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Lecanora holophæa, Mnt.; Lecidea sublurida, Nyl. (olim)=Thalloidima sublurida, Mudd, Man. p. 172.-Not rare in crevices of rocks all round the Irish coast.
L. poriniformis, Nyl: Flora, July, 1865, p. 353.-Rocks on Mael Grae (Jones) ; Ben Lawers (Carroll).—This singular plant has quite the aspect of Pertusaria, but ranges near Lecanora verrucosa.
L. helicopis (Whlnb.), Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 158; var. dilutior, Nyl. -Glenarm, on chalk (Jones).
L. Sambuci (Pers.), Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 168.--Armagh (Jones). “ Thecis 8–12, 16-32 sporis,” Nyl.
Pertusaria gyrocheila, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 354.—On rocks, near the summit of Lawers (Carroll).
P. ophthalmiza, Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 180.-" Thecis monosporis. Sporis usque longit. 0:160–0.205, crassit. 0.080, 0.100 millim.”-On aged Pines, Glenfalloch, Scotland (Carroll).
Thelotrema subtile, Tuck.—Glengariff, August, 1865 (Jones).
Lecidea foveolaris, Ach.---On the ground, summit of Lawers (Carroll and Jones).
L. fuliginosa, Tayl.=L. confusa, Nyl.—"Nomen Taylori restituendum,” Nyl.
L. atro-rufa, Ach.-Douce Mountain, co. Wicklow (Jones).
L. fusca, Schär. Nyl.—On decayed moss, summit of Lawers (Carroll and Jones).
L. cuprea, Smmrf., var. Berangeriana, Mass. Nyl.—Near the summit of Lawers, on the ground (Carroll and Jones).
L. anomaloides, Nyl. Flora, 1862, p. 464 ; var. denigrans, Nyl.-On the ground, Ben Lawers (Jones).
L. sphæroides, Smmrf.; var. vacillans, Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 204.-Armagh Demesne (Jones). Var. rediens, Nyl.=Biatorina sphæroides, Mudd, Man. p. 177.-On trees, Florencecourt (Jones).
L. sabuletorum, var. syncomista, Flk.=Bilimbia sabulosa, Mass.= Biatora Regeliana, Hepp. Flecht. 283.-On the ground, Morâne (Jones); Ben Lawers (Jones and Carroll).
L. improvisa, Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 213.-On palings, Stableford, Shropshire, October, 1864 (Leighton in Herb. Jones); Skelefteâ, Swedish Lapland, August, 1863 (Carroll).
L. aromatica, Turn. ; var. hypsophila, Nyl. in litt.=Bilimbia sabulosa, Mudd, Man. p. 189 (the Lawers specimen).-Ben Lawers, with L. alpestris, Smmrf. (Jones).
L. parasema, Ach.; var. monticola, Ach.; (L. nitidula, Fr.) var. pura, Nyl.—On rocks, near the base and at the summit of Lawers (Jones and Carroll).
L. alpestris, Smmrf.-L. assimilata, Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 221.-On the ground, near the summit of Lawers (Jones and Carroll); Arctic Norway (Fries, Carroll).
L. limosa, Ach. : Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 221.=L. Wulfenii, Mudd, Man. p. 200 (the Lawers specimen at least).—Ben Lawers and Mael Gral (Jones).
L. tessellata, Flk.— Mael Grae (Jones); Ben Lawers (Jones and Carroll).
L. areolata, Schær.-Mael Grae (Jones); Ben Lawers (Carroll).
L. myriocarpoides, Nyl.; L. expansa, Nyl. (olim); Mudd, Man. p. 268.—Battersby, Yorkshire (Mudd in Herb. Carroll).—“ Videtur bona species,” Nyl.
L. contristans, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865.—On decayed moss, summit of Lawers, July, 1864, very rare (Carroll).
L. neglecta, Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 244 ?-Frequent on Lawers, but without apothecia.
L. scabrosa, Ach.-On slate rocks, south of Ireland (Hutchins in Herb. Lindsay, commun. by Carroll).-- Spores 1-septate, dark brown. Thallus yellow. L. scabrosa, Fl. Hib. pt. 2. p. 122, is merely a saxicolous form of L. parasema.
Opegrapha lentiginosula, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 355.-Glenfalloch, Scotland, on old Pines, July, 1864 (Carroll). A smaller plant than 0. lentiginosa, Lyell, but with larger spores, etc.
Arthonia punctiformis, Ach. ; Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 260 (sed non A. punctiformis of Mudd, Man. p. 247); var. verrucariella, Nyl. in litt.—Aviemore (Jones).
A. pineti, Krb. ; Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 261.—Glencar, Kerry (Carroll), probably not rare.
A. ruderalis, Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 262.=Lecidea lapidicola, Tayl. in Fl. Hrb. pt. 2. p. 124.—On stones, Cappaghmore Bridge, Kerry ! (Taylor); on rocks, near the summit of Lawers (Carroll).
Verrucaria cartilaginea, Nyl. Lich. Scand. p. 268.—On the ground, near the summit of Lawers (Carroll).
V. tristicula, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 356. On moss, Aviemore (Jones). -"Species insignis accedens ad V. gelatinosum, Ach.,” Nyl. 1.c.
V. isidioides, Borr.=Dermatocarpon isidioides, Mudd, Man. p. 270. -Thecæ normally 8-spored ; spores when young 7-septate acute, in age obtuse muriform dark-brown; inch 0:015 long, by 0:006 broad; paraphyses conglutinate, hymeneal gelatine unaffected by iodine, or only tinged of a palestraw-colour.—On slate rocks, Glengariff (Hutchins in Herb. Lindsay, commun. by Carroll). On examining good specimens I find that this curious plant has no affinity, except in a very close outward resemblance, with V. clopima, to which I had incorrectly referred it in the first part of these · Contributions.'
V. theleodes, Smmrf. ; var. inundata, Nyl. in litt.- Moist rocks, Ballaghbeama Gap, Kerry (Carroll); and in a stream at Cromaglown, Killarney (Jones).
V. nigritella, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 357.—Thallus doubtful; apothecia, which are prominent, black; occur between the scales of
. tephroides, near the summit of Lawers (Carroll). Spores darkbrown, oblong ellipsoid, variously divided (very like those of Urceolaria scruposa) much smaller than the spores of V. nigrata.
V. integra, Nyl. Pyrenoc. p. 31.-On rocks, near Cork (Carroll).
V. prominula, Nyl.-In a dark cave by the sea, at Kilkee, co. Clare (Carroll).
V. superposita, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 357.- Parasitic on thallus of V. theleodes, Smmrf.- Near the summit of Lawers (Carroll and Jones). A curious little plant, not unlike V. Borreri in miniature. Spores l-septate.
V. endococcoidea, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 356.- Parasitic on thallus of Lecidea excentrica, near the summit of Lawers (Carroll). What is apparently the same plant occurs at Killarney, and near Dublin, also on thallus of L. excentrica (Jones). “Sporis iodo cærulescentibus.”
V. dubiella, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 356.-On moss, north side of Ben Lawers, July, 1864 (Carroll). ”Species bene distincta, forte parasita ; sporis sat parvis 3-septatis,” Nyl. 1. c.
V. epidermidis, Ach. ; var. allogena.=V. allogena, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 357.–Near the summit of Lawers, growing on thallus of Lecidea excentrica (Carroll).
V. epidermidis, Ach. ; var. platypyrenia.=V. platypyrenia, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 358.—On Ivy, at Ballyedmond, co. Cork, and at Old Dromore, Kerry (Carroll). Spores 3-5-septate.
7. innata, Nyl. Flora, July, 1865, p. 358.—On thallus of Lecidea Hookeri, Schær. (Decampia Hookeri, Mudd.)—Ben Lawers (Jones). Spores 1-septate, colourless.
ON THE MEANING OF THE NAME WALNUT. Mr. G. B. Airy lately advanced the opinion (Athenaeum,' 1865, p. 653) that the national name “ Welsh ” might possibly be a corruption of the word “Belgæ.” This opinion I endeavoured to controvert (ibid. pp. 690, 728, 774) by showing that the term Welsh, identical with the German Welsch, Wälsch, or Kauderwelsch, was and is applied by Teutonic nations to foreigners and foreign things in general. “The Saxons conquering this island,” says Sir John Dodridge, in 1620, “called the said territorie [Cambria] Wallia, and the people Welshmen, that is to say unto them strangers.” The modern Germans call Italy “ Wälschland," and the Italians “ Wälsch." There is only one other English word in which the original meaning of the word has been preserved, i.e. “Walnut,” which in German is “ Wälsche Nuss” (=“ Welsh Nut”), as the turkey-cock is “ Wälscher Hahn" (=Welsh cock). Both the Walnut and the turkey being indigenous to the Indies, the former to the East and the other to the West, it shows that the Germans do not use the term “ Welsh " in the restricted sense of Italian, as has been maintained. The Walnut was cultivated in Italy in Pliny's time, and if it had come to us direct from that source instead of the Trans-Caucasian countries, we should probably have for it a corrupted Latin name, as we have for nearly all those of our fruit-trees (Cherry, Plum, Pear, etc.) for the introduction of which we are indebted to the Romans.
PHYLLOMANIA. Are there any people who entertain a real affection for flowers ? If so, then how does it come to pass that flowers at one time the greatest favourites are, after a few years of popularity, no longer looked at,-in common parlance, gone out of fashion ? Our great nurserymen are the first to find out in which direction the taste is tending; as soon as a plant ceases to be inquired for, they get rid of it at any price, to fill its place with the few favourites of the public; and the effect is, that plants which were seen in every garden, though their price was high, become extremely scarce, and finally disappear altogether. Fashion, in this as in other things, is never without a reason for adopting an innovation. The Cactuses, of which, at one time, ship-loads came to our shores, were discarded because they were such spiny, irritating things, and which, in public gardens, you were requested not to touch. The Aloes, now only seen in all their diversified forms in Prince Salm-Dyck's magnificent works, had to make room for less interesting types, because you had to wait for a series of years before many of them flowered ; popular opinion declared it was sometimes a whole century. Such plants might be in their place in antediluvian times, when people as old as Methuselah were plentiful, but scarce fit garden-pets when human life seldom reaches fourscore years. Then came the reign of the Dahlias, a brilliant and prosperous one, but suddenly cut short by the startling discovery that they flowered late in the autumn, and were apt to be killed by the first night-frost. Last autumn, when enjoying the fine show of Chrysanthemums in the Temple Gardens, we trembled at the very thought that somebody who has a voice in the fashion of flowers should find some argument why this lovely sight should not be seen ; why the Chrysanthemum, with its marvellous variety of colour, much more the “ Pride of London ” than the little humble Saxifrage of that name, should be banished for some new, untried favourite, perhaps not half so well adapted to the smoky atmosphere of our capital.
As long as one set of flowers is superseded by another, there is, perhaps, not much to complain of; but a fashion is gradually creeping in, well calculated to create alarm. Endeavours are now being made to persuade us that it is but a depraved taste to admire flowers at all; that it is the foliage on which nature has lavished the greatest beauty, and that here real taste has proper objects for gratification. The Ferns were the first of this class of plants which gained a footing amongst us.
The elegant and graceful tracery of their foliage was so bewitching that a perfect rage for them sprang up, and during the last ten years more books have been written about them than since botany became a science. The species indigenous to our islands have been illustrated in every imaginable manner; in bulky volumes, as in “The British Ferns Nature-printed,' and in portable companions, as in “ The British Ferns at One View. There is hardly a publishing house that has not