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there is no authentic specimen of G. religiosum in Linnæus's herbal'ium, and that Linnæus's description is unsatisfactory. But there is sufficient evidence to show that Linnæus did not at all events give the name of religiosum to the Kidney Cotton.

We are thankful for what has been done, but hope that Professor Parlatore will not let this subject drop before he has fairly worked it out. He must dispose of all the doubtful species he has placed at the end of his book before he can regard his labours as terminated, and must furnish us with a short diagnosis of each species, besides the longer descriptions he has given.

BOTANICAL NEWS.

Dr. Seemann returned to England on the 12th ult., from his journey through Nicaragua and the Isthmus of Panama, and resumes, this month, the editorship of the 'Journal of Botany. In the gold district of Chontales he found a number of new Palms and other fine-foliage plants, which have been placed under the care of Mr. Bull, of Chelsea. During his stay at Panama, he was able to ascend the Bayano river and familiarize himself with its vegetation, the Americans having obligingly lent him a steamer for that purpose.

In consequence of the disturbed state of the Continent, the meeting of German naturalists and physicians which was to be held at Frankfort in September next will not take place.

The Professorship of Botany at the School of Physic, Trinity College, Dublin University, is now vacant; and on Saturday, December 22, 1866, the Provost and Senior Fellows will proceed to elect a Professor of Botany. The emoluments consist of a sum of £200 paid annually by the college ; of threeguinea fees paid by each person attending the Professor's three-month Clinical Lectures in Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital; and of certain other payments, to be regulated from time to time by the Provost and Senior Fellows of Trinity College. The professorship is open to Protestants of all nations, provided they shall have taken medical degrees, or shall have obtained a licence to practise from the College of Physicians, in consequence of a testimonium under the seal of Trinity College, Dublin. All persons intending to offer themselves as candidates should send in their names, the places of their education, the university at which they have taken their medical degrees, and the places at which they have practised, on or before December 14. For further particulars, candidates will have to apply to the Rev. S. Haughton, Medical Registrar of Trinity College. By the restrictions imposed, most of our best botanists are excluded from the candidature, and we therefore trust that the person chosen may be selected entirely for his merits.

We have received a copy, too late to be noticed this month, of the longexpected work of Mr. Benjamin Clarke, “New Arrangement of Phanerogamous Plants, with Especial Reference to Relative Position, including their relations with the Cryptogamous." Only two hundred and fifty copies having been printed, botanists are advised to apply at once to Messrs. Williams and Norgate, 14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C., or Robert Hardwicke, 192, Piccadilly. The price is £1.

Prof. Unger, in a paper communicated to the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Vienna, shows that Egyptian bricks contain a variety of evidence preserved, as it seems, in an imperishable form. He has examined a brick from the pyramid of Dashour, which dates from between 3400 and 3300 B.C., and found imbedded among the Nile mud or slime, chopped straw, and sand, of which it is composed, remains of vegetable and animal forms, and of the manufacturing arts, entirely unchanged. So perfectly, indeed, have they been preserved in the compact substance of the brick, that he experienced but little or no difficulty in identifying them. By this discovery Prof. Unger makes us acquainted with wild and cultivated plants which were growing in the pyramid-building days; with freshwater shells, fishes, remains of insects, and so forth, and a swarm of organic bodies, which, for the most part, are represented without alteration in Egypt at the present time. Besides two sorts of grain-wheat and barley--he found Teff (Eragrostis Abyssinica), the Field-pea (Pisum arvense), the common Flax (Linum usitatissimum),—the latter having, in all probability, been cultivated as an article of food, as well as for spinning. The weeds are of the familiar kinds : wild Radish (Raphanus Raphanistrum), Corn Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum segetum), Wartwort (Euphorbia helioscopia), Nettle-leaved Goosefoot (Chenopodium murale), bearded Hare's-ear (Bupleurum aristatum), and the common Vetch (Vicia sativa). The relics of manufacturing art consist of fragments of burnt tiles, of pottery, and a small piece of twine, spun of flax and sheep's wool, significant of the advance which civilization had made more than five thousand years ago. The presence of the chopped straw confirms the account of brickmaking as given in Exodus and by Herodotus.

The last issue of Bennett’s ‘Photographic Portraits of Men of Eminence' contains portraits of Mr. Charles Darwin and Dr. Berthold Seemann, accompanied by biographical sketches.

Mr. W. Cutter, of 52, Hunter Street, W.C., sends us the following melan. choly news :--At p. 32 of the first volume of this Journal, there is a notice of the departure, for Old Calabar and the Cameroons, of W Grant. Milne, formerly botanist of H.M.S. Herald, Captain Denham, in the Australian seas, in which capacity he discovered many new plants, particularly in the Viti and New Hebrides groups. His friends will now learn, with the deepest sorrow, that I have just been informed by a respected missionary, that Mr. Milne has succumbed to the pernicious influence of the African climate in Creek Town, on the 3rd of May last. Having been his London agent for more than three years, I have had perhaps a better opportunity than many others to judge of the result of his labours, and I wish to bear my humble testimony to his indefatigable zeal in collecting and forwarding specimens. Besides botanical collections, he sent, from time to time, insects, shells, reptiles, etc., many of which have proved new to science, and claims for his name a respectful consideration as one of the explorers of tropical Africa.”

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ON THE STAMINAL ARRANGEMENTS IN SOME SPECIES OF POTENTILLA AND IN NUTTALLIA CERASIFORMIS.

By ALEXANDER DIckson, M.D. EDIN. R

(PLATE LII.)

On examining, about a year ago, the flowers of Potentilla fruticosa, I was much struck with the disposition of the stamens. These are arranged in strongly-curved lines or festoons, each containing 4 or 5 stamens, and extending from petal to petal. The convexity of each festoon is towards the centre of the flower, and there are no stamens superposed to the petals. I have since then examined the development of this andræcium, and, as might have been anticipated from the analogy of the rosaceous developments already observed, I find that in each festoon the two stamens next the adjacent petals are the first developed ; the two or three forming the middle or lower part of the festoon appearing subsequently. It is very difficult exactly to observe whether or not the central stamen of the festoon, when this consists of 5 stamens, is actually younger than those on either side of it. I have not been able with certainty to detect any decided difference of size between them; and the absence of the middle stamen åt a given time does not afford any sure proof of its being a later development, as it not unfrequently never appears. Judging, however, from the analogy of the other Rosacea, it may be considered almost certain that the central stamen of the festoon is the youngest. When the stamens have all appeared, they, together with the “ petals,” form a pentagon of mammilla surrounding the hemispherical termination of the floral axis. The petaline manımillæ form the angles of the pentagon, and are the oldest and largest; next in size and age are the stamens nearest the petals; and youngest and smallest are the two or three stamens in the middle of the sides of the pentagon (Plate LII. Fig. 5). I cannot but think that such an arrangement strongly confirms the doctrine of rosaceous andræcia propounded in my paper on Mentzelia, etc. (Journ. of Bot. iii. p. 209); as I am unable to conceive of any possible explanation of such a festooned arrangement of stamens, unless we view the andræcium here as consisting of five compound and confluent stamens, the terminal lobe of each such stamen being

vol. IV. (SEPTEMBER 1, 1866.]

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