaries, and others. His reputation rapidly extended, and in 1728 he was elected a fellow of the royal society, to which he communicated several papers, which were published in the Philosophical Transactions, especially some observations on the nature of aneurisms, in which he controverted the opinion of Dr. Freind; and a description of a singular disease, in which the pulmonary vein was coughed up. He also made observations on a treatise by Helvetius, on the Jungs. In 1729, he received the degree of M. D. at Oxford, and becaine a fellow of the college of physicians in 1732. In 1734 he was appointed to read the Gulstonian lectures at the college, and chose the structure of the heart, and the circulation of the blood, for his subjects. At the request of the president, Dr. Nichols again read the Gulstonian lectures in 1736, choosing for his topics the urinary organs, and the nature and treatment of calculous diseases; and in 1739 he delivered the anniversary Harveian oration. In 1743 be married one of the daughters of the celebrated Dr. Mead, by whom he had a son and daughter, both living.

In 1745 Dr. Nichols left Oxford finally, and was succeeded in his professorship by Dr. Lawrence. In 1748 he was appointed lecturer on surgery to the college, and began his course with a learned and elegant dissertation on the “ Anima Medica,” which was published as a separate work in 1750. While he was proceeding with his course,

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