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Creek, Michigan, in coordination with GSA. It is significant to note that if all the items, including parts, used by the Government were to be cataloged, the number would exceed 100 million.'' Items that are required by an activity but are not stocked listed (NSL) are procured through use of a commercial purchase description.
Establishment of the General Services Ad
The Federal Supply Service procures personal property and nonpersonal services for Federal agencies, stores and distributes supplies, and gives advice on and regulates the supply functions performed by the agencies. It promulgates Federal Specifications and Standards and is responsible for developing and promulgating the Federal Procurement Regulations (FPR) and that portion of the Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) dealing with transportation and procurement. It also administers the Government-wide transportation management, motor equipment, and public utilities programs.
FSS uses several basic methods of providing procurement and supply support to Federal agencies:
• Storage depots are located in each of the ten FSS regions. Depot items are purchased and stocked for delivery to fill requisitions from Federal using activities, cost-reimbursable contractors, or other authorized activities. Some regions have service or national commodity assignments for management and distribution, and some services and commodities are procured and distributed from more than one depot. Some
of the First Hoover Commission,20 led to the development of the National Supply System. The system now consists of the coordinated logistics activity of the Federal Supply Service (FSS) of GSA, the Defense Supply Agency (DSA), and other Federal agencies. An understanding of the missions and operations of these agencies is necessary for a proper evaluation of information presented in later chapters.
GSA was created by the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 21 to provide the Government with an economical and efficient system for the management of its property and records, including construction and operation of buildings, procurement and distribution of supplies, use and disposal of property, and management of strategic materials, traffic, transportation, and communications. Management of the Government-wide automatic data processing (ADP) resources program was added to GSA's responsibilities in 1965. The statute also authorized the GSA Administrator to assign procurement responsibilities to other agencies; this has been done on a case-by-case basis. GSA provides field support through ten regional offices, corresponding to the ten Federal regions.22 Each region is responsible for procurement support and depot supply functions.
tivities located outside the United States. In addition to regional depots, FSS has self-service stores in various cities of the United States that issue administrative supplies through a charge account system. The supplies and services provided by the depots are mandatory for use by all Federal agencies except for emergency requirements of small dollar value or where the activities' needs cannot be satisfied by the FSS stocked item. In the latter case, waivers must be obtained from GSA. • GSA periodically publishes a catalog which lists the items stocked at various depots and the information required for ordering. Approximately 8.5 percent of item cost is included in the GSA catalog price to cover direct costs of transportation, in-transit damage, or loss. Requisitions for large quantities of stores stock items can be delivered from the commercial source at catalog price less surcharge. Additional charges for export packing are added for overseas shipments. Depot operating costs, as well as purchasing
19 U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Government Operations, Military Supply Systems, Cataloging, Standardization and Provisioning of Spare Parts, Forty-first Report, 91st Cong., 2d sess., 1970.
20 U.S. Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government (1947–1949), Office of General Services, d Report to Congress, Feb. 1949, pp. 2-3. 31 40 U.S.C. 751 (1970).
U.S. General Services Administration, United States Government Organization Manual, 1972-1973, July 1972, p. 450.
and management overhead, are separately paid out of GSA's direct appropriations and not charged to the using agency. 23 • Federal Supply Schedules are contractual arrangements negotiated for agency use in ordering directly from contractors by delivery order with the ordering agency paying the contractor predetermined prices. Some items are available from more than one contractor, especially brand-name equipment and supplies. Items covered under Federal Supply Schedules are those that are determined to be uneconomical for depot stock and distribution. No surcharge is paid to GSA by the ordering activity. Most of these schedules are mandatory for use by Federal agencies. • Responsibility for interagency support can be delegated by FSS to other agencies. For example, the Veterans Administration, as the largest civilian agency user of nonperishable subsistence, drugs, and X-ray films, has been assigned support responsibility for all civilian agencies. The service is provided by either Federal Supply Schedules negotiated by the VA or from the VA depot and field station system.
The Defense Supply Agency is an agency of DOD. DSA's mission is to provide effective logistics support at the lowest feasible cost to the operating forces of all military departments and to assigned Federal civilian agencies.
DSA provides interagency support in three areas:
• Supply Support. Procures, stores, and distributes items commonly used by the armed forces and by the Federal civilian agencies. These range from clothing to construction equipment. Mandatory use is required except for emergency needs and for requirements under $10. • Logistics Services. Administers various programs for DOD. These include maintenance of the Federal Catalog System, Materiel Utilization Program, DOD Coordinated Procurement Program, Research and Technology Information System, Surplus Property Disporal Program, Industrial Plant Equipment Reutilization Program, DOD Industrial Security Program, and the DOD
wide program for redistribution and reutilization of excess Government-owned and leased automatic : la processing equipment (ADPE). • Contract Administration Services. Provides services in support of the military departments and other DOD components, NASA, other designated Federal and State agencies, and friendly foreign governments. These services include contract management, pre-award surveys, quality assurance, payments to contractors, support of small business and labor surplus area programs, transportation and packaging assistance, and surveillance of contractor progress to assure timely delivery of materiel. Agencies other than DOD are charged for services pro
vided. The overall DSA distribution system is shown in figure 3.
Under the Economy Act of 1932, interagency procurement support can also be obtained from or through agencies other than GSA and DSA. This act authorizes agencies to order supplies or services from the Federal agencies that can fill the requesting agency's requirements. The act further stipulates that payment be made at actual cost or agreed sum and that the supplies or services be obtained from private sources when such sources are convenient or more economical.
Although interagency procurement under the Economy Act of 1932 is overshadowed by the GSA and DSA programs, it provides opportunities for economy and efficiency at all organizational levels. The extent of formality in interagency agreements varies with the complexity of the requirements. Compensation traditionally has been by negotiated agreement between the supporting and receiving agencies. The following interagency programs indicate the type of procurement support that is currently available throughout the Government.
DOD COORDINATED PROCUREMENT PROGRAMS
• Agency Purchase Agreements.24 Agencies 2* U.S. Department of Defense, DOD Instruction 4115.1, DOD Coordinated Procurement Program-Purchase Assignments, Oct. 14, 1968.
2a Information was supplied by GSA at a briefing on May 26, 1971, to members of Study Group 13A.
administration service, including production
Government property management for DOD and other Federal agencies. • Weapon System Acquisition Management Assignments. An executive agent is designated to manage a joint program for acquisition of systems that have a high degree of interservice commonality and are produced concurrently in one industrial facility.
are assigned responsibilities for procurement and distribution management of commodities within DOD and in coordination with GSA. • Military Construction Programs. The Corps of Engineers and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command procure construction services. • Military Airlift Command (MAC). This command provides military and contract air movement services, including operation of air terminals. • Military Traffic Management and Terminal Service (MTMTS). This service is the DOD single-manager for military traffic, transportation, and common-user ocean terminals. • Military Sealift Command (MSC). This command provides ocean shipping services using fleet and commercial shipping. • Defense Communications Agency (DCA). This agency procures commercial communication services for DOD activities. • Defense Contract Administration Services (DCAS). This activity provides field contract
Air Force managed program provides Federal activities in Europe and Asia with indefinite delivery contracts covering U.S. manufactured products distributed through commercial overseas outlets.
SPECIAL PROCUREMENT PROGRAMS
• United States Postal Service (USPS). This service purchases mail boxes and other mailrelated supplies for Federal agencies. • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and
other Federal utility activities. These activities provide electric power to Federal agen
• Veterans Administration (VA). This administration purchases drugs and special medical-care equipment for Federal agencies. • Government Printing Office (GPO). This office provides contract printing services to all agencies through field contract printing offices. • Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI). This organization provides prison-made supplies and services to all agencies directly or through GSA.
• National Industries for the Blind. This activity provides blind-made products to all agencies directly or through GSA. • Small Business Administration (SBA). This administration negotiates some contracts with minority businesses on behalf of other Federal agencies. • Local Call Contracts. FPR provides for interagency coordination in execution and use of indefinite delivery contracts for supplies and services required by operating activities at station level.