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His foundation of Hertford-college, for which chiefly he is now remembered, was an unfortunate speculation. It was preceded by some publications calculated to make known his opinions on academic education. The first of these, which appeared in 1720, was entitled “ A Scheme of Discipline, with Statutes intended to be established by a royal charter for the education of youth in Hert-hall;" and in 1725, he drew up the statutes of Hertford-college, which he published in 1747. In 1726, or 1727, he published his“ University Education,” which chiefly relates to the removal of students from one college to another, without the leave of their respective governors, or of the chancellor. This appears to have involved him in some unpleasant altercations with his brethren. His application for a charter to take Hert-hall from under the jurisdiction of Exeter.college, and erect it into an independent college, occasioned a controversy between him and Dr. Conybeare, then rector of Exeter, and afterwards bishop of Bristol and dean of Christ-church. In August 1740, however, he obtained the charter for raising Hert-hall into a perpetual college, for the usual studies; the society to consist of a. principal, four senior fellows or tutors, eight junior fellows or assistants, eight probationary students, twenty-four actual students, and four scholars. He contributed an annuity of 551. 6s. 8d. issuing out of his house at Lavendon, and other lands in that parish, to be an endowment for the four senior fellows at the rate of 131. 6s. 8d. each yearly. He then purchased some houses in the neighbourhood of Hert-hall for its enlargement, and expended about 15001. on building the chapel and part of an intended new quadrangle. Very few benefactors afterwards appeared to complete the establishment, which, by the aid of independent members subsisted for some years, but has of late gradually fallen off, and it is but within these few months that a successor could be found to the late principal Dr. Bernard Hodgson, who died in 1805. Dr. Newton's radical error in drawing up the statutes, was his fixing the price of every thing at a maximum, and thus injudiciously overlooking the progress of the markets, as well as the state of society. He seems indeed to have been more intent on establishing a school upon rigid and economical principles, than a college which, with equal advantages in point of education, should keep pace with the growing liberality and refinement of the age.
Besides some single sermons, Dr. Newton published in answer to the learned Wharton on pluralities, a volume entitled “ Pluralities indefensible," 1744; and in 1752 issued “ Proposals for printing by subscription 4000 copies of the Characters of Theophrastus, for the benefit of Hertford-college ;" but this did not appear until a year after his death, when it was published by his successor Dr. William Sharp, in an 8vo volume. The produce to the college is said to have amounted to 10001., which we much doubt, as the price was only six shillings each copy. In 1784, a volume of his .“ Sermons” was published by his grandson, S. Adams, LL. B. 8vo.'
NEWTON (THOMAS), a Latin poet, divine, schoolmaster, and physician of the sixteenth century, was the eldest son of Edward Newton, of Butley, near Presbury in Cheshire. He was educated at Macclesfield in the same county, under Brownswerd, a schoolmaster of considerable fame. Newton preserved so great a regard for him, as to erect a monument to his memory in Macclesfield church, with an inscription which concludes with these liues :
“ Alpha poetarum, Coryphæus grammaticorum,
Flos pedagogum, hac sepelitur humo;" and commemorates him also in his “ Encomia” in equally high terms. From this school Newton was first sent in his thirteenth year to Trinity-college, Oxford, but removed soon after to Queen's college, Cambridge. In his return to his native country, he stopt at Oxford for a considerable time, and was re-admitted to Trinity-college, and took orders. He was patronised by Robert earl of Essex, and, probably through bis infuence, was elected master of the grammar-school at Macclesfield. He likewise practised physic, and published some treatises on that subject. In 1583 be left Macclesfield, on being instituted to the rectory of Little Ilford in Essex, where he taught school, continued the practice of physic, and acquired considerable property. Here he died in 1607, and was buried in his church, to which he left a legacy for ornaments. At Cambridge he became eminent for Latin poetry, and was regarded by scholars as one of the best poets in that language, certainly one of the purest of that period.
He wrote, 1. “A notable history of the Saracens, &c. drawn out of Aug. Curio, in three books," Lond. 1575, 4to.
! Gent, Mag. see Index. -Chalmers's Hist. of Oxford,
2. “A Summary, or brief Chronicle of the Saracens and Turks,” &c. printed with the former. 3. “ Approved me. dicines and cordial precepts, with the nature and symptoms,” &c. ibid. 1580, Svo. 4. “Illustrium aliquot Anglorum encomia," ibid. 1589, 4to, at the end of Lelard's “ Encomia.” 5. “ Atropoion Delion : or the death of Delia, with the tears of her funeral. A poetical Discourse of our late Elizabeth,” ibid. 1603, 4to. 6.“ A pleasant new History: or a Fragrant Posie made of three flowers : Rose, Rosalynd, and Rosemary,” ibid. 1604. He also corrected. “ Embryon Relimatum,” written by Jubn Stambridge, but he was not the author of the two parts of Tamerlane the great Scythian emperor, which were written by Marlow. He translated the following works : 7. “A Direction for the Health of Magistrates and Students," from Gratarolus, Lond. 1574, 12mo; of this a copious extract may be seen in the Bibliographer, vol. II. 8. “Commentary on the iwo Epistles general of St. Simon and St. Jude," froin Luther, ibid. 1581, 4to. 9. "Touchstone of Complexions," from Levinus Lemnius, ibid. 1581, 8vo, noticed in the “Censura Literaria," with an extract, vol. VI. 10. “ The third tragedy of L. An. Seneca, entitled Thebais,” ibid. 1581, published with the other translated plays, by Studley, Nevile, &c. Dr. Pulteney thinks that the “ Herbal to the Bible," printed in 1587, 8vo, was by bim; and this is not improbable, as it is only a translation of “ Levini Lemnii explicatio similitudinuin quæ in Bibliis ex herbis et arboribus sumuntur.” He conceives also that, Newton was the writer of the commendatory lines prefixed to Lyte's Herbal, in which, after complimenting the author for his judicious selection of useful knowledge from former writers, he has versified, in less than two pages, the names of more than two hundred worthies in medical science, from the earliest antiquity to his own times. Warton observes that most of the ingenious and learned men of that age courted his favours as a polite and popular encomiast. Wartun also ivfers that he was a partizan of the puritans, froin no better authority than his having written “ Christian friendship, with an invective against dice play and other profane games," Lond. 1586.'
NEWTON (THOMAS), an eminent English prelate, was born at Lichfield Jan. I, 1704, N. S. His father, John
1 Ath. Ox. vol. 1.-Warton's Hist. of Poetry.-Philips's Theatrum, by sir E. Brydges.- Lysons's Euvirons, vol. IV.-Pulteney's Sketches.
Newton, was a considerable brandy and cyder merchant, a man of much industry and integrity ; his mother was the daughter of Mr. Rhodes, a clergyman, and died when this, her only son, was about a year old. He received the first part of his education in the free-school of Lichfield, which at that time flourished greatly under the direction of Mr. Hunter, and at all times has sent forth several persons of eminence, from bishop Smalridge to Dr. Johnson. When he was of an age to be sent out into the world, his father married a second wife, the daughter of the rev. Mr. Tre. beck of Worcester, and sister to Dr. Trebeck, the first rector of St. George's, Hanover-square; and by the advice of Dr. Trebeck, and the encouragement of bishop Smalridge, young Newton was removed from Lichfield to Westminster school in 1717. Here he was placed at the lower-end of the fourth form, and the year following became a king's scholar, being admitted into the college by the nomination of bishop Smalridge.
Mr. Newton continued six years at Westminster-school, five of wbich he passed in college, having stayed one year to be captain. He always thought the mode of education in college, and the taste which prevailed there, as far sų. perior to that of the school, as that of the school was to any country school. At the election in 1723, he went to Cambridge, knowing, as he candidly confesses, that the fellowships of Trinity-college were much more valuable than the studentships of Christ-church. He accordingly applied to Dr. Bentley to be by him elected first to Cam. bridge, with which Bentley complied, and Mr. Newton con. stantly resided there eight months at least in every year, till he had taken his bachelor of arts degree, which was in 1726. He took his degree of M. A. in 1730; and, soon after he was chosen fellow of Trinity, he came to settle in London. This appears to have been previous to his taking the last-mentioned degree, as he was ordained deacon Dec. 21, 1729, and priest in the February following, by bishop Gibson.
His first appearance as a preacher was in St. George's, Hanover-square, where he officiated for a short time as curate, and afterwards as assistant preacher to Dr. Trebeck, whose ill-health disabled him from performing his duty. His first regular employment was that of reader and afternoon preacher at Grosvenor-chapel in SouthAudley-street By this appointment, he became well known in the parish, and was soon taken into lord Carpenter's family to be tutor to his son, afterwards created earl of Tyrconnel. Of this family he speaks with much gratis tude, as a situation in which he lived very much at his ease “ with not so much as an unkind word, or even a cool look ever intervening ;" and, be tells us, ibat living at no kind of expense, he was tempted to gratify and in dulge his taste in the purchase of books, prints, and pic. tures, and made the beginnings of a collection which was continually receiving considerable additions and improves ments. Here he remained, however, for some time, without any promotion ; but in 1738, Dr. Pearce, afterwards bishop of Rochester, but then vicar of St. Martin's, with whom he had no acquaintance, sent to him requesting he would preach on a certain day at the chapel in Spring-gar, den, and immediately after offered to appoint him morning preacher at this chapel. This be gladly accepied, and it became the means of a useful and valuable connection with Dr. Pearce.
About this time he was induced by Mrs. Anne Deanes Devenish, an acquaintance whose friendship proved afterwards of great importance to him, to superintend an edition of Mr. Rowe's works, who had been her first husband. This edition was executed at the request of the Prince of Wales, who was very partial to that poet, and who honoured Mrs. Devenish with his friendship, and it was the means of Mr. Newton's being made known to his royal highness. Nor was this the only obligation he owed to the good ser, vices of Mrs. Devenish, as she first introduced him to the acquaintance of Mr. Pulteney, who, when Jord Baib, ap. pointed him his chaplain. Mr. Newton, in his life, gives a curious detail of that famous political revolution which occasioned the resignation of sir Robert Walpole. Tbis he appears to have written at the time, and it is 10 small proof of the authenticity of the facts, that Mr. Coxe, in bis excellent Life of sir R. Walpole, seems disposed to admit it. It is indeed written with every internal mark of candour and honesty.
In the spring of 1744, Mr. Newton, through the interest of his patron, the earl of Bath, was preferred to the rectory of St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside, “ so that,” as he observes," he was forty years old before he obtained any living." Upon this preferment, be quitted the chapel in Spring garden. His fellowship also became vacant, and